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Full text of "Origin and Development of Babylonian Writing"

THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT 



OF 



QBa6^fonian (ff>vitin^ 



BY 



PROFESSOR OF SEMITIC LANGUAGES IN BRYN MAWR COLLEGE, 
BRYN MAWR, PA., U. S. A. 



PART II 

A CLASSIFIED LIST OF 

SIMPLE IDEOGRAPHS WITH ANALYSIS 

AND DISCUSSION 




J. C. HINRICHS'scHE BUCHHANDLUNG 
1913 

THE JOHNS HOPKINS PRESS 



UND 

ftmitifc^m ^ptrac^wtffmfcpdfi 

HERAUSGEGEBEN VON 

Friedrich Delitzsch UND Paul Haupt 

MIT UNTERSTUTZUNG DER JOHNS - HOPKINS - UNIVERSITAT 

BAND IX, 2. HALFTE 



ALLE RECHTE VORBEHALTEN 



Druck von August Pries in Leipzig.- 



TO 
MY TEACHER AND FRIEND 

DAVID GORDON LYON 

PIONEER ASSYRIOLOGIST OF AMERICA 



PREFACE. 

While the following list of simple ideographs was compiled for 
the purpose of throwing light on the origin of the respective signs, 
it is hoped that scholars may find it a convenient dictionary of 
these ideographs. In the space allowed it has been possible to give 
but a single definition to each Semitic word, but an effort has been 
made to select the most representative meaning. The list includes, 
with the simple ideographs, those meanings which are expressed by 
the repetition, or doubling of a sign, since these meanings naturally 
arose from the significance of the sign by which they are expressed. 

The number of additions to Part 1, which are now published, 
is partly due to new forms discovered in copying tablets during 
the past winter, and partly to the kindness of Dr. M. I. HUSSEY, 
who has communicated to the writer the new forms in the texts 
of Sumerian Tablets in the Harvard Semitic Museum^ Part 2, which 
is now in preparation. The writer is also under obligation to Pro- 
fessor A. T. Clay, Dr. Stephen Langdon, and Colonel Allotte 
DE LA Fuye for helpful criticisms. To Professor iRA M. PRICE and 
to Mrs. Barton, gratitude is due for efficient aid in reading the 
proofs. To all these the writer expresses his sincere thanks. 

September, I9I3. 

George A. Barton. 



Beitrage Ass.: Barton II. 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 

P. 4, No 6^ instead of ,,copy{?)'' read ,,moiste?i". 

P. 6, No 9^^ instead oi ,, pudenda mulieris'^ read j,excka?ige, of women''. 

Ibid, 9^3 instead of „pudenda'' read ..exchange''. 

P. 22, No 446 instead of „SILIG" read „SILIG". 

P. 32, 1. 14, instead of „The origin of the sign is unknown", read 
„Tlie sign is a variant of No 101". 

P. 37, after /o'^i add US (2 48 sse). Bl, BE (MS^ 262). zu (AV 7S98). iMlD 
(MS2 174). suMUN (5 3927a). SUN (AV 6124). sum (ZA 1 182 n2). 

P. 38, after 73 ^ add ZIR (MS2 %6). KUL (5 40i8g). 

P. 56, No 95, 1. 27 ff. read, „The original pictograph probably re- 
presented a primitive hut surmounted by a serpent emblem 
somewhat analogous to that in signs No 327 and 328". 

P. 58, No 105 instead of l^ffff^ read l^ffff^- 

P. 82, after No 155^ add MUZ, S, s (MS^ 166). 

P. 101, after No 18610 add BIL, PIL (MS^ 26). 

P. 104, after No 1932 add Rl (S^ iv 31). SAQU (S^ iv 30). 

P. 105, after No 195 ^^ add RAM (MS^ 237). 

P. 106, after No 1992 add GUN (4^ 2725a). 

P. 108, after No 204 ^ add KABAR (2 2718 c). RIM (2 277 c). 

P. 110, after No 207^9 add SA (S^ \\ 44). 

P. 112, No 212, for ^^T read ^^^. 

P. 116, after No 223 ^ add KIB (S^ vi 20). 

P. 123, after No 2342 add BUR (AL^ 52 iv 15). LEL (AL^ 52 iv 16). 

P. 126, after No 2416 add SAL (EPS 20, 21). 

P. 134, after 258^4 add IZ, IS, IS (MS^ 360). MIS (AV 3283). 

P. 138, after 26415 add DUG (MS^ 64). LUD (MS2 154). 

P. 145, 1. 19, after „KAL (S^ iii 44) „add" LIB (S iii 45)". 

P. 158, No 3011^ instead of „SARa" read „SARA". 

P. 165, add after 1. 30: 

No 316a ^^Ilf^ 

As neither, the ideographic or syllabic values of this sign are 
known, its origin cannot yet be determined. 
P. 182, add after 1. 4: 

No 347a ^ 

RIN (RU List, 119). — The sign is probably a variant of No 347. 
P. 187, 1. 16, before „mer (5 ll45d)" add. „ENNI (AV 2302)". 
P. 199, after No 373^ add ZIM (EPS 23 n l). LID, T, T (MS^ 153). 

RIMI, RIM (SFG 61 n 4). 

In part I: P. XXII, 1. 28 for „Fuye'' read „Fuye". 



Classified List of Simple Ideographs with Analysis 
and Discussion. 

Note. In the following pages the material connected with each sign is arranged as 
follows: — First are placed the Semitic ideographic meanings. In connection with each 
5 of these the Sumerian vocalization is given, if known, also an English definition, and the 
cuneiform reference for the ideograph. Secondly additional syllabic values are given, when 
such are known. After this, a discussion follows. This discussion begins with a citation 
of the explanations of the origin of the sign previously offered by scholars, whenever 
such explanations are known to the writer. 

lo No 1 ^- 

1. adu, one, 5 I2 3ie (B 11). 

2. amelu, many 5 4411c (B 12). 

3. ana, unto, ASKT 61 29 (B 28). 

4. aplu, son, 2 6423b (B 13). 

15 5. asru(.?') shri7ie, HWB 148 a (M 2). 

6. i^Asur, god Ashur, 1 17 30 (B 14). 

7. edu, AS, one, RH 96 is (B 17). 

8. ikillu, wail, 5 163c (B 20). 

9. ina, in, 4*^ 1745a (B 28). 
20 10. \htM, from, 1 21 44 (B 28). 

11. isten, one, 4^ 1946a (B 18). 

12. baramu, seal, 2 944c (B 15). 

13. gitmalu, ^, perfect, AL^ 6467 (B 16). 

14. zikaru, DILI, man, 5 12 2e (B 27). 
25 15. limnu, bad, hostile, 5 21 24c (B 21). 

16. magaru, be favorable, 2 7 30g (B 22). 

17. (.?) mihistu (= mihirtu) /r^;^^*, CT 11 38; K 76096 (M 6). 

18. matu, land, PSBA 18 256; pi. 1 \\, 7 (M S). 

19. mitharu, agreeing, harmonious y^ 40i7g (B 23). 
30 20. nadanu, give, 5 1 54 (B 24). 

21. rigmu, ASS A, TAL, shout, cry, RT 27 12022 (M 7). 

22. tallu® TAL, a twini^) 5 40 sg (B 25). 

23. tanu . . ., TIL, (?) 5 40iog (B 26). 

Beitrage Ass.: Barton. I 



2 (§axton, (^afi^fom'an wnitn^ 

24. tanuqatu, TIL, shouting, RT 27 120 24 (M 8). 

25. tirsu, stretching out, RH 30 19 (M 9}. 

RU (AL3 50, No 2 6). SALUGUB (540i2g). SIMID (5 1649a; cf, ZK T 106). 

EM 2 111 explained the sign as a horizontal stroke; UKZ 60, 
as a motif for unity; MSL 77, as originally a picture of the mem- 5 
brum virile. Since in the earliest writing the wedge or line ran per- 
pendicularly, it was probably from the beginning a stroke, which stood 
indifferently for a man or for the unit one. From these ideas all the 
meanings can be plausibly derived. Thus that which is a unit is complete 
or perfect. To come into unity is to have agreement or hm^mony, 10 
An agreement was sealed. The shrine was where men came into 
harmony with a god, hence asru. An extension of the meaning of asru 
gave land\ a modification of its vocalization gave Asur. Out of the 
various ideas and practices connected with worship came the mean- 
ings be favorable, hostile, give, cry, shout, stretch out (the hands), etc. 15 
Son was an extension of the meaning man. 

No 2 w>- 

1. (?) alaku(.?) go, CT 12 46a (M 32). 

2. aru, go or pour out, CT 18 3618c (M 33). 

3. ahenna, thither, ASKT 7619 (B ^j\ 20 

4. ezezu, be strong, 4^ Seia (B 84). 

5. (.?) €ristu(.?) desire, CT 12 45a (M 34). 

6. bukku, net (I) CT 12 410a (M 37). 

7. (.?) baru(.?) seer, CT 12 48a (M 38). 

8. (?) beru, glance, CT 12 416a (M 35). 25 

9. (.?) birutu, vision, CT 12 49a (M 39). 

10. (?) besu, ruined, CT 12 420a (M 36). 

11. gararu, HAL, run, 2 2710a (B "jZ), 

12. ^^rDigiat, river Tigris, 1 22io4 (B Z6\ 

13. zazu, divide, CT 12 412a (M 40). 30 

14. zittu, portion, CT 12 413a (M 41). 

15. (.^) halalu, pierce, CT 12 422a (M 42). 

16. haliu(.?) sickness Q) BDA 16513 (M 43). 

17. i?halsu, ? 5 2631a (B 80). 

18. hasu, BULUH, hasten, 2 7iog (B 79). 35 

19. (.?) milku(.?) counsel, CT 12 411a (M 44). 

20. (.?) melaktu(?) ? CT 12 47a (M 45). 

21. (.?) masharuG?) ? CT 12 419 a (M 46). 

22. (?) nasalu, ?CT 12 415a (M 47). 

23. nuhuru, ? AV641I (B 81). 40 



But of 3^ec5ta:p^0 3 

24. i^NiNiB (Enmastu*), ^-od Enmashtu"^, 2 57 24c (B 85). 

25. pitu, open, CT 17, 12 9a (M 51). 

26. (?) sahahu(?) ^^/^^, CT 12 421a (M 49). 

27. (?) sahalu, announce^ CT 12 4 i4a (M 50). 

5 EM 2 65, UKZ 65 ff, and MSL 173 all correctly explained the sign 

as originating in an arrow. Without detailed discussion it is easy to 
see how from a few fundamental meanings easily derived from an 
arrow, such as runf pierce, open^ and the natural extension of these, 
all the meanings are explained. Seer, e. g., was suggested either by 
10 the opening of a victim or of the future. From seer thought easily 
passed on to make the sign express announce^ vision, and desire. 

- No 3 »f 

1. bissuru, [yi\j]K, pudenda, CT 12 1223b (M 53). 

2. basmu, USU, a poisonous serpent, CT 11 2916 a (B 98). 
15 3. gu, [MU]K, cord, CT 12 1222b (M 55). 

4. mukku, [mu]k, a kind of garment, CT 12 12 i9b; S^ iii, 28 (M 57, B 95). 

5. mirhu, [mu]k, shameless, CT 12 1221b (M 58). 

6. nuphi(?) inflamed, CT 12 12i8b (M 59). 

7. nuqaru, [mu]K, a shabby garment, CT 12 1220b (M 60)., 

20 UKZ 69 explained the sign as made up of a motif equal to the 

original form of No 227 (above, pt. I), which was gunued and combi- 
ned with No 1 (above). When the meanings are taken into account 
it is probable that, although no early form of the sign is known, 
it originated in the picture of a loin-cloth. Such an origin would 

25 readily account for all the meanings. 

No 4 i»^ 

1. zazin[nu], a kind of vessel, CT 12 l2 24=b (M 62). 

2. sasinu, ZADIM, a class of workmen or officials, S^ iii, 29 (B loi). 

Possibly this is a variant of the preceding sign, but as no early 
30 form of it has been found its origin is uncertain. 

No 5 >^ 

1. azazu, BA, disappear, 2 11 30 a (B I04). 

.2. epesu, BA, do, make, 2 398a (B 105). 

3. belu, lord RH 6215 (M 64). 
35 4. hazabu, } 2 29 ic (B 106). 

5. nidiSiwXM^ front, 2 2929 c (B 1 09). 

* Cf. Clay HM, Vol. I, p. 289. 



4 (J^axion, (ga6gfontan wxitin^ 

6. nagalu(?) de bright, ZA 10 276 ff.; pi. iii, 23 (M 66\ 

7. nasaru, BA, diminish, 2 11 31a (B 108). 

8. sapahu, bi'eaky destroy, RH 876 (M 65), 

9. supinnu, ^^z;^r, AL^ 8635 (B 111). 

10. pitii, open, 2 397a (B llo). 5 

11. qasu, give, 2 11 29a (B I07). 

12. su, he, him, 2 827a (B II4). 

13. suatu, that, that one, 4^ 2755b (B 11 3). 

UKZ 139 ff. regards the sign as a variant of the original picture 
of the eye (No 406). The origin is not clear. The earliest form 10 
suggests that it may have pictured the point of a spear. Such 
an origin would explain the meanings. The use of the instrument 
would suggest open, destroy, its pointed shape, dim^inish, disappear', 
the process of forming it, as in the case of No 227 which repre- 
sented a pointed stick, would suggest do, make, of which give might 15 
be an extension; ownership and use of the spear would suggest lord. 
The pronominal meanings came in through syllabic spellings. 

" No 6 ^T 

1. ahazu, take, 2 966c (B I43). 

2. enqu, ring, CT 19 I3. 733I rev. 13c (M 85). 20 

3. erebu, enter, 2 11 Ma (B I33). 

4. idu, zu, know, 4^ 1031b (B 130). 

5. dababu, p/an, 2 35 iic (B 144). 

6. dapu, wpj/(}} 2 11 43a (B 132). 

7. hurasu, gold, 5 3050a (B 134). 25 

8. -ka, ZU, thou, thine, 4^ 25 52a (B I4I). 

9. kenis, faithfully, RH 5919 (M 81). 

10. kaspu, silver, 5 3049a (B 138). 

11. lamadu, learn, 2 ll4ia (B I31). 

12. natu, suitable, right, CT 17 20 52 (M 82). 30 

13. nimequ, wisdom, 5 30 48a; 2 16 65a (B 136). 

14. rabu, great, CT 19 15, K 5448, A 5 (M 83). 

15. ruddu, increased, greater, ASKT 60 w 15 (B 137). 

16. salbabu, wise, prudent, CT 19 11 23 (M 84). 

OBI 2 41 n 6 explains the sign as a vessel or cistern into which 35 
running water flows, hence know. This and the following sign are 
strikingly like a series of signs in proto-Elamitic, (cf. Del., VI, p. lo2ff., 
Nos. 613 — 626), the forms of which suggest that they were jars on 
which were lines, either for ornamentation, or to indicate the contents 
of the jar. Such storage-jars may have easily suggested the idea of 40 
increase, gain, and then have come in time to stand for the forms 



Bi&t of 'iUo^xap^0 5 

in which gain was embodied, as silver and gold, and then,, to indicate 
the ability to secure gain, such as planning, wisdom, learning, know- 
ledge, etc. Ail the meanings would be accounted for by such an 
origin. The sign is used to represent the pronoun thou because 
5 the suffix form of that pronoun consisted of the syllable ZU. 

■ No 7 >^T 

1. erebu, enter, 5 4126 (B 166). 

2. ina, in, 2 1722c (B 173). 

3. tabu, good, RH I0139 (Vr 170). 
10 4. tibu, come, RH 4341 (M 93). 

5. zumru, body, 2 20ioa (B 172). 

6. kananu sa sipri, bind, of a message, CT 12 462 a (M Zj), 

7. masku, skin, 4^ 13 isa (B 167), 

8. surru, heart, 4^ 20 No 1 obv 7 (B 169). 

15 9. ruddu, gain, increase, 2 11 64e; ASKT 5354 (B 168, I74). 

10. salalu(?) spoil, RH 6723 (M 94). 

11. salamu, be whole, RH 6723 (Vr 160). 

12. h\r\x, flesh, 4 2 1*43 a (B 170). 



SU (5 I55). KUS KUS (AV 417). RUG RUK (5 l44e). 

20 OBI 2 40 n 6 explains it in the same way as it does the preced- 

ing sign; LSG 20, as, perhaps, a frame for stretching skins upon. 
The meanings are in part identical with those of the preceding 
sign. While the earliest known form is different there was a con- 
fusion of the two in the second period of the writing. Probably 

25 they were originally variant pictures of the same thing. Thus the 
meanings enter and gain or increase arose as already explained. 
Wholeness and goodness would be a natural extension of gain or 
increase. Heart was probably derived from the idea of midst con- 
nected with the storage jar, while skin was suggested by the use of 

30 skin bottles, and body and flesh are extensions of this meaning. 

No 8 H^wT 

1, ibbitu, bright, 5 26i4g (B 252). 

2. Q^2kA\x, fight, 42 2452a (B 253). 



SIN (5 667). SUN (5 697). RUG (MS2 21J), 

35 The sign is evidently formed by inserting |f in No 7. This 

origin explains the meaning qablu, which originally meant midst and 
came to mean fight by a derived meaning. The idea of brightness 



$ (Ration, ^a6g6ontan v^xitino^ 

may have become attached to it by any one of several psychological 
processes. , 

No 9 ^^ 

1. abaru, BAL, be strong, CT 18 4465a (B 263). 

2. eberu, cross, 2 6274c (B 266). 5 

3. enu, humble, oppress, 5 3926g (B 267). 

4. ennu, opposition, RH I23 ua (Vr 267). 

5. etequ, /^//, draw, 4^ 16 la (B 268). 

6. illuru, ^/r^2/j/, CT 12 25 54b (M 162). 

7. inbU; /r^^V, CT 12 25 54b (M 163). 10 

8. ussatu, out-going{}) 4^ 12 rev 11 (B 285). 

9. dababu, think, plan, 5 30 5 e (B 264). 

10. dalui, draw water, 2 3856 (B 265). 

11. hiru* dig, canal, 2 36 7g (B 269). 

12. nabalkatu, /^//^'/^^ ^jf, rebellion^ 4^ 163 a (B 270). 15 

13. nakaru, change, 5 30 4e (B 273). 

14. napalu, break down{}) ZK 2 3025 (B 274). 

15. naqu, pour a libation, sacrifice, 4^ 2314a (B 271). 

16. naqaru, destroy, 2 954c (B 273). 

17. puhhu sa zinnisti, exchange of women, 2 28400 (B 277). 20 

18. palii, year of reign, 2 28 erf (B 275). 

19. pilakku, BAL, spindle, 4'^ 828b (B 278). 

20. pilaqqu, axe, 2 32 23e (B 279). 

21. supelu sa zinnisti, /^<^^;^</^ 7nulieris, 2 2843d (B 281). 

22. sapalu, be low, RH 60 Rs 18 (Vr 281). 25 

23. h\xp€\\M, pudenda, 2 28 45d (B 281). 

24. saqu sa giguri, water, of ground, 2 3018a (B 280). 

25. tabaku, pour out, 4^ 266b (B 2%2\ 

26. tamu, speak, 2 731c (B 283). 

27. tarvi, turn, RH lSi8b (Vr 283). 30 

28. turgumannu, interpreter, ZK 2 3020 (B 284). 

UKZ 111 explains the sign as composed of a picture of an eye, 
and an arrow, signifying open', MSL 50, as a compound of an arrow, 
meaning open, and something opposite. The picture was probably 
the representation of a thunderbolt a variant representation of No 325; 35 
cf CSM No 99 and SCWA No 456. This would suggest the mean- 
ings destroy, pull down, break down, humble, oppress, be hostile, 
change. From the form of the picture came the meanings pin or 
spindle and axe. As the thunderbolt was accompanied by rain it 



* zaraqu hipiru, CT II 28, K 8503 2 (M 164) is not inserted, since it is uncertain 40 
whether to read it as one word or two. 



Bi^t of 'i^to^xcipf^e y 

suggested pour out, of which draw water and sprout were extensions. 
From the idea of pouring out water came the idea of pouring out 
a libation or offering a sacrifice. It is possible that this last meaning 
came in from the confusion of some religious symbol with the picture 
5 of a thunderbolt [cf, SCWA Nos 126. 208, 274, and 294). From the 
meaning humble came the meanings be low, pudenda, etc. Speak 
came from the sound of the thunder, while palu was expressed by 
the syllabic value of the sign. . , 

NolO>,^ ^ 

10 1. agurru, GIR, wall, CT 12 13 12a (M 170). 

2. ahatu, TAB(?) comradeship, CT 12 134a (M 171). 

3. almatu, tab(?) a castle, CT 12 135a (M 172). 

4. aru(?) GIR, enemy, MSW 25 ii 40 (M 174). 

5. esimtu, GIR, strength, CT 12 1310a (M 173), 
15 6. urhu, GIR, road, CT 12 139a (M 176), 

7. urruhis, GIR, quickly, ZA 10 276^.; (K 69; RS 29) (M 175). 

8. uttutu, ? CT 12 13 25a (M 177), 

9. baraqu, GiR, send out lightning, 4^ 3 sa (B 305). 
10. birqu, GIR, lightiting, CT 11 299a (B 306). 

20 11. gallatu, Q\^,fear, CT 12 138a (M 178). 

12. zuqaqipu, GIR, scorpion, CT 12 1313a (M 179). 

13. hamatu, GIR, quiver, hasten, 5 30 6ia (B 307). 

14. harabu, be desert, waste, CT 12 13 i6a (M 181). 

15. harranu, GIR, road, CT 12 1310a (M 182). 
25 16. hattu,/n^^/, CT 12 1324a (M 183). 

17. magzazu, GIR, } CT 12 137a (M 184). 

18. magal, .? CT 12 1321a (M 185). 

19. mimma(?) anything, CT 12 1322a (M 186). 

20. naglabu, tab(.?) knife, CT 12 136 a (M 187), 
30 21. namsaru, GIR, sword, CT 12 13 sa (M 188). 

22. namru, bright, CT 12 1318a (M 189). 

23. niru, yoke, 5 63 lob (M 190). 

24. padanu, GIR, way, CT 11 298 a (B 308). 

25. patru, GIR, dagger, S^ iii 31 (B 309). 

35 26. paradu, GIR, be impetuotcs, strong, CT 12 137a (M 192). 

27. pirittu, strengthi^) CT 12 1323a (M I93). 

28. sarahu, cry out, CT 12 1315a (M 194). 

29. qirbitu, midst, CT 12 1319a (M 195). 

30. rus (s, z), ? CT 12 I3 4a (M 196). 

40 31- sibbu, GIR, girdle, CT 12 1313a (M 197). 
32. sakbanu, GIR, } CT 12 13 11 a (M 198). 



3 (Ration, (^aBgfom'an wvitinc^ 

33. summudU; GIR, ? CT 12 13 12 a (M 199). 

34. supuk same, Jirm amen t of heaven, 2 4845 c (B 310). 

35. sutesuru, lead aright, rule, CT 12 13 i7a (M 200). 

36. taru, /^/r;^, RH 15; 18 20 (Vr 283). 



MIR (S^-iii 31). MIRI (S^ iii 31). 5 

UKZ 746*. explains the sign as the picture of a dagger; BNA 
13 92, as the picture of a dagger; LSC 20, as the picture of a scor- 
pion. The sign was evidently the picture of a dagger point. Some 
of the forms in which it Wcts written represent simply an arrowhead, 
some a barbed spear point, and some a double spear point. This 10 
naturally came to stand for knife, sword, bright, etc. A natural 
metaphor made it stand for lightning, both noun and verb, also for 
scorpion. Another series of metaphors made it represent enemy, 
strength in its various manifestations, fear, fright, and cry out, also 
wall, castle, and implements of war. War involves comradeship, hence 15 
it expressed that idea. Like No 2, because it was hurled, it could 
mean hasten. Path, road, way, was attached to it because it opened 
these in its victim. As it was worn at the belt it was used to desig- 
nate girdle, midst. 

No 11 M^^ 

1. abru, BUR, bright, CT 12 1325b (M 217). 

2. akilu, voracious, CT 18 3610b (M 219). 

3. asru, be humbled, 5 62 64a (B 333). 

4. edisu, USU, alone, S^ iii 37 (B 33^). 

5. erebu, enter, 4^ 28 No 221a (B 339). 25 

6. isten, USUM, one, CT 12 1343b (M 221). 

7. ubburu, BUR, hurti>) CT 12 1324b (M 218). 

8. umsatu, BUR, want, distress, CT 12 1339b (M 220). 

9. basamu(?) BUR, } CT 12 1323b (M 222). 

10. basmu, a kind of serpent, 4^ 22 46a (B 334). 30 

11. burru, BUR, } 2 2235a (B 335). 

12. girru, GIR, road, expedition, 2 2236a (B 336). 

13. damu, blood, CT 12 136b (M 223). 

14. darasu sa simme, BUR, seeking, of a blind man, CT12 1319b (M224). 

15. dababu, dubbubu, DU, speak, 5 396c (B 337, 348). 35 

16. zuqaqipu, GIR, scorpion, 5 32 se (B 346). 

17. hadalu(?) sa , bur, } CT 12 13 ub (M 225). 

18. hamatu, BUR, quiver, hasten, CT 12 1334b (M. 226). 

19. hummusu sa surrinni, BUR, breaking of pillars, CT12l322b (M227). 

20. harasu sa ser'i, BUR, cutting{}) of flesh, CT 12 1320b (M 228),, 40 



&i&t of 35eo0ta|)§0 9 

21. tabu, ^ood, CT 12 134b (M 229). 

22. kullulu, BUR, cornice [i) CT 12 1326b (M 230). 

23. magaru(?) be favorable, ^^ 6245a (B 34I). 

24. munu, USU, some sort of animal, CT 11 2918a (B 342). 
5 25. matu, die, CT 12 135b (M 231). 

26. masu, find, RH 130 12 (M 255). 

27. nadu, BUR, //^r^w down, CT 12 13 32b (M 232). 

28. nasahu sa surri, BUR, tear out, of the heart, CT 12 1315b (M 233). 

29. nipi* ersiti, BUR, sprout of the earth, CT 12 1337b (M 234). 

10 30. napahu sa "umi, BUR, brilliant dawn of day, CT 12 1336b (M 235). 

31. napalu sa duppi, BUR, an official over tablets, CT 12 13 isb (M236). 

32. padisi(?) USUM, ? CT 12 1342b (M 238). 
ZZ' pataru, BUR, open, CT 12 1327b (M 237). 
34. paharu, BUR, assemble, 2 3465f (B 343). 

15 35- palqu, BUR, axei^) CT 12 1321b (M 239). 

36. paradu, BUR, be impetuous, strong, CT 12 13 29 b (M 240). 

37. purru , BUR, ? CT 12 1340b (M 241). 

38. pasaru, BUR, loose, free, S^ Hi 38 (B 344). 

39. pasaru sa nianii[ti], kisp[i], seri, BUR, loosi7ig, of an oath, enchant- 
20 ment, oracle, CT 12 13 sbff (M 242). 

40. pitu, BUR, open, CT 12 1333b (M 244). 

41. qarasu sa isi, BULUG, cut, of wood, 2 48166 (B 340). 

42. suhhudu, BUR, ascenti^) CT 12 1328b (M 245). 

43. sahahu sa seri, BUR, press down, of flesh, CT 12 1 3 12 b (M 246), 
25 44. saltu, BUR, cutting through^) CT 12 1323b (M 247). 

45. salaqu sa surri, BUR, cut open of heart, CT 12 1316b (M 248). 

46. salatu sa surri qarni, BUR, cut through, of heart, hor?i, CT 12 I3 17 b 

47. sapu{?) ? RH 49 18 (M 256). [(M 249). 

48. suparruru, BUR, spread out, CT 12 13 30b (M 250). 
30 49. tabalu, BUR, take away, CT 12 1331b (M 251). 

50. tabsu, BUR, some head gear, CT 12 13 38 b (M 252). 

51. tappu, TAB, companion, 5 4431c (B 311). 

52. tapsirtu, BUR, salvation, CT 12 1335b (M 253). 

BU (2 62 5g). BURU (AV 7138). 

35 \JKZ 109 derives it from a motif meaning bindj and a motif, 

open. It is clear from the identity of ideographic and syllabic values, 
and from mixtures in meanings that this sign was a picture so 
closely allied in meaning with No lo that mixture was easily possible. 
The form suggests- that the picture represented a barbed spear. 

40 This accounts for all the meanings which may be derived from the 
cutting, piercing, swift movement, or the brightness of an arrow, 
also the meanings which are associated with the various activities 



of a soldier, humbling^ breakings oppressing, salvation, etc. Perhaps 
the meaning one was attached to the sign by syllabic spelling. The 
animal values were developed in the sign, perhaps, from the biting 
habits of the animals or from resemblance to a dagger. This last is 
the origin of the dragon of Gud. Cyl. A XXI, 27. Cornice and head- 5 
gear were no doubt associated with it on account of some real, or 
fancied resemblance to an arrow or spear. 

No 12 ^ 

1. alu, KUD, a curse or sprout, CT 12 .1428b (M 265). 

2. araru, TAR, curse, 4^ llisa (B 361). 10 

3. asaru, TAR, descend[}) CT 12 1534b (M 270). 

4. epesu sa eliti, KUD, make, of an herb, CT 12 1436a, 35b (M 266). 

5. eru sa isi, sammi, KUD, KURUM, na^ne of a tree, or plant, CT 12 

6. eresu, KUD, cut in two, KSf -^Z^^ (B 366). [1410b, 4ib (M 268). 

7. iqbu, KUD, command, CT 12 1424b (M 264). 15 

8. ussusu, TAR, a demon, CT 12 1533b (M 267). 

9. basu, SIL, be, 2 158c (B 362). [ssa, 46b (M 271). 

10. bataqu sa me, KUD, kurum, cut through, of water, CT 12 1432 a, 

11. i?gamlu, MISHAS, a weapon or tool, 5 2632a (B 363). 

12. gazazu(.?) (qasasu?) TAR, shear [tear apart}) CT 17 35 65 (M 272). 20 

13. gamamu, KUD, \ CT 12 1427b (M 273). 

14. gararu, KUD, run, CT 12 1433b (M 274). 

15. danu, 1L^}Y)^ judge, 5 2439a (B 364). 

16. dinu, ^VTi, judgment, 5 2433a (B 365). 

17. ziqtu, TAR, bone or fin [of a fish), CT 12 1522b (M 275). 25 

18. habalu, HAS, harm, injure, CT 12 1513b (M 276). 

19. habasu, HAS, attach, connect, CT 12 152b (M 277). 

20. i^hizbu, HAS, cutting, 5 2634a (B 368). 

21. ^^hizibtu, HA§, cutting, 5 2635a (B 369). 

22. hakaru, HAS, ? CT 12 154b (M 278). 30 

23. hummui-u, HAS, } CT 12 158b (M 279). 

24. hamasu, haI, > CT 12 153b (M 280). 

25. heseru sa sinni, KUD, } CT 12 145b (M 281). 

26. hipu, TAR, break, devastate, CT 12 1545b (M 282). 

27. hasabu, HAS, cut off, CT 12 1451b (M 283). 35 

28. hasbu, HAS, cuttingi^) CT 12 1452b (M 284). 

29. hisbu, HA§, cutting, CT 12 159b (M 285). 

30. hasamu, KUD, ? CT 12 1431b (M 286). 

31. hasasu, HAS, break, smash, CT 12 151b (M 287). 

32. .harabu(?) TAR, be desert, waste, CT 12 1542b (M 288). [(M 289). 40 

33. haramu sa parasi, KUD, ensnare, bewitch, by dividing, CT 12 146b 



Mittt of 'i^to^xap^ff 11 

34. harasu sa irsiti, KUD, TAR, cut, digy of land, CT 12 144b; 1543b 

35. hasu, HAS, a garden growth, AV 3283 (B 367). [(M 290). 

36. hasalu, HAS, crush, CT 12 15 6b (M 291). 

37. ku, KUD, a growth of plants, CT 12 1429b (M 292). 

5 38. kanu sa dini, KURUM, establish, of judgment, CT 12 1443b (M 293). 

39. kiksu, KUD, ? CTJ2 1437b (M 294). 

40. kissu, KUD, ? CT 12 1436b (M 29s). 

41. kisittu, KUD, ? CT 12 1425b (M 296). 

42. kaparu, HAS, destroy, CT 12 IS 7b (M 297). 

10 43. kararu sa ap . . ., tear down or curse, of . . ., CT 19 22 22a (M 298). 

44. kutturu, TAR, ? CT 12 15 28b (M 299). 

45. litu, TAR, destroy, CT 12 IS 46b (M 300). 

46. makasu, KUD, bind, fetter, ^^ 20 7 (B 370). 

47. makasu sa miksi, KUD, bind, of taxes, CT 12 1435a, 34b (M 301). 
15 48. malaku, KUD, judge, take counsel, AV 447 S (B 37I). 

49. mimma sumsu, anything whatever, CT 12 IS 17 a (M 302). 

50. mundalku, TAR, counsellor, CT 12 ISsib (M 303). 

51. matu, muttu, KURUM, die, dead, CT 12 1449 b, IS is a (M 304). 

52. ni'ru(.?') KUD, kill, destroy, CT 12 1422b (M 306). 
20 S3, nakasu, KUD, cut, 5 20 4a (B 372). 

54. niksu(.?*) KUD, a cutting, CT 12 1421b (M 307). 

55. namadu(?) sa narkabti, some part of a chariot, CT 12 IS 22 a (M308). 

56. nasaruru, TAR, } CT 12 iS26b (M 309). 

57. napadu, KUD, } CT 12 1430b (M 3I0). 

25 58. naqu(.?) TAR, Jiowl, lament, CT 12 IS 37b (M 3II). 

59. naqaru, TAR, destroy, CT 12 lS30b (M 3 12). 

60. nataru, TAR, ? CT 12 IS 21b (M 313). 

61. sulu, SILA, portion of street, 4^ 265b (B 380). 

62. sapahu, TAR, destroy, CT 12 ISisb (M 3 14). 
30 63. suqu, SILA, street, S^ v, 36 (B 379). 

64. pataru, TAR, split, tear asunder, CT 12 IS 27b (M 3 IS). 

65. paqadu, TAR, look after, CT 12 IS 35b (M 3 16). 

66. piqittu, SULU, appointment, CT 12 IS 26a (M 3 17). 

67. para'u, TAR, cut apart, 4^ 840b (B 373). 
35 6Z, parasu, KUD, hem in, 4^ 2228a (B 374). 

69. parasu, TAR, ctct, 5 31 64g (B 37s). 

70. parasu, break through, 5 1916c (B 376). 

71. paraqu, KUD, ? CT 12 1431b (M 318). 

72. purruru, TAR, breaking[}) CT 12 IS 25b (M 3 19). 

40 73. pitu sa me, butuqti, KUD, KURUM, open, of water, flood, CT 12 

1429 — 31a (M 320). 

74. sibaru, KUKSU SA KUKSI, } CT 12 iSisb (M 321). 

75. qadadu, has, bow down, CT 12 IS 6b (M 322). 



12 (§axio% (g>a6gfontan wtidn^ 

76. ifquddu, KUD, some wooden object, CT 12 I4ub (M 323). 

77. qadmu(?) before i>) CT 12 15 29a (M 324). 
7Z, qudmu(?)>^;^/, CT ,t2 15 28a (M 325). 
79. qarasu, KUD, cut, CT 12 1426b (M 326). 

8q. qatapu, TAR, pluck off, CT 12 1439 a (M 327). 5 

^1. rebitu, unfenced land, CT 12 lSi5a (M 328). 

82. rasu, TAR, take, possess, 4^ 21 33b (B ^77), 

83. sabaru, HAS(?) break, 5 2636a (B 382). 

84. salu, situlu, TAR, enquire, decision, CT 12 1 5 l682b (M 329). 

85. sulu, SULU, f CT 12 1525a (M 330). ,10 
%6. sillu sa zinnisti, a woman s basket, CT 12 1521a (M 331). 

%7. sulu sa dini, ask for a decision, 2 6270c (B '^^^). 
%Z. salatu, SILA, rtile, 2 39i4g (B 1Z7). 

89. samu, TAR, set,^ decree, 2 71a (B 381). 

90. sapulu, KUD, something made of wood, CT 12 1423b (M 332). 15 

91. saqasu, HAS, destroy, 5 2633a (B 385). 

92. taklu, TAR, trustworthy, CT 12 1544b (M 334). 

93. tallu, TAR, some wooden object, CT 12 1523b (M 335). 

94. tamu, KUD, speak, swear, 5 20 9 e (B 390). 

95. taru, turn, 2 197a (B 389). . 20 

96. tararu, break asunder, MVAG 1903, 293 ff.; Rm I26 rev 7 (M 336). 

97. taraku, ^KR, tear apart, 5 19266 (B 39I), 

98. tuttu sa, SULU, ? CT 12 1527a (M 337). 

GUG (2 30 21e). DIM (4 2318b). 

UKZ 102 explains the sign as a motif for cutting, or cutting off, 25 
All the ideographic values are closely connected with the idea, of 
cutting. Wood, to be made into an instrument, must be cut. The 
original picture probably represented a section cut from the forked 
branch of a tree or shrub. Cursing may have been connected with 
the sign because it was performed by some ceremonies in which cut 30 
wood was used, possibly suggesting the separation of the victim 
from prosperity. Withering, destroying, killing, dying etc., would be 
directly suggested by such a cut branch. Counselling, judging, asking 
a decision, etc., were connected with it because of the primitive habit 
of referring these to a divine decision in which a sacrifice formed a 35 
part, or sticks were cut with which to cast lots. Inspect and appoint 
are extensions of these meanings. Practically all the meanings con- 
nect themselves with this idea. 

No 13 H>f 

1. anu, AN, god Anu, 2 7 i6g (B 425). 40 

2. antu, goddess Antu, 2 7 2ig (B 426).' 



Miet of 'S^eo^tap^ei 13 

3. antu sa se'i, goddess Antu of grain, CT 12 45b (M 348). 

4. as(?) ? 5 2754c (B 427). 

5. elu, AN, be high, 4'^ Qeia (B 429). 

6. elis, above, RH 8 74 (V 429). 

5 7. ellu, DINGIR, /^^ bright one, CT 12 410 b (M 346). 

8. ia'u, ze/>^(9, which, CT 12 41b (M 344). 

9. iati, ze/y^<?, which, CT 12 42b (M 345). 

10. igigi(?) spirits of heaven, 5 21 66c (B 443). 

11. ilu, DINGIR, god, Sb I2 (B 430). 

10 12. ilatu, AN, lady, AL^ 13537—39 (B 431). 

13. iltu, DINGIR, lady, CT 12 47b (M 347). 

14. isparru, a weaveri^) CT 12 414b (M 350). 

15. belu, lord, 5 21 i7g (B 428). 

16. beltu, lady, CT 12 49b (M 351). 
15 17. kakkabu, star, 5 21 58g (B 432). 

18. kakasiga, } CT 12 417b (M 352). 

19. kapar hamtu ersitim(.?) swift destruction of land i^) CT 12 43b 

20. sissinnu, part of the date palm, 2 2972a (B 435). [(M 353). 

21. piristu^....(.?) oracle, PSBA 10 PI 4 after p. 419, K 48161 (M 354). 
20 22. seru, AN, high, 4^ 31a (B ZJ42). 

23. resu, head, chief, 5 21 35 g (B 434). 

24. subultu, ANU, ear of corn, 2 2970a (B 440). 

25. subultu sa se'i, ESSU, ear of corn, 2 2971a (B 44I). 

26. samu, ANA, AN, heaven^ S^ 1 1 (B 437). 

25 27. samamu, AN, belonging to heaven, 4^ 27 i5a (B 438). 

28. saqu, AN, be high, 5 5221a (B 436). 

29. sarru, DINGIR, king, 5 308 a (B 439). 

30. sutaqtu, exaltation {^) HAS ix 24 (M 355). 



DIMMIR (2 59 la). ILU (S^ ii 17). 

30 EM 2 109, H 462, BNA 13 92, UKZ 15, OC, LBA 311, and LSC 19 

all correctly explain the sign as the picture of a star. The meanings 
god, heaven, high, lord, lady and all the meanings like king, which 
were used as epithets of gods, attached themselves to the sign by 
patent psychological processes. Weaver, perhaps because the gods 

35 wove the thread of fate, [cf Assurbanipal AL^, l40ff.) ear of corn, 
because that was the symbol of the god Nidaba, [cf OBI, Zj^ i 27); 
the fruit of the date palm, because that was once sacred to deity, 
(cf SO 90 ff). 



* For pudu Sa ameli-(B 433) cuneiform authority is wanting. 



14 (garton, ®a6gfoman wtitin^ 

1. ^^Asur, t/ie god Ashtir, 3 ^6 passim (B 497). 

2. aiuAsur, the city Ashur, 3 ^^ obv. 7f (B 498). 

3. "^^^Asur, Assyria, 3 66 obv sf (B 500). 

4. AsurH Assyria, 5 I242d (B 501). 

The sign is compounded, probably, of 1^~ and ""^v . It seems 
to be an ideogram developed in Assyria from a Semitic phonetic 
spelling. 

No 15 ^^H^ 
1. abalu(?) bring, RH 121 rev 10 (M 401). 10 

2.. amatu, I, word, 5 3930a (B 518). 

3. apalu, GU, speak, CT 11 3217a (B 5 19). 

4. appu, m., face, 4^ 957a (B 520). 

5. apriku, ? 5 3O30e (B 521). 

6. atmu, DU, f 5 399c (B 522). 15 

7. epes pi, open the mouth, RH 45 17 (M 402). 

8. eresu, DUG, distinguish, be wise, 2 733e (B 527). 

9. itkulu, GU, ^^ <3r^r/^, sad, 2 4840 c; ^ BPS 94 (B 530). 

10. busurtu, secrecy, concealment, 4^ IS 57b (B 523). 

11. gu, GU, } 42 2939a (B 524). 20 

12. dababu, J^\], plan, 5 391c (B 525). 

13. dalahu, disturb, confound, RH I23 23b (M 404). 

14. daqu, dash in pieces, CT 19 3 5e (M 403). 

15. hababu, speak, cry, 2 4962e (B 528). 

16. hamatu sa isati, KA, burn, of fire, 5 30 64a (B 529). 25 

17. kullu sa amati, end of a word, AV 398 1 (B 534). 

18. kunnu, DUG, care for, pr^eserve, 2 35 4:5c (B 533). 

19. mam* be full, 4^ l8*i9a (M 405). 

20. nagagu, cry, call, 2 4959g (B 53^; €/• 604, 687, 699, 704). 

21. nadu, expectorate, 4^ 1655b (B 537). ' 30 

22. Samsukku, a kind of plant, 5 42 62e (B 542). 

23. pu, KA, mouth, 2 391a (B 538). 

24. ^3nu, face, front, RH 105 le (var) 5 3911a (M 407). 

25. parasu, divide, separate, 4^ ISnb (B 539). 

26. puzurtu, secret, mystery, CT 16 45 120 (M 406). 35 

27. surru, heart, AL^ Zj \ 37 (B 543). 

28. qibu, GU, speak, CT 11 3219a (B 531). 

29. qibitu, DUG, speech, 4^ 15 49b (B 532). 

30. ragamu, GU, cry, call, CT 11 3218a (B 540), 



* S 535 reads wrongly mamatu. 40 



Bisi of 'i^to^tap^0 I5 

31. rigmu, GU, a cry, a call, CT 11 3215a (B 541). 

32. ^agamu, GU, roar, CT 11 3216a (B 544). 

33. sinnu, SU, tooth, AL^ 80 ii 36 (B 547). 

34. sanu, relate, 4^ 2742a (B 548). 

5 35. saqu, DUG, water, give to drink, 2 30 ua (B 545). 

36. sasu, GU, s^eak, CT 11 32 ua (B 546). 

37, sisitu, crj/, call, RH 112 5 (M 409). 
-^Z. tamu, tell, relate, ^^ 95b (B 549). 

GUG (5 1739 c). INIM (S^ ii 37). KIR (S^ ii 40). 

10 PI (S^ ii i6\ zu (S^ ii 39). 

UKZ 183 ff. holds that the sign is made up from a motif for /^/;^/ 
and a motif for opening, ox door \ OC, LB A 3 11, OCS 232, and 244, 
LSG 20, as a head with beard or lips. The sign clearly originated 
in the picture of a head, to which two lines were added, perhaps 

15 originally representing the lips, to call attention to the mouth, and 
to distinguish it from No I29. Most of the meanings are either 
parts of the mouth, or actions suggested by the mouth, because 
performed by it. Casting, pouring out, throwing, were associated 
with the mouth because of the way it pours forth words, or emits 

20 saliva. Planning^ distinguishing, separating were associated with it 
because of the intelligence which speech implies; hastening, from the 
motion of the lips; while disturbing is the result of speech. Face is 
suggested by the sign itself; heart, and secret, because these are 
revealed by speech. The pictorial origin of the sign accounts for 

25 all the meanings. 

No 16 >^^^J 

As yet no ideographic or syllabic value for this sign is given 
in syllabaries or bilingual texts. Its previous discussion is confined 
to Res. No 196. As that scholar has seen, this sign, which has as 
30 yet been found only in Gud. Cyl. B, xiv, 2, is apparently composed 
of No 15 + No 10. As it is preceded by the determinative GIS and 
is followed by No 10, it was probably part of an ideogram of some 
especially destructive weapon. It is so taken by SAH 134. 13 5. 



No 17 ^qaj 

35 1. patanu sa akali, eat, of food, 2 3662g cf HWB 553b (M 491), 

UKZ S3 regards it as a compound of No 15 + No 57 = to 
enter. It is somewhat precarious to make an inference from a form 
of the time of Assurbanipal, but the meaning of the sign tends 



l6 d^axtofif (gafigfontan wtiiin^ 

to confirm Delitzsch's view, that the sign is thus compounded. 
That would be a natural and fitting way of expressing the idea 
of eating. 

No 18 >^ETfr 

1. asipu, enchanter y CT 16 4128 (M 494). 5 

2. nidu, UH, HWB 450a, expectorate, HWB 449b, 2 35^20 (B 780). 

3. sa'u, ? 5 41 55c (M 492). 

4. siptu, (mu, tu) incantation, 5 2137c (B 781). 

5. tu, [TV }) formula of incantation, 5 5173b (B 782). 

UKZ 53 regards the sign as a compound of No 15 + No 58. 10 
Delitzsch may be right as to the origin. This could well be if 
No 58 were used in the sense of bright. All inferences, however, 
based on late forms are purely tentative. 

No 19 -^ 

1. imtu, poison, ^^ 6 19 a (B 790). 15 

2. damn, blood, 4'^ 20 No 3 15 (B 791). 

3. kispu, magic, 4^ 1657b (B 793). 

4. ru'tu, saliva, spittle, 4'^ 1657b (B 792). 



UH (^/ASKT 213 No 6Z and S^ ii 18). 

UKZ 55 n compounded the sign of No 15 + No 70 open, 20 
Delitzsch is probably right, except that No 70 is a sign in which 
a mixture has occurred, and I suspect that it was not the part which 
meant open, but the part which meant blood and death, which entered 
into composition here. 

No 20 >6^ and >C^ ^5 

1. ziqnu, beard, 4^ 919a (B 804). 

2. saptu, lip, 5 2 51 margin (B ^0'^\ 



su (AV 956). 

UKZ 53 ff. explained the sign as a compound of No 15 + a 
motif for open. Apparently two original pictures have been blended, 30 
[cf however, Jensen in ZA 1 54, and ASKT 213 No 69). One of these 
represented open lips and rows of teeth; it is the one preserved 
in Gud. Cyl. A, xxii 17. Probably the other was a variant of 
No 15. 



^iei of 'i^to^vap^^ I7 

No 21 >^ ^msi 

1. r? 42 16 lib (B 809). 

Though the text in 4 is too broken to reveal to us the ideo- 
graphic meaning of this sign, it probably pictured a mouth in prox- 
5 imity to growing plants. 

No 22 >^m 

This sign occurs in 3 6y e? a, but no ideographic value of it, nor 

syllabic value is known. The later scribes evidently regarded it as 

compounded of No 1 5 + No 175, but in the absence of an early 

10 form and all ideographic meanings we cannot be sure that they were 

not mistaken. 



No 23 



1. tamkaru, IBIRA, merckanty 2 734g, 5 39 38g (B 8I3). 

The sign was evidently in later times regarded as a compound 
15 of No 15 -|- No 223. Perhaps, if we had an old form oi it, we 
should see that that is true, but even then we should be unable 
to trace the sequence of ideas which caused the meaning to be 
attached to it, as we do not know the original significance of 223. 
Cf. discussion of No 22^ below. 

20 No 24 >^^ 

1. amelu, man, CT 19 4412a (M 507). 

2. sagamu, wail, 2 21 i9a (B 814). 

The late form of the sign looks as though it were compounded 
of No 15 + No 270, but in the absence of an early form it would 
25 be precarious to assert that it is so. 

No 25 ^^^SJ 

The sign is found in Gudea only, where it is written as a net 
placed before the mouth (No 15 -j- No 273) and is preceded by the 
determinative for man. Thureau-Dangin, {Inscriptions de Sumer et 
30 d Akkady p. 106), renders it so7'ciers. 

No 26 ^^^"^TTlT 

No simple ideogram is known to me; cf. B 819. The one late 
form known suggests that it is compounded of No 15 + No 275, 
but in the absence of an early form such an inference is likely to 
35 be wrong. 

Beitrage Ass.: Barton II, 2 



18 (§axton, Qg^aB^foman (§Ovitin^ 

No 27 ^^M 

1. ikribu, j^rafer, CT 11 254a (M 512). 

2. karabu, d/ess, RH 9228 (M 513). 

3. lildu, prayer, 5 30 29e (B 820). 

4. (?)sukinu, homage, prayer, 5 30 25e (M 514). 5 

The sign is evidently composed of No 15 + No 3 12, the one 
being the picture of a mouth; the other, of a hand. The two were 
probably brought into conjunction because they are both used in 
expressing primitive prayers. 

No 28 >^^I 

1. saqumatu, silent, 2 21 15a (B 825). 

If we are not wrong in making an inference from the late form, 
the sign is composed of mouth, plus grain. Perhaps the idea was 
connected with the sign because, when the mouth is filled with food, 
one is silent. 15 

No 29 ^^i- 

This sign is not fully identified. Everything connected with it 
is uncertain. 



No 30 ^tm- 

1. aspahu(?) broken, scattered^) CT 11 257a (M 5 15). 20 

2. sumu, IMMA, thirst, 5 3I S7e (B 827). 

Apparently the sign is composed of the picture for mouth, plus 
the picture for sun. This would be a natural way of suggesting 
thirst. Broken is a meaning not fully established. If it belongs to 
the sign, it might easily have been suggested by the physical effects 25 
of thirst. 

No 31 ^^|M 

1. tahazu, (ME?) battle, 1 11 49 (B 829). 

Apparently No 15, plus the ideogram for soldier. A soldier at 
the mouth (or throat) would be a suggestive ideogram for battle. 30 

No 32 >^^MT 

No ideograms have been clearly made out; [cf. M. Nos, 518, 519). 
The origin was clearly No I5, plus No 358, but the meaning has 
not yet been ascertained. 



Bi^t of 'i^to^xap9f0 19 

No 33 >^^ 

1. adaru(?) ec/tpse{}) BC K 314S (M 520). 

2. kuburu, £-reat{i) mighty i^) AV 4468 (B 83 1). 

The sign is apparently compounded oi mouth No 15 plus No 380, 
5 the ideogram for darkness. If it really meant eclipse, it perhaps origi- 
nated in an idea that the sun went hito the dark mouth of a dragon. 

No 34 >^ 

1. akalu, eat, 2 iQsib (B 839). 

2. lisanu^ EME, tongue, language, 5 50 69 a (B 835). 
10 3. pu, motith, language, 5 469 (B '^'^6), 

4. saqu sa me, drink of water, 2 3011a (B '^'^j), 

5. taritu, EME, pregnant woman, 2 3256c (B Z^)^), 

ULi (AV 2532). 

UKZ 53 explained the sign as compounded ot inouth. No 15, 
15 plus speech, No 478; LSG 20, as a mouth with the tongue in it. 
Langdon is right as to the origin of the sign. The first two mean- 
ings given above are derived directly by the combination. The third 
and fourth are suggested by a figurative application of the original 
meaning, while the last resulted from confusion with No 38. 

20 No 35 '^^^HJ 

1. bultu nadanu, SUB, give life, 5 30 25e (B 858). 

2. qamu, MA, grind, bruise, CT II 259a. 

3. sukinnu, worship, 5 30 25e (B Z60). 

4. tinu sa qemi, MU, grind, of meal, 5 1946c (B 857). 

25 This sign is apparently composed of No 15 plus No 481 c, which 

has a great variety of meanings. The combination was evidently 
taken in the sense of grind pcrhsips originally referring to the process 
of mastication. As meal was eaten, or because mastication gave 
nourishment, it came to mtsin give life] then as primitive worship con- 

30 sists of offering food to the gods, it finally represented ze/^r^/^?/, Z^^^*;;^^^^. 

No 36 >^^ 

1. uru sa eqli, enclosure of a field, 2 3Oi0e (B 864). 

The sign is apparently composed of No 15 plus No 502. Pos- 
sibly, if we had older forms of it, we should ascertain that the 
35 original picture was not composed of the elements which now appear 
to be its factors. 



20 (§<itto% (g^dfigfontan (^xitinc^ 



No 37 



1. la'u, sip, 42 1620b (B 870). 

2. lasu, GU, beverage, ASKT 21527 (B 871). 

3. niqu sizbi, pour out milk, i, e, sucking, 4^ 18* No 6 rev 1 (M 533). 

4. sikru, IMMKLT, drunkenness, ASKT 21 5 25 (B 874). 5 

5. saqu, drink, 4^ 2639b (B 872). 

6. satu, drink, ASKT 21526 (B Zj-^), 



NAG (5 675). 

UKZ 53 explains the sign as No 15 + No 521, i, e. water in 
the mouth. Delitzsch is right as to the origin. It fully explains 10 
all the meanings. 

No 38 >§ST 

1. akalu, KU, eat, 2 3258a etc. (B 882). 

2. zananu, be full, 4'^ l*27b (B 884). 

3. pi...., ? CT 18 47 19a (M 536). 15 

4. paraku, force, tyrannize, RH 27 24 (M 534)- 



KUR (5 31 68 a). 

Houghton, TSBA 6 459, explained the sign as a mouth with 
food in it, L ^. as No 15 + No 532, with which UKZ 53 agrees. 
The early form of the ideograph now known makes it clear that the 20 
picture was a mouth with a dish (bowl) under it. The bowl was 
supposed to contain food, and by metonomy stood for food, 
(^. No 532). This naturally suggested eat, be full By a figurative 
application of eat, it came to stand for force, tyrannize. 



No 39 >q| ■ 25 

1. alu, URU, city, S^ iv, 61 (B 892). 

ER (IR) (AL3 51 S^ 311). 

EM 2 117 explained the primitive picture as a tent; UKZ § 23, 
a variant form of a square which signified enclosure. The sign 
pictured the space enclosed by a city wall. 30 

No 40 ^^ 

1. saqummatu, SEG, q^det, still, or sorrowful^ S^ iv, 64 (B 899). 

As the sign stands it seems to be composed of No 39 plus No 57^ 
but it is uncertain whether an older form would confirm this. It is 
accordingly unwise to speculate as to why the meaning attached 35 



^i^t of "it^to^vap^^ 21 

itself to the sign^ though travail in the cityj would satisfy all the 
conditions known to us. 

No 41 ^^ 

1. apati(?) ? 5 21 5g (M 551). 
5 2. puhru, UKKIN, assemblage, totality, S^ iv, 66 (B 902). 

The origin of the sign is uncertain. The oldest form known 
does not confirm the composition which the late forms suggest. How 
the idea of assemblage or totality came to be connected with it, 
cannot now be divined. 



10 No 42 

1. passiaru, BANSUR, dish, or table, S^ v 1 (B 907). 

The oldest known form of this sign suggests that it is in some 

way connected with No 41, but while we have not discovered a less 

developed form, it would be rash to predicate such a connection. 

15 The original picture as well as the psychological origin of its meaning 

are unknown. 

No 42 a ^m^ 

1. sakiru, a vessel, CT 12 23, 930646 (M 552). 

The sign looks like No 39 plus No 275, but it may be simply 

20 an accidental variation of No 45. If the former, the psychological 

connection would be, an enclosure, containing milk, hence a vessel. 

No 43 

1. abubu, URU, whirlwind, tornado, S^ iv, 62 (B 91 1) 

2. alu, URU, city, 4^ 20 No 3 11 a (B 910). 



25 RU (AL^ 60 n 2). 

Apparently the sign is composed of No 39 plus No 337, but in 
the absence of an older form this appearance may be deceptive. 
This view seems to receive some confirmation, however, from the 
fact that it means city, which shows that it was used as a variant of 
30 No 39. Perhaps it was intended to represent the sun shining on a 
city. How whirlwind became attached to the sign is not clear, unless 
it was because m Sumerian URU meant both city and deluge. 

No 44 

1. a^ie^spu, harvester, herdsman, CT 18 5020b (M 556). 
35 2. i^Ishuru, god Is hum, JRAS I905 l44f, K 2097 rev 6 (M 557). 



22 (§atton, (g>a6gfoman (JOrtttn^ 

3. iiBel, £-od Bel, 5 21 iie (B 921). 

4. gisru, strong, 2 62 20g (B 922). 

5. i^Marduk, ASARU, god Marduk, 2 55 68c (B 924). 

6. sagapuru, SILIG, mighty, leaded', S^ iv 6% (B 920). 

BNA 12 401 holds that the sign is composed of the sign for 
city (No 39) plus the sign for eye (No 406). Two signs, originally- 
distinct, have been blended in this sign. One of them signified 
§ILIG; the other, ASARU {cf. Res No 384, I'^j). It is impossible from 
either of these to determine what the original picture represented. 



No 45 >^I^4 10 

1. urru, part of a date palm, CT 12 23, (^^o^-^ 11 (M 560). 

2. ^a^pa^zarbabu, a kind of pot, ASKT 120 19 (M 561). 

3. zaru sa sam[mi], begetter of heaven i^) CT 12 23, 930643 (M 562). 

4. kasamu, GUR, cut in pieces, S'^ iv, 65 (B 932). 

5. kuru sa , oppression[}) of. . . ,, CT 12 23, 930642 (M 565) j^ 

6. maru, send, RH No 28 rev 6 (M 566). 

7. masaru, GUR, cut off, 2 192b (B 934). 

8. qasasu, GUR, hew i7z pieces, 4^ 1 9a (B 933). 

9. karpat^akiru, a kind of pot, RH p. 13012, cf 2 22 28d (M 568). 

10. sabatu sa . . ., kill, of, , ., AV 7683 (B 935). ^^ 

11. s^^sakiru, a kind of plant, CT 11 46 12 a, cf CT1426 K418515 (M 569). 

The original picture represents No 502 inserted in an enclosure 
or pot. No 502 apparently represented a plant. Most of the meanings 
are clearly suggested by this,- ctctthtg or oppression coming from the 
idea of cutting the plant. ^^ 

No 46 ^ttT 

1. alu, city, ASKT 120 rev 1 (B 940). 

2. manzazu, GISGAL, place, S^ iv, 6j (B 941), 

3. si, .? ZA 6 241 11 (M 577). 



GAL (BPS 14 ff). 30 

LTP p. so rem. l compounds it of ^ + >TfT; BPS 14 ff. con- 
nects it with ^^ = city. The sign is probably a variant of No 39. 
In the original picture there was a representation of water, so essen- 
tial to every city. This is wanting in No 39. This origin explains 
the meanings. 35 



BxBt of 'i^^o^xap^^ 23 

No 47 ^VT 

1. isittu, ERIM, /easl, S^ iv, 6t, (B 950). 

If one had only the later form he would naturally conclude that 
the sign is compounded of ^, city + y , food\ the earlier form, 
5 however, proves this impossible. The picture represented a city with 
a canal-penetrated field lying in it [cf. No 39, II9). It was the ideo- 
gram of a city called Erim. Probably the sign came to mean feast 
from the festival of the god of this old city, who was called Lugal- 
Erim, cf. SO, p. 183. 

10 No 48 >^ 

1. manzazu(?) place, RT 27 I20 i 2 (M 582). 

GAL (BPS 15, MSL 118). QAL (AL2 29 n 9). qar (AL^ No 24). 

The sign apparently arose as a variant of No 39. As Meissner 
suggests, the ideographic meaning was assigned to it through a con- 
15 fusion with No 46. 

No 49 >-^ 

1. ardu, (URU), slave, 2 33 i2e (B 956). 

2. amtu* GI, maid, servant, CT 12 30 3874411 (M 590). 

3. gitmalu(?) IR, hero, CT 12 1344b (M 586). 
20 4. zikaru, NITA, man, 2 /gc (B 957). 



MIR (2 S946de). 

EM 2115 explained the sign as a prostrate man (original picture) ; 
Houghton (TSBA VI 460 ff.) as originally the picture of a standing 
man such as a child would make; UKZ 93, as the picture of a penis 

25 + ^, capture, DelitzsCH is right as to the origin. It was a 
membrum virile (No 2I4), representing man, plus a mountain range 
(No 322), which represented a foreign country, and then, because 
foreign relations were so generally hostile, capture. Naturally, there- 
fore, it meant slave. In time it came through mixture with No 2I4, 

30 which at one stage of the development greatly resembled it, to mean 
man and hero. 

No 50 ^^ 

1. arhu, ITU, ITI, month, S^ ii 19 (B 967). 

EM 2 117 explained the sign as an indication of thirty days', 
35 H 460, as a compound of ^ = ^T day -f <^ thirty, B 967, and 

* M. interprets - this as belonging to a slightly different sign, but it is a Neo- 
Babylonian variant oi No 49. 



24 (§axton, (^aBgfontan (Wviiirx^ 

BNA 13 368, repeat H; UKZ 79, as a representation (or motif) for 
the moon; 0GB, as the moon-crescent showing the earth-shine. As 
UKZ 55 noted, the explanations of his predecessors were disproved 
by the form of the sign in Old Babylonian. Delitzsch is probably 
right in thinking that the sign represented the moon. The form in 5 
Urkagina's time indicates that the earlier form was a picture of the 
crescent moon showing the earth-shine. 

No 51 h^ 

1. arhu, ITU, month, S^ ii 20 (B 970). 

2. sit arhi, beginning of the month, S^ ii 20, van; cf. AL^ 55 (B 971). 10 



ITI (S^ ii 20, van; cf. AL^ 55). 

UKZ 109 n explained the sign as No 50, month + i>^ = open. 
Probably the sign originated as a variant of No 50, which is often 
written in the tablets of Ur with an additional stroke in the middle; 
cf. HLC pi 49 No 231 rev 4; pi 48 No 342 rev 6; and No 361 15 
rev 4, ^tc. This variant was differentiated sometimes to mean 
beginning of the month. 



No 52 >>^ 

1. ersitu(?) earth, RH 138 loe (M 595). 

2. sahu, SAH, swine, 2 622 c (B 974). 



SIH (2 621c). ^ SIH- (5 39 6 g). 

UKZ 143 explained the sign as formed on the analogy of ^^ 
which he compound of ^ == land + -J+H-j = great. No doubt the 
sign was originally the picture of an animal of the swine variety, a 
picture which would account for all the meanings attached to the sign. 25 

No 53 >&^ 

1. ^hxxvM, fruit, harvest, 2 1417a (B 978). 

2. ^^^disu, luxurious growth, 5 27 57g (B 979). 

3. nimittu(?) fruit still on the tree, CT 18 469a (M 597). 

The oldest known form of the sign comes from the time of 3® 
Hammurapi; it is accordingly unsafe to dogmatize about the original 
picture, but it looks as though the sign were compounded of No 11 2, 
the picture of a hand, and No II9 = field. Such a combination 
might designate fruit. It is possible that the sign was originally 
the picture of a fruit-tree, and that the resemblance noted is 35 
accidental. 



Bi^t of 3^^ogvaf>g0 25 

No 54 >^ 

1. ishilsu, SIKA, ? CT 12 82b (M 605). 

2. hasbu, SIKA, an earthen vessel ox jug, CT 12 8 ib (M 606). 

3. la, LA, not, CT 12 8 5b (M 607). 

5 4. lalu, LA, be full, overflowing, 5 21 sc (B 984). 

5. silla(?) LA, a protection, CT 12 84b (M 608). 

6. 4u, ^^(?) tkat^^^ 5 2736a (B 987). 

UKZ 151 ff. regards it as a compound sign as yet unexplained; 
OC, as water conduits. Probably it originally represented an inter- 
10 section of canals. All the certain meanings could be easily derived 
from that meaning. 

No 55 >^ 

1. arahsamna, eighth month, Str Nbk I3913 + AL'*, II410 (B 1021). 

2. i^Enmastu, URUM, god Enmashtu [Ninib), 2 5732c (B 1020). 
15 3. epinu, APIN, cultivated field, S^ v, 23 (B 1022). 

4. eresu, URU, husbandman, S^ v 24 (B I023). 

5. ikkaru, ENGAR, peasant, husbandman, S^ v 22 (B I024). 

6. ussn, foundation, 4^ 2716a (B 1026). 

7. nartabu, APiN, irrigating canal, 5 27 64g (B I025). 

20 MSL 36 thinks the sign pictured a network of canals. Origi- 

nally the sign was a representation of irrigating ditches to convey 
the idea of tillage. 

No 56 ^^ 

1. aban rami(?) stone of love, CT 14 175 + 2 40 ue (M 612). 
25 2. ellu, (mah), bright, 4^ 924a (B 1039). 

3. ^^^ilspu, } CT 18 5p2i (M 613). 

4. ba'alu, be great, 2 4410c (B I035). 

5. belu, lord, 2 5730c (B I036). 

6. gabsu, strong, 4^ 1933b (M 614). 

30 7. subatgadmahu, an article of clothing, JRAS 1905 829 rev 39 (M615). 

8. ^"^^igisru, (mah), strong, KS[ 4969 (B 1037). 

9. dannu, (mah), mighty, 4^ 1945b (B 1038). 

10. kabtu, (mah), heavy, 2 4477 a (B 1040). 

11. ma'du, (mah), inuch, 2 3l2ig (B 1042). 

35 12. mahhu, (mah), high, great, 4^ 239a (B I043). 

13. i?mirdetu, net, trap{}) 5 2653/54a (B 1044). 

14. subatnalbasu, garment, JRAS 1905 829 rev 28 (M 616). 

15. siru, MAH, high, S^ vi 1 (B 1047). 

16. rabu, MAH, great, S^ vi 2 (B lo^c\ 



26 (Ration, (gaBgfontan (Wtitin^ 

17. rubu, {mau), />rince, 2 3I isg (B I046). 

18. tublu, MAH, exaltedi^) 2 25 49a (B I049). 

19. s^batttizu, some garment, JRAS 1905 829 rev ^Z (M 618). 

20. tizqarU; exalted, 2 S650a (B I048). 

UKZ 163 compounds it of No 214, 7nan + No 77, leader; 5 
MSL 230 explains it as a membrum virile + a sign for importance; 
OC, as a penis with testicles. HOMMEL's explanation is on the right 
track. The picture probably represented a penis erect. Usage 
differentiated this picture form No 2I4, making it stand for great 
7nan, Nearly all the meanings preserve this signification in some 10 
form. Probably the garments signified by this were originally loin 
cloths, though later the meaning may have extended to other garments. 

No 57 

1. abubu, URU, wkirlwindi^) CT 12 11 25a (M 621). 

2. aladu, TU, dear, 4'^ 23 isc (B 1070). 15 

3. eru, conception, RH I47 (M 626). 

4. erebu, TU, TUR, enter, 2 1340a; 4^ 717a (B I072). 

5. banu, TU, deget, 4^ 2ia; KC 2 XI 21 (B 1071). 

6. haru, dig, RH 130 32 (M 627). 

7. labasu, clothe, 2 1627b (B 1073). 20 

8. i^Marduk, god Marduk, 5 446 c (B 1082). 

9. marsu, TUR, sickness, 4^ 411b (B 1074). 

10. mursu, TUR, sickness, 4^ l*4ia (B 1075). 

11. ni'u, turn, repulse, 5 21 43c (B 1076). 

12. neribu, entrance, RH 20 24; 238 (M 623). 25 

13. summatu, TU, dove, 4^ 2714b (B 1078). 

14. si'u, destruction, 5 3021c (B I077). 

15. subtu, URU, dwelling, CT 12 11 25a (M 624). 

16. taru, turn, RH 60 Rs 20 (M 625). 



DU (V 1747 c). 30 

H 480 thought the sign originally a picture of grain falling from 
a vessel; BNA 13 ^7 489, as the sign for vegetation (No 323 + No 59) 
to be beside, UKZ I34ff., as compounded of grain (No 323 + No 227) 
to produce; OC, as a penis with testicles (.^). The earliest forms of 
the sign show that HoUGHTON, Ball, and Delitzsch have missed 35 
the point in their discussion of it. The two earliest forms, tho' unlike, 
may have been variant pictures of the same thing. They are vaguely 
suggestive, but too indefinite to be certain. In the course of its 
development - it has also been mixed with No 192 — probably a 
phallic sign — a fact which renders its explanation difficult. The 40 



^ist of 'ibiO^xap^^ 27 

first of the original pictures may have represented a tent door* or 
possibly the male and female organs in conjunction. Either of these 
(owing to the Semitic custom of entering a wife's tent upon marriage) 
would account for the meanings e7iter, bring forth, beget, conception. 
5 It is possible, however, that these meanings come from the mixture 
referred to above. If the picture represented the entrance to a tent, 
the meaning dwelling would be most simply accounted for. From 
the meanings beget, co7tceive, etc., the sign came to suggest sickness, 
destroy, and then whirlwind, on account of venereal disease. Dove, 
10 the bird of Ishtar, would also be suggested by it. Turn, repulse, 
and dig, might have been connected with it by more than one 
possible extension of meanings already accounted for. In the Ur 
period there was a mixture with the forms of 192 and possibly of I22. 

No 58 >^ 

15 1. ana, imto, 5 2744a (B 1120). 

2. arkatu, after, behind, RH 1102s (M 633). 

3. atta, thou, 5 2058a (B lloi). 

4. ellu, GUB, bright, 2 2446a (B II03). 

5. ina, in, 5 2743a (B II20). 

20 6. ersitu, land, 2 2250a (B II04). 

7. i?burasu, cypress or pine, 2 45 50g, cf HWB l88a (B II02). 

8. zimmeru, cry, song, RH llo 31 (M 634). 

9. laggir(?) a kind of priest i^) 5 2741a (B 1105). 
10. lila, night, 5 2750a (B II06). 

25 11. lima, a period or limu^) 5 2749a (B II07). 

12. luma, ? 5 2748a (B 1108). 

13. ma, thus, 5 2746a (B 11 10). 

14. mu, water [}) 5 2747a (B nil). 

15. musaru sa eqli, cultivated, of a field, 2 27526 (B 11 12). 
30 16. mati, when, 4^ 1933b (B II09). 

17. raba(.?) LI, extinguished {}) CT 11 259b (M 635). 

18. ramkus, priest-like or libation-like, 5 2739a (B III5). 

19. rasu, LI, be abundant, AL^ 1059 (B III3). 

20. raturri(?) } 5 2742a (B 11 15). 
35 21. sa, she, 5 2745a (B III6). 

22. sasud(.?^) } 5 2740a (B 1117). 

23. suasu, he, 5 2738a (B 11 18). 

24. suatu, himself, 5 2737 a (B 11 19). 

UKZ 133 ff. thinks the sign compounded of ^ + ^^7- As 
40 the sign stands it appears to represent in its earliest form a plant 

* The second possibly pictured the whole tent. 



28 (§<xxtcn, (gafigfontan (^xitin^ 

growing in a pot. See the series of such pictures in Proto-Elamite 
RT 27 22S. If we might suppose that in some way the sign had 
become inverted the picture might then be that of a pine, or cypress. 
At all events it designated such a tree, which by its shade suggested 
nightj be extinguished^ etc. and perhaps because of their functions in 5 
exorcising the demons of night, a class of priests. From their ritual 
it came to signify cry or song. Another extension of the meaning 
of tree enabled it to express cultivate, be abundant, and as trees 
grow by water, it stood for water also. The pronominal and pre- 
positional meanings were probably attached through syllabic spelling. 10 

No 59 ^ 

1. aibu, enemy, CT 20 3/4/5 (M 646). 

2. abu, VKViJ) father, CT 12 l6i6a (B II4I). 

3. ahu, PA, brother, CT 12 169a (B 1142). 

4. asaridu, pap, leader, prince, CT 12 1612a (M 647). 15 

5. iiBel, PAP, god Bel, CT 12 l6i5a (M 648), 

6. zikaru, man, 2 74c (B 11 50). 

7. nakaru, KUR, be hostile, 2 llssg (B II43). 

8. nakru, KUR, enemy, CT 11 2418a (B II44). 

9. napharu, total, 3 4649_54a (B II4S). 20 

10. nasaru, protect, 2 656; Str Nbk 27724 (B II46). 

11. iisin, god Sin, CT 12 l6i4a' (M 650). 

12. paladu, } KSf 5962 (B 1147). 

13. pal^mu, KUR, } CT 12 16 6a (M 651). 

14. rabu sa lirigalli, PAP, great, of urigallu, CT 12 l6i3a (M 652). 25 

15. semitu, KUR, obedieitcei^) CT 12 167a (M 653). 

16. sanu, KUR, double, repeat, CT 12 164a (M 654). 

17. sunnu, KUR, double, 2 llseg (B II48). 

18. sanumma, second, other, 2 1841a (B II49). 

EM 2 113 thought the sign the picture of a battle axe\ 3° 
UKZ 58, as a motif for protect, guard, Oppert and Delitzsch 
are both partly right. The original picture probably represented, 
not a battle-axe, but two arrows crossed, or possibly a bow and 
arrow. This expressed two fundamentally opposite ideas — protect, 
and hostile. From the former of these the specific meanings father, 35 
brother, leader, Bel, Sin, great, and obedience were derived. From 
the second, enemy, man, rival, a second, and repeat. 

No 60 ^^ or >^^ 

1. kababu (kapapu), bend, subdue, CT 12 20, l%2y6 rev 3 (M 658). 

2. kippatu, bending, subjugation, ibid 2 (M 659). 40 



Biet of ^t>iOQxap^0 29 



3. liqu, take, ibid 7 (M 660). 

4. liqutu, lakin^-, ibid 8 (M 661), 

5. marmaru, ? LTP 173 n 2 (B II63). 

6. sanaqu, DIM, oppress, 5 2969e (B II68). 

7. rabu, a great man, 2 442 c (B 11 65). 

8. surbu, DIM, great, lordly, 4^ 3020a (B \\66). 

9. sarru(?) >^/;2^, 2 441c (B 11 69). 

10. tarbu, DIM, offspring, 5 297ig (B II67). 

11. tarbutu, offspring, CT 12 20 38276 rev 6 (M 6^i\ 



10 SIS (2 2963a). sus(?) (2 4830a). 

The sign was probably the picture of a bow with a bow-string. 
All the meanings, except offspring, are easily derived from ideas 
involved in such a picture. The words used for offspring come from 
the root rabu, great, and were attached to this sign because that 
15 root had previously been attached to it in its more primary sense, 
(./. MSL 7^), 

No 61 >^^ 

1. atabbu, a water ca^iizl, 2 3820a (B II80). 

2. iku, a water canal, 2 3821a (B II82). 
20 3. hiritu, canal, ZK 2 17 n 4 (B II81). 

4. palgu, a water canal, 2 3815a (B II83). 

The sign is composed of No 263 — irrigating canals — and No 59 
— the crossed arrows which are the symbol of protection. In ancient 
times it was necessary to protect canals, so this sign is found as a 
25 variant of No 263. 

No 61a ^^^ 

1. buklu, vegetables, CT 17 2527 (M 689). 

The sign occurs only in a late form, where it looks like the sign 

for grain (No 323) set between the repetition of No 59 — the sign 

30 for protection. The real origin may, however, have been quite different. 

No 61 b >^<^^ 

1. gamlu, GAM, a tool, CT 12 1021b (M 690). 

2. za'ibu, zvm, flowing, CT 12 10 24b (M 691). 

3. ^^' zkhni^) flowing, CT 19 25, K 140473; 12 1025b (M 692). 
35 4. mitirtu, ZUBI, ? CT 12 I0 24b (M 693). 

5. sikru sa patri(?) GAM, a weapon, CT 12 1020b (M 694). 

6. saqasu sa . . ., GAM, destroy of . . ., CT 12 1021b (M 695), 



30 (§axtcn, Q0a6^fonian (^vitin^ 

MSL 120 explains the sign composed of No 59 protect + No 386 
(Res 148)^ a recumbent figurcy and meaning overshadow. Apparently 
Prince has correctly explained the origin of the sign, though No 386 
pictured a bed rather than a recumbent figure. 



No 62 

1. ahu(?) brother, CT 18 3627b (M 698). 

2. ahatu(?) sister, CT 18 3628b (M 699). 

3. amatu(?) word, Str Nab 109 s and TN p. xiii (M 701). 

4. anaku, MU, I, RH loi 7 (M 702). 

5. aplu, MU, son, CT 12 84a (M jo-^), 10 

6. 3khM, for, because of, 2 IS 45a (B I226). 

7. edlu, MU, 7nan, lord, CT 12 813a (M 697). 

8. ilu, MU, god, CT 12 8i6a (M 700). 

9. isu, MU, ze;^^4 CT 12 812a (M 704). 

Id. iasi, me, CT 11 42 Bu 89-4-26 165 7a (M 705). 15 

11. isaru, mj, just, upright, CT 12 8 ua (M "joG), 

12. isatu, m3, fire, CT 12 8 11 a (M 707). 

13. bitu, MU, house, CT 12 817a (M 708). 

14. zikaru, MU, speak, 2 7 5ig (B I236). 

15. zikaru, MU, man, 2 79c (B I237). 20 

16. zeru, MU, seed, CT 12 85a (M 709). 

17. zikru; MU, name, CT 12 87a (M 710). 

18. ziqpu, MU, twig, reed-slalk, CT 12 822 a (M 71 1). 

19. zaqaru, MU, be high, CT 12 8 8a (M 712). 

20. hattu, MX], sceptre, CT 12 8 i8a (M 713). 25 

21. kakku, MU, weapon, CT 12 819a (M 7I4). 

22. lu, strength, CT 11 42, Bu 89-4-26 165 loa (M 715). 

23. littu, MU, a wooden implement, CT 12 82a (M 716). 

24. mi, who, RH 931 (M 717). 

25. mu, name, CT 11 42 Bu 89-4-26 16512a (M 718). 30 

26. masaddu, tongue i^) of a wagon, 2 47i7e (B I227). 

27. minutu, MU, number, CT 12 826a (M 719). 

28. na (ni), MU, us, CT 12 8 19 20a (M 720). 

29. nibu, MU, namifig, CT 12 8 6a (M 721). 

30. nadanu, give, CT 12 827a (B 1228). 3^ 

31. ninu, we, CT 11 42, Bu 89-4-26 16512a (M 722). 

32. nushu, destructive, 5 3I41C (B 1229). 

33. naqaru, MU, tear down, destroy, CT 12 825a (M 724). 

34. nisu, MU, people, CT 12 Ssa (M 725). 

35. suhu, MU, .? CT 12 828a (M 726). 4a 

36. pagru, MU, body, CT 12 821a (M 727). 



BM of 'i^co^va^^cf ^i 

27. saltu, emnity, 5 21 44c (B I231). 

38. ra'i, ? CT 11 42, Bu 89-4-24 1658a (M 729). 

39. rabu, MU, great, CT 12 8 10 a (M Jio\ 

40. risa . . ., MU, ? CT 12 831a (M 731). 

5 41. sadu, MU, be high, CT 12 824a (M 732). 

42. samu, burn, 2 S947^d (B 1232). 

43. ^iSamas, MU, god Samas, CT 12 830a (M y^,^), 

44. sumu, MU, name, 5 6236a (B 1235). 

45. sisitu, MU, call, cry, RH 13 5 (M 734). 
10 46. sarrU; king, 5 3025a (B I233). 

47. sattu, year, 2 40 4ig (B I234). 

48. tertu, MU, command, order, CT 12 823a (M 735). 

OBP 35 36 explained the sign as an arrow with cross marks 
to denote name\ UKZ 114 — 120, as composed of a motif for way 

15 (No 177); plus a motif for open\ OC, as the picture of a plant; 
Langdon, Babyloniaca II 20\, a compound of Nos 2 and 60. HiL- 
PRECHT and HOMMEL are probably right as to the origin. Two 
pictures, one of a plant, the other of an arrow or sceptre, perhaps 
coalesced. The arrow made of wood, suggested one series of 

20 meanings, emnity, destructive, destroy, etc. The marks to indicate 
possession suggested name, then speak, call, cry, then, man, son, 
people, hero, of which, be high and king were extensions. The pro- 
nominal meanings were attached in Sumerian syllabic spelling. 
Give, and year were suggested for reasons which are not now clear. 

25 Either one of two or three different psychological processes of asso- 
ciation may have brought it about. 

No 63 ^ 

1. i . . pu, . . . LA, } CT 12 1628a (M 785). 

2. hipu(?) ... LA, broken, mutilatedij) CT 12 1623a (M yZG). 
30 3. mimma, QA, anything, CT 12 l6i9a (M "J^j). 

4. sulu, ... LA, street or part of it, CT 12 1621a (M 789). 

5. suqu, ... LA, street, CT 12 1622a (M 788). 

6. si . . pirtu(?) ... LA, ? CT 12 1627 a (M 790). 

7. qa, QA, a measure of quantity, CT 12 16 17a (M 79 1). 
35 8. qu, QA, a cord, CT 12 l6i8a (M 792). 

9 turn, ... LA, ? CT 12 1625a (M 793). 

Barton, JAOS 23 24, regards it as a picture of a small vessel 

used as a measure. The original picture was a representation of a 

measuring vessel, possibly made of wood, for 4^ 5^ [5^1 57 b has 

40 '^QA (cf Surpu II, 114). This naturally denoted measure', then 

because in measuring grain it was divided up into small parts, it 



32 Qgarfon, QgaS^fontan (lOOviiin^ 

suggested dtmsion, breaking, mutilation. An extension of this meaning 
suggested st^^eet, which divides a city. Thread was suggested by 
the sign because of the similarity of qu, the Semitic word for thread 
and qa. 

No 63a >^M\ 

1. anaku(?) I, CT 18 2954a (M 796). 

Nothing is known of the earlier form of this sign, and no con- 
jecture as to its origin can be formed at present. 

No 64 ^ and ^^ 

1. la, not, CT 11 27 rev i5a (M 797). 

2. sahirtu(.^) small, CT 11 2y rev i6a (M 798). 

3. qasaru; guard, 2 6415b; cf. TN 329. (B I366, M 799). 



KAT (5 2664 c). 

The origin of the sign is unknown. 

^No 65 ^ff 15 

1. kibratu, SESLAM, regions, 2 4727c (B I368). 

MSL 314 regards the sign as a variant of No 261, and is doub- 
less right as to the origin. 

No 66 ^^jn 

1. ^^"^elpitu^ a kind of thorn i^) 5 27 64g (B 1375). 20 

2. edlu, UMUN, hero, wa^^rior, 2 2743a (B 1371). 

3. idqu, a sprout, JRAS 1905 829 rev 40 (M 800). 

4. ^^"^umsatu, some, plaut, 5 27 6ig (B. I375). 

5. ^^"^urbatu, willow, CT 11 45 12a (M 802). 

6. kabasu, tread, ^^ 26 6h (B I372). 25 

7. kibsu, lamb, CT 11 25 19 a (M 803). 

8. kirru, Z^;;^^, 2 642a (B I373). 

9. ^a™kustu(.?^) garmenti^) CT 11 45 iia (M 804). 

10. ?^batkititu, some kind of garment, JRAS 1905 829 rev 4I (M 805). 

11. ^^b^Uubustu, clothing, 5 14326 (B 1379). 30 

12. ^^^^^lamhussu, beautiful clothing, 5 14336 (B I380). 

13. nistinu, } 2 6 6a (B 1374). 

14. ^^"^rubatu, hunger, 5 27 62g (B I377). 

15. ^''^^^raqqatu, some kind of garment, JRAS 1905 rev 41 (M 809). 

16. ^^"^sisnu, GUG, a lily, 2 43 52e (B 1378). 35 

* MA. 49 a, collapse^ exhaustion. 



Bi&t of 'i^to^xap^^ 33 

MSL ^'/6 explains the sign as No 91 plus an enclosure, = full 
of much life. It seems probable that the sign is No 91 doubled, but 
the last part is a variant of No 258 = wood. The two chief series 
of meanings ^wt names of plants and of garments. Probably 
5 the original combination suggested various plants, and as garments 
were made from flax, it was naturally extended to garments. As 
lambs also furnished material for clothing, the sign was extended to 
mean lamb. Perhaps from this it came to signify kibsu and kabasu, 
cf. Hebrew tonD = lamb^. 

10 No 67 

1. agu, crown, 2 31 4g (B 1387). 

2. asaru, bind, unite, 2 3I 5g; ^/ BPS 39 (B I388). 

3. saii^tar, the female Istar, 2 3I 6g; ^ BPS 39 (B I389). 

4. itgurutu, rim, edge, RH 20 44; 2325 (M 812). 
15 5- garu, move away, 5 1671c (B I390). 

6. gurru(?) goingif) PSBA 16 309 ni 11 (M 813). 

7. duppi qani, tablet-reed, PSBA 16 309 iii 10 (M 814). 

8. h.Q\k(\\i, perish, RH I3I54 (M 815). 

9. huUuqu, destruction, 5 llisd (B I391). 
20 10. qanhandu(?) ? CT 12 SOioa (M 816). 

11. kippatU; end, CT 17 12 6 (M 817). 

12. sikuru, closing, 2 399a (B I393). 

13. paraku, bolt or bar, 5 5063a (B I392). 

14. q^^qisiru, } PSBA 23 201 4 (M 819). 
25 15. sahluqtu, destruction, RH 9118 a (M 820). 



KIL GIL (AL4 No 41). 

UKZ 45 explains the sign as No 92 doubled. As Delitzsch 

noted, the sign is formed by doubling Gt^, the picture of a reed. All 

the meanings are easily derivable either from the reed itself, or from 

30 its perishable character, or from the idea of uniting suggested by 

putting two reeds together. 

No68.^!fff 

1. ezebu, spare, cease, 2 4832c (B I410). 

2. ittu(.?) ^/^^(?)^RH No 61 7 (M 828). 

35 3. kalu, cease, disappear, 22l35c(Bl4ll). 

4. Marduk, GUDIBIR, Marduk, 2 4836a (B I415). 

5. pitu, open, 4'^ l8l4a (B I416). 



* Perhaps, the name of a plant. For the possibility of the equivalence of Ass. 
s to Heb. to cf, Del. Gram. 2 ed. p. 126. 

Beitrage Ass.: Barton II. 3 



34 (§ax(on, (^aBgfonian (^vitin^ 

6. qup issuri, SASIRRA, ca^-e of birds, S^ ii 66 (B 1412). 

7. qasaru, ^^';^^, preserve, 2 6421a & 22 a (M 830). 

8. qarasu, pinch off, slander, CT 17 2930 (M 83 1). 

9. qarasu, KID, pinch off, slander^) 2 48i5e (B I4I3). 

10. rehtu, destiny, fate, 3 49 No 3 1 & 10; CT 17 21 90 (M 832). 

11. setu(?) leave, escape, also trap, net, CT 19 45; K II2251 (M '^l'^). 



KIDA (2 30i6e). SID (2 33 15a). TAK (S^ vi 22). 

MSL 160 says original pictograph, a bird cage. Probably the 
original picture represented a cage or coop, or possibly a trap. All 
the meanings except Marduk are easily accounted for ovi this theory, 10 
and it is difficult in any event to explain how the sign came to 
represent Marduk. 

No 69 ^ 

1. abaku, SUB, turn, take away, 2 3664g (B I424). 

2. ana, unto, 2 l6i2e (B I447). 15 

3. arkatu, back part, future, S 21 36g (B I425). 

4. asabu, dwell, CT 16 18 5 (M %'^Z\ 

5. ezebu, spare, cease, MSW 17, K I3663, RS 6 (M '^2>^\ 

6. i?isqu, part, portion, 4^ 1338a (M ^n\ 

7. '^^\hq}i, part, portioni^) 5 21 23c (B I428). 20 

8. zaqu, blow, be hi violent motion, CT 16 42 10 (M 839). 

9. hamu, destroy, CT 16 2410 (M 840). 

10. kalu, ^;^^>y^, end, 2 9i4c (B I429). 

11. kuppuru, } PSBA 23 204 ff. Ob 18 (M 841). 

12. lapanu(?) } 2 474a (M 842). 25 

13. lapatu sa iddi, SUB, turn, of pitch, 2 48426 (B I430). 

14. i?midpanu, bow, 2 1910b (M 845). 

15. maqatu, hV'B, fall, 5 5052b (B 1432). 

16. miqtu, SUB, falling down or striking dow?z, 5 39 13 a (B I433). 

17. nadu, SUB, throw, cast, 2 35i3c (B 1434). 30 

18. nadanu, give, 2 913c (B I435). 

19. nasaku, set, lay, 4^ 3 66 b (B I436). 

20. palasu, seei^) 5 21 37g (B 1437). 

21. pasasu, break, destroy, CT 21 49 le; cf WAK 29 ff (M 843). 

22. parasu, SUB, separate, 2 28 68d (B I438). 35 

23. parsadu, SUB, ^^^, escape, 4^ 2641 a (B 1439). 

24. rasadu, SUB, establish, 4'^ 930a (M 846). 

25. sabatu, strikei^) 5 1633a (B I44I). 

26. samnu, ? 5 21 58c (B 1442). 



^x0t of 'it>eoQvap^0 35 

2^, saraqu, ^-tve, preseftt^ 5 21 2e (M 847). 
28. taru, turn, 4^ 2ib (B 1445). 

RU (S^ i 33). 

UKZ 157 n explains the sign as a double reversed; OC compares 
5 the Egyptian v=*=^> which makes our sign a human arm; MSL 277, 
follows UKZ. The sign originated in the picture of a bow, which 
is still one of its principal meanings. As early as Eannatum the picture 
was conventionalized. The bow naturally stood for throw, oust, strike, 
be in violent motiofi, down, destroy, finish, end, because of its uses in 
10 war. By antithesis flee, escape attached themselves to it. From 
victory in war came plunder, hence the meanings separate, take away, 
turn, spare, destroy, finish, end. From an extension of the idea of 
throwing or casting, came the idea of giving. Ana attached itself 
to the sign on account of the r in the syllabic value RU. 

15 No 70 ><. 

1. adaru, /^^r, be troubled, AL^ 8428 (B I491). 

2. asabu, TIL, dwell, 2 lSi9a; cf, 5 s'2 44b (B 1492). 

3. astu, IDIM, proud, wicked, 5 30 44g; cf. DW 159 No 89 (B 1493). 

4. iiEa, god Ea, CT 17 33 11 (M 849). 
20 5. ^raxx, protect, RH 31 21 (M 853). 

6. enlu, .? AL3 8756b (M 855). 

7. entu, lady, 3 5954b (M 856). 

8. etillu, ETIL, lord, ASKT 13127 (B 1506). 

9. iblu, ES ? MSW 25 Rm 2588 RS 18c (M 850). 
25 10. idimmu, demon, 2 625 a (B 1510). 

11. ikdu (ekdu?) mightyi^) CT 11 34 Sm 702 rev 7 (M 851). 

12. indu, } CT 11 34 Sm 702 rev 3 (M 854). 

13. nlklu, frail, weak, CT 11 34 Sm 702 rev lo (M 852). 

14. usultu, US, blood vessel, artery, 2 48356 (B 1540). 
30 15. iiBel, god Bel, 1 15 51 (B I497). 

16. belu, lord, 3 5954b (B 1496). 

17. i?bulu, SUN, gimleti^) 5 2628a; AV 1374 (B I498). 

18. balatu, TIL, live, 5 197b and AL^ 89 v 3940 (B I494). 

19. basu, TIL, be, 4^ 413b (B I495). 

35 20. gamaru, TIL, end, destroy, 5 2429 a, 31 a (B I499). 

21. gamru, TIL, full, complete, ASKT 663134 (B 1500). 

22. gimru, totality, 5 6250 (B 1501). 

23. (?)da'amu, darken, be dark, CT 11 43 775 1 10 (M 857). 

24. dalamu, ? AV 5384 (B 1502). 

40 25. damu, US, blood, S^ iv 23 (B 1503). 



36 (^axtotty (gaBgfontan (Writing 

26. i?habzabbu* MISSUN, /^^/^/^^/ AV 3068 (B 1507). 

27. hattu, staff, 5 26 9g (B 1508). 

28. (?)hurasu, ^o/d, CT 11 43 775I4 (M 858). 

29. hutaru, ^/<^^, sceptre, 5 26iog (B 1509). 

30. kabtu, IDIM, heavy, S^ i 63 (B 1511). 3 

31. kidinu, shelter, 5 4456c (B 1514). 

32. (?)kaspu, silver, CT 11 43 775I4 (M 861). 

33. (?)kirinnu ? CT 11 43 7751 5 (M 862). 

34. kitu, end, Str Nbd 65828 (M 860). 

35. katatu, cry out, 4-2 47b (B 1523). 10 

36. labiru, SUN, old, AL^ 8915 (B 1515). 

37. la le'u, not strong, CT 11 34 702 12 (M ^^61). 

38. laqatu, TIL, snatch away, 4^ 12 rev 33 (B 1516). 

39. matu, die, 5 2516a; cf. 5 31 69a (B 1517). 

40. mitu, dead, 5 l642e (B 1518). 15 

41. mutu, death, 4^ 325a (B 1519). 

42. nabu(?) name, RH I03 19 (M Z66). 

43. namusisu ? 5 4l5ie (M 867). 

44. naqbu, IDIM, spring, the deep, 2 48186 (B 1520). 

45. naqaru, SUN, tear down, HWB 480 b (B 152I). 20 

46. i?niqru, MISSUN, destruction, 5 2629a (B 1522). 

47. nisu, BAD, remove, 2 20 34a (B 1525). 

48. i?nutabu, SUN, a woodeiz tool, 5 2627a (B 1526). 

49. siku ? CT 11 34 702 rev 9 (M ^S). 

50. sakku, enclosure {^) CT 11 34 702 rev 5 (M 869). 25 

51. sukkuku, deaf, CT 11 ,34 702 rev 6 (M 870). 

52. saklu, fool, CT 11 34 702 rev 5 (M 871). 

53. (r)sikeru sa me, dam of water, CT 11 43 775I6 (M 872). 

54. ySin(?.) god Sin, Str Dar 3 19 2 (M ^J-^), 

55. pu, straw, stubble ij) CT 11 34 7029 (M 874). 30 

56. pagru, corpse, 1 21 41 (B 1527). 

57. piznaqu, weak, weakling, CT 11 34 702 11 (M 875). 

58. pihu sa karpati, closing, of a pot, CT 11 34 7023 (M ^j6), 

59. paqadu, appoint, CT 16 5 iss (M %^^). 

60. pasahu, be appeased, 4^ 3030a (B 1528). 35 

61. pitu, BAD, open, S^ iv 22 (B 1529). 

62. siru, be high, AL^ 82 iii 29 (B 1530). 

6^. (?)qarasu sa buli(?) pinch off, of a buli instrument, CT 11 43 775 1 s 

64. qatu, TIL, hand, CT 11 3025b (B 1512). [(M %^Z\ 

65. segu, rave, howl, 2 626a; cf CT 11 34 702 rev 13 (B 1536). 40 

66. sagamu, (IDIM), rave, howl, 4^ 11 43a (B 1532). 



* MA 219 b, gil-z(s)ap-pu. 



Bi&t of 'i^to^xap^s^ ^y 

67. selu, IDIM, decider^) CT 11 34 702 rev 13 (M 881). 
6%. salamtu, corpse, 2 IQeib (B 1533). 

69. (?)tagsiru, IDIM, support {}) CT 11 34 702 rev 4 (M 882). 

70. turru, IDIM ? CT 11 34 702 rev 14 (M 883). 
5 71. tirtu, ? 2 2746c (B 1539). 

UKZ 108—120 holds that the sign has grown from -> to open] 
Sup No 11 shows that two signs have here blended into one; 
MSL 49 follows Delitzsch. It is clear from the table that two 
primitive signs have coincided and become confused. The Assyrian 

10 syllabaries recognize this by presenting two signs of ^^; ^ S^ 
V 23 — 25 with vi 67; also S^ i 64 with iv 22, 23; and S^ 160 with 
214 (AL^). Thureau - Dangin connects, probably rightly, BAD, 
TIL, US and their Semitic equivalents with — < and IDIM = kabtu, 
etc. with -<-. Probably in the primitive picture-writing this last 

15 represented both a sceptre and an instrument for boring, both 

of which it roughly resembled. As a sceptre, the ideas of setting, 

fixing, lord, lady, divinity, dejnon would be connected with it. As 

an extension of one or another of these ideas, it could naturally come 

to mean destroy, tear down, then roar, cry out, wicked, bad. As a 

20 boring instrument it would represent a boring tool, then open etc. 

The other primitive picture is not so easy to explain. Perhaps 
it is a rude representation of a branching vein or artery. It would 
then naturally mean artery, and blood. The importance of blood to 
life (cf. Deut 12 23 the blood is the life) suggested live, be] then by 

25 an extension, dwell. Perhaps by contrast, or possibly because of 
a blending of the idea oi opening with the thought of a vein, it came 
to signify die, dead, corpse, etc., then co7npletion, fulfilling, end, snatch 
away, etc. Probably hand was suggested by the sign because it is 
the instrument of snatching. Some of the meanings, as totality, fear, 

30 and rest, might have arisen as an extension of the meanings of either 
the sceptre or the artery. 

_ I 

No 70 a i>-< y-< 
I 

GURUN (CT 11 43 600 7). 

The sign is a simplification of No 265, which has the syllabic 
35 value GURIN, and which is a variant of No 266. 

No 71 >^ 

1. abnu, NA*, stone, CT 12 27 81-7-27 200 i7a (B 1582). 

2. amelu, NA, man, CT 12 27 ^1-7-27 20019a (M 894). 



*) For NA == dilary duct, cf. JR 2 234 n 13. 



38 (Ration, (gaBgfontan (JOrittn^ 

3. ana, unto, 4^ 332a (B 1587). 

4. annu//^/i-, 2 7 i4g (B 1583). 

5. elu, kig-k, 2 30 24g (B I584). 

6. u'a, NA, a/as, CT 11 38 770I 10 (M 893). 

7. zikaru, 7nan, 2 72c (B I586). 5 

8. la, NU, ;2(:?/, CT 12 27 81-7-27 200i8a (M 896). 

9. mahirtu, r2W/(?) CT 18 4631 (M 897). 

10. manzalu(?) NA, ? CT 11 2514a (M 898). 

11. samu, heaven, 2 SOisc (B 1585). 

12. -su, him, his, CT 12 27 81-7-27 200 i6a (B 1588). 10 

UKZ 124 ff., which MSL 249 repeats, explains the sign as com- 
pounded of No 419, earth, and >- one, meaning a definite fortified 
spot. Probably the sign represented in the upright writing a rude 
fortification. As a fortified place, the sign might easily come to 
stand for stone, high, and heaven. The pronominal, adverbial, and 15 
interjectional meanings attached themselves to the sign on account 
of syllabic identity. After it represented he, him, it was extended 
to mean man. 

No 72 m|^ 

1. birku(.?) penis or testicle"^, CT 14 44id & 21 vii 14 (M 919). 20 

2. nuru, light, AL^ 82 iv 9, 10 (B 1650). 

3. ^?samullu, a kind of tree or plant, 2 4549c (B 1651). 

4. ^^^?Samas, god Shamash, 5 4450c (B 1652). 



AS (CT 12 1821b). NURUM (CT 12 1823b). ' SIRUM (CT12 18 14b). 

SIR (CT 12 1 8 22 b). SIR [cf 1 9 1 with 5 1 85). 25 

OC explained the sign as a mirror (.^); 0GB, as a piece of 
polished white marble (.?). The meaning penis is not certain. Un- 
fortunately several meanings once given in the syllabary published 
in CT 12 1814 — 23b, which might have helped us are now lost The 
tablet is so broken that only the first syllable appears. The picto- 30 
graph may have represented something burning. 

No 73 ><\ 

1. zeru, seed, 4^ 12 rev 32 marg (B 1668). 

2. marmaru, grandson, HWB 390b (M 943). 

3. sanaqu, /r^i"i", oppress, 4^ 1557b (B 1666). 35 

4. rabu, be great, 4^ 1519b (B 1665). 

5. sumu, } KU 89 vi 64 (B 1667). 



Cf, Meissner SAG No 3424, and BDA 31 11 & 12. 



Biist of 'it>toc^v<ip?f0 39 

UKZ 112 — 114 holds that the sign is composed of two motifs, 
<( == depression, hollow , and -> = co7ni7ig forth, and means that which 
comes from the hollow of the earth. In this view MSL 212 concurs. 
Probably a mixture has occurred in the sign. B (p. 88 n) observes 
5 that the meanings be great and oppress are identical with meanings 
of the ideogram >^i>^. That ideogram has been confused with this 
by writing the two parts closely together. Zeru probably pictured 
a phallus, or a vessel of some kind emitting seed, [cf the Egyp- 
tian /'). Whatever the original picture was, it is now lost. 

10 No 74 ^^y 

1. sarqu, LUGUD, light-red blood, S^ iv 24; ^ 5 41 58e (B 169I). 
AL2 p. 52 n. 2, B 1691 n, and MSL 226, all agree that the sign 
is composed of ^^ = blood, and ^J = white. Possibly this is right, 
but in the absence of old forms we cannot be sure of it. 

15 No 75 ^<^ 

1. adamatu, ADAMA, dark-red blood, S^ iv 25 (B 1693). 

AL^ p. 52 n, B 1693 n, and MSL 18, all hold that the sign is 
composed of >K = blood, and <^ = black, or dark. Perhaps this 
is right, but in the absence of an early form it is not certain. 



20 No 76 

1. asu, go out, CT 17 41 3 (M 956). 

2. asabu, dwell, 4^ 520b (B 1696). 

3. emu, observe, examine, CT 16 20 96 (M 955)- 

4. i^igaru, wall, AL^ '^Z vi 29 (B 1699). 
25 5. balatu, Tl, TIL, live, S^ ii 42 (B 1697). 

6. basu(?) be, 2 4469a, but cf AV 8839 (M 957). 

7. dapanu sa narkabti, some part of a chariot, 2 2723a (B 1698). 

8. taradu(.?) drive away, CT 16 396 (M 958). 

9. kistu(.?)>r^i-/, CT 11 34 7028 (M 959). 

30 10. labaru, become old, CT 11 34 7026 (M 960). 

11. laqu, TI, TIL, take, S^ ii 4I (B 1700). 

12. maharu, receive, ASKT 5727 (B 1701). 

13. (?)nadu, i:\i>) throw down, CT 11 34 70213 (M 961). 

14. nahu, rest, 5 21 39e (B 1702). 

35 15. pisa ... } CT II 34 7027 (M 962). 

16. silu, TI, rib, side, S^ ii 40 (B 1704). 

17. rasu sa sibuti, grant, of a desire, CT 11 34 70210 (M 963). 



TIL (MS 2 102 ff.). 



4.0 (§axtc% Qg>(j6^fontan (^xitin^ 

EM 2 108 believed the primitive picture to be a serpent; UKZ II2 
and MSL 330 hold it to be a compound of No 406, opposite and No 70, 
/^ ^/^;2, i. e. to open what is opposite used of sexual intercourse^ hence 

to live, OC thinks the original picture a serpent (?), cf, Arabic pl!:i; 
BNA 12 405 compares the Chinese sign Ti =^ z^/;^^, supreme ruler, 5 
holding that that sign and ours had a common origin. The earliest form 
of the Chinese sign was, however, J^ (see Chalfant, op, cit, No 17^, 
which does not closely resemble the earliest form of ours. Delitzsch's 
explanation is too abstract to be probable. Oppert and HOMMEL 
think of the picture of a serpent. There is a theory that in early 10 
Semitic the serpent was used as a symbol of the sexual passion 
(^. Jastrow, AJSL 15 209). If this were so, the serpent might 
possibly suggest to live, and other kindred meanings, but the basis 
of this view is doubtful [cf, SO 93). The fact is the origin of this 
sign is involved in deep obscurity. The meanings fall into three 15 
groups, an objective group [beam, part of a chariot, rib), a group 
connected with the idea of living {dwell, live, be, beco^ne old, rest, 
and forest as a group of living things), and a group connected with 
the idea of movement, {go out, drive away, take, receive^ throw down, 
grant). I venture to suggest that our earliest form of the sign is a 20 
distorted picture of a tent, the pole having become greatly elongated. 
From the pole came the objective meanings, [beam having been first 
suggested, and the other meanings added by degrees through some 
law of association), the second group of meanings sprang from the 
tent itself, [live, dwell being naturally suggested by the picture), and 25 
the third group by the idea of striking the tent^ [go out, throw down, 
drive azvay, take, receive), being directly suggested, and grant by 
the law of association. 

No 77 ^ 

1. ^^^Patadaguru, BANDA, <^ sacrificial vessel, 5 4217c (B 1825). 30 

2. ahu, BAR, side, 2 3O4:0g (B 1728). 

3. ahu, BAR, strange, hostile, 2 30 4.2 g (B 1729). 

4. ahru, future, 2 30 32g (B 1732). 

5. ahraiu, faure, 2 30 33g (B 1733). 

6. ahuru, backside, westward, 2 30 34g (B 1734). 35 

7. ahatu, BAR, side, 2 30i7g (B 1730). 

8. ahitu, side, 2 3443g (B 1731). 

9. ahitu, hostile, TA 62 3 (M 979). 

10. amaru, MAS, see, AL^ 76 No lag (B 1735). 

11. amiru, be deaf CT 12 17 9303845b (M 981). 40 

12. arku, behind, after, ASKT 12855 (B 1736). 



JBt0t of '^Ho^va^^e ^\ 

13. arkatu, BAR, behind, after, 2 30 31 g (B 1737). 

14. asibu, MAS, dwell, CT 11 292a (B 1738). 

15. asaridu, MAS, first, AL^ 761a 2 (B 1739). 

16. a"^e^asipu(?) exorcist HWB 247 (M I083). 
5 17. ezzu, BAR, strong, RPi 92a 16 (M 975). 

18. ezebu sa . . ., leave, of , CT 12 17 9303820a (M 976). 

19. eztzu sa . . . ., ^^ strong, of . . . . , CT 12 17 9303821a (M 977). 

20. ellu, MAS, height, CT 11 293a (B 1750). 

21. elitu, BAR, height i^) 2 3012c (B I751). 

10 22. iiENGIRRA, god Nergal, AL^ 768b (B 1846). 

23. enitu, BAR, majesty, lordship, 2 30 44g, cf. AL^ 7711 (B 1752). 

24. epesu sa . . . ., make, of . . ., CT 12 \^ 9303817a (M 983). 

25. ibbu, MAS, /r^/2V, AL^ 761a 6 (B 1754). 

26. i?isqu(?) ? Cf. CT 4 18 ic with loc (M 982). 
15 27. isu, wood, CT 12 17 9303823b (M 984). 

28. itabruru, shining, CT 12 17 930384:6b (M 989). 

29. itiatu, BAR, side, enclosure, 2 30 39g (B 17SS). 

30. urigallu, elder brother, AL^ 7613b (B 1853). 

31. urugallu, elder brother, AL^ 7610b (B 1852). 
20 32. ussubu, BAR, sprout, AL^ 7734 (B 1813). 

33. ussuru, BAR, cut in two, sever, AL^ 7733 (B 18 14). 

34. utebubu, bright, AL^ 7614b (B 1854). 

35. utelulu, bright, AL^ 7715 (B 1855). 

36. bahu, BAR, at the side of{}) AL^ 77 n (B 1741). 
25 37. balu, BAK, frightenl^) AL^ 77 n (B 1742). 

'^'^. bulu, MAS, cattle, AL^ 761a 3 (B I749). 

39. ballurtu, bar, surrounding wall, fence, 7.K 10 I964 (M 992). 

40. beltu, '^KK, fright, terror, AL^ 77 n (B 1743). 

41. banu sa . ., light, of colors, CT 12 17 9303811a (M 993). 
30 42. baru, seer, CT 12 17 9303844b (M 994). 

43. biru, MAS, sight, K\J 761a 4 (B 1740 cf M 990). 

44. burmu, bar, a part of the eye, 4^ 21* 20b (B 1748). 

45. birkatu sa . ., ? CT 12 17 930388a (M 995). 

46. bararu, BAR, shine, be bright, AL^ 77 n (B 1744). 
35 47. -burru, brightness^) 2 2947g (B 174S). 

48. birratu, brightness {^) CT 12 17 9303848b (M 996). 

49. bitru, MAS, /^/, rich, AL^ 761a 1 (B 1746). 

50. bitramu, MAS, /^:i;(?) AL^ 761a 5 (B 1747). 

51. basu sa . . ., ^^, of , CT 12 I7 93038 loa (M 997). 

40 52. besu sa . ., become shameful, of . . . ., CT 12 17 9303819a (M 991). 

53. iiQibil, BAR, Gibil {the fire god) RH 643a (M 998). 

54. ganu, obtain, acquirei^) CT 12 17 9303822b (M 999). 

55. dagalu, see, CT 12 17 9303842b (M looi). 



42 (Ration, Q0^a6gfonian (^vitinc^ 

56. ^^^'dalatu(?) door-keeper i^) CT 12 17 9303847b (M 1002). 

57. zibtu, MAS; increase, AL^ 761a 11 (B 1816). 

58. zazu, divide, 3 5950c (M I003). 

59. zukku, ? CT 11 41 4146 rev 7 (M 1007). 

60. zumru, BAR, body, 2 20na (B 1817). 5 

61. zananu sa same, rain, of the heavens, CT 12 I7 9303824a (M I008). 

62. zaru, ^(^/^, ZA 6 241 9 (M I004). 

61, amei^^'iru, BAR, an adversary, CT 12 4824b (M 1005). 

64. ziru sa issuri(?) hostile, of birds, CT 12 I7 9303827a (M I006). 

65. hasasu, />^^';^/^, remember, 5 42 57a (B 1838). 10 

66. husabu, early dates[}) CT 12 17 9303821b (M I009). 
6y, huru(?) hole, caverni^) 2 30 46e (B I7S3). 

6S, hatapu sa . . ., cut downij) of . . . ., CT 12 17 9303812a (M loio). 

69. \:\t2Xt\i. flame, 2 30 49e (B 1810). 

70. kababu sa isati, burjiing, of fire, 2 346ic (B 1756). 15 

71. kabattu, liver, anger, 2 30 44e (B 1757). 

72. kidu, ? CT 12 17 9303320b (M 1011). 

73. kadadu, ? 2 30 32e (B 1758). 

74. kamu, BAR, seize, lead captive, 2 30 4ie (B 1759 cf M I012). 

75. kamatu, enclosure, 2 30 38g (B 1760). 20 
^6. kimtu, BAR, kindred, family, 2 30 45g (B 1763). 

yy, kiskirru, support, wages, CT 12 17 9303827b (M I0I3). 

78. kisittu, BAR, fodder {^) 2 30 46g (B 1764). 

79. karpatijupputtu, BANDA BANDIS, a sacrificial vessel, 5 42i5c&392ic 

80. kaparu, destroy, rithi, 2 3O30e (B 1761). [(B 1826). 25 

81. kissu sa sitri, ?, of writing, 2 48266 (B I765). 

82. kissu sa musare, ?, of a document 2 48266 (B 1839). 

83. kasadu, capture, 2 30 3ie (B 1762). 

84. la, BAR, not, CT 17 35 46 (M I0I4). 

85. la assisu, not troubledi^) CT 19 486a (M I015). 30 

86. i?la kakku(?) wood, not a weaponi^) CT 16 46162 (M I019). 
Z7, la magiru, disobedient, CT 19 484a (M I016). 

^'^, la sanaqu, not to oppress, CT 19 485a (M I017). 

89. lahu, ? AL3 766 b (B 1840). 

90. liqittu, MAS, increase, harvest, AL^ 761a 8 (B 1766). . 35 

91. la semu, not obedient, CT 19 483a (M 1018). 

92. mazu sa eqli, MAS, portion, of field, CT 11 295 (B 1772). 

93. mahazu, BAR(?) a cityij) 2 30 39e (B 1767). 

94. mullilu, brilliant, KU 765 b (B 1845). 

95. massu biti, a high priestly office, KU 7611b (B 184I), 40 

96. misru, boundary, territory, CT 12 162b (M 102 1). 

97. maru, MAS, /^/, AL^ 761a 4 (B 1768). 

98. mirinu, ? 2 30 33e (B 1769). 



BxBt of 'i^io^xa^^cf 43 

99. merisu, decision, wisdom, CT 12 1 7 93038 17b (M I022). 

100. meristu, decision, commandi^) CT 12 I7 9303818b (M I023). 

101. masu, MAS, a section, CT 11 293a (B 1842). 

102. masu sa eqli, MAS, section, of a field, CT 12 16 ib (M I020). 
5 103. masu, MAS, be bright, KU^ yGi^i 9 (B 1843). 

104. massu sa . ., shining; of , CT 12 17 9303816a (M 1024). 

105. maslu, midst, CT 16 45 153 (M 1025). 

106. meslu, MAS, half, CT 12 163b (M 1026). 

107. meslanu, ? CT 12 1654b (M I027). 

10 108. masmasu, conjurer, 2 32ioe (B 1844). 

109. masmassu, conjurer, CT 16 3910 (M I084). 

110. masaru, BAR, lead, send, 4^ 1633a (M 1774). 

111. muttabrirru, ? CT 17 152 (M I085). 

112. nidi ahi, overthrow of a brother, CT 12 1628b; AL^ 7612b 

15 ^ [(M 1086, B 1848). 

113. q^^nadbu, ? CT 12 17 9303828 a (M 1029). 

114. natalu, look, see, CT 12 17 9303841b (M 1030). 

115. nitlu, look, CT 12 17 9303840b (M 1031). 

116. namaru, be bright, KSf 5992 (B 177S). 

20 117. namirtu, brightness, CT 12 17 9303838b (M I033). 

118. iiNINIB, MAS, god Emuashtu, CT 11 291a (B 1778). 

119. nisu, BAR, remove, 2 30 47g (B 1779). 

120. nussu, BAR, separation, 2 30 48g (B 1780). 

121. naplusu, j^z^^r, grace, CT 12 17 9303843b (M 1034). 
25 122. nasaqu, injury, 2 30 42e (B 1776). 

123. naprusu, part, portion, CT 12 1693043 rev3 with2 30 38e (M1035). 

124. nuru, light, fire, CT 12 17 9303836b (M I028), 

125. nataru, } 2 3O40e (B 1777). 

126. salu sa. . ., ? CT 12 17 930383a (M 1037). 

30 127. suppu sa . ., petition, prayer, of...., CT 12 17 9303S7a (M I039). 

128. sapahu sa . ., destroy, CT 12 17 9303813a (M 1040). 

129. karpatgi^tu, BANDA, a sacrlficlal vessel, 5 4215c (B 1827). 

130. sutu, a small vessel, CT 12 17 9303826b (M 1036). 

131. pagru, corpse, 2 30 46e (M 1043). 
35 132. pudu, side, 2 30 48e (B 1792). 

133. pudu sa ameli, side, of men, CT 19 431b (M I04I). 

134. padanu, road, RT, 27 12I 26 (M 1044). 

135. pahahu, .? 2 30 35e (B 1783). 

136. palahu,/^^r, CT 12 16 9304310 (M 1045). 
40 137. palaku, divide, 2 30 36e (B 1784). 

138. pasasu, smash, 5 4256a (B 1790). 

139. paru, } 2 30 43e (B 1782). 

140. paru sa..., } CT 12 17 930385a (M 1042). 



44 Q^arton, (S^^l^^^^^i^^ (JDriting 

I4I. ^^parzillu, BAR, iron, 1 I4 66 (B 1789). 

I42.'parahu sa . . . , ger^ninate, of . . . ., GT 12 17 930386a (M 1047)- 

143. puruhhu sa sikari, germination^ of plants, CY 12 1 7 9303823a 

144. parasu, separate, 2 28 65e (B 1785). [(M I048). 

145. pararu, break, kill, 2 6217c (B 1849). 5 

146. parasu, separate[}) 2 30 37e (B 1786). 

147. parussu, decision, CT 12 17 9303828b (M 1051). 

148. piristu, BAR, decision, 5 52 62a (B 1788). 

149. pirittu(?) ^KK, fear, oppression, RH 9772 (M 1052). 

150. pitu, BAR, open, 2 394a (B I79I). 10 

151. sabru, understanding, 2 30 47g (B 1796). 

152. sibtu, yi AS, produce, increase, CT 12 l6i8b (M 105^. 

153. sabitu, yiAS, produce, increase, CT 11 294a (B 1797). 

154. ^vndxx, yoke, 2 2g50g (B 1799). 

155. sipru sa issuri(?) claw, of a bird, CT 12 17 9303826a (M I057). ^S 

156. seru, high, lofty, CT 12 17 9303819b (M 1054). 

157. satu, BAR, remote past or futtire, 2 30 36g (B '179S). 

158. setu, exit, CT 12 I7 9303837b (M loSS). 

159. salapu, offend, sin-against, 2 30 29e (B 1798). 

160. qalalu, be light, small, CT 12 16 930432 (M 1058). 20 

161. qulultu(?) a sin, CT 12 16 930433 (M 1059). 

162. qunsillu, ? CT 12 17 9303829b (M 1060). 

163. riqatu, BAR, distanceij) 5 21 ic (B 1793). 

164. risasim, ? 5 21 ic (B 1794). 

165. sadadu(?) be wide, large, 2 6245a (B l8bo). , '25 

166. iiSIDLAMTAUDDUA,^^^ Nergal, AL^ 769b (M 1847). 

167. sahatu, side{?). 2 30 34e (B 1801). 

168. samsu, sun, AV 7959 (B 1802). - 

169. sunnu, one half, 5 1233d (B 1804). 

170. supalku, ? CT 12 17 9303835b (M 1062). 30 

171. sapitu(?) ? 5 1313a (B 1850). 

172. siru, BAR, morning, ASKT 13 143 (B 1803). 

173. surruhu ia sikari, become strong [of plants), CT 12 17 9303822a 

174. sutqu(?) renowned, CT 12 17 9303839b (M 1064). [(M I063). , 

175. tu'amu, twin, AL^ 767b (B 1851). 35 

176. tuganu, ? 5 4l47e (B 1812). 

177. takaltu, trust, 5 1652c (B 1805). 

178. takapu(?) overpower^) CT 11 4I 4I46 rev 8 (M 1066). 

179. tallu, MAS, twin, AL^ 761a 11 (B 1806). 

180. ti'iltu, BAR, dwellingi:) AL^ 77 n (B 1809). 40 

181. tu'amu, MAS, twins, AL^ 761a 10 (B 1811). 

182. tenu, BAR, ? 2 304ig (B 1808). 

183. tappu, BAR, companio7t, 2 3O40g (B 1807). 



^Ut of "i^to^vap^^ 4^ 

184. qa^taritu, a kind of reed, CT 12 17 9303829a (M 1067). 

185. tismittu, decision, CT 12 17 9303821b (M I065). 

UKZ 103; 141 & 1^3 ff recognizes two originals, \_ = i-?^^, 
A<3:^ and + = cutting === asaridu. MSL 53 repeats Delitzsch. Res. 
5 Nos. 29, 432, 481 and 492 recognizes that three originally distinct signs 
blended in this one, but makes no attempt to identify them with 
pictures. From the table of signs it is clear that four originally 
different characters have been blended in ^X"- First there was 77 a, 
which pictured a crook, (^. SCWA 412). This was afterward blended 

10 with 77b which indicated the idea of side, from which the meanings, 
kindredj (those at one's side), wall, (the side of a city), hostile, (those 
on the either side), and all the variations of hostile were derived, such 
as sin, frighten, fear] also, past and future (that which is on the back 
or front side). This sign represented the syllable BAR. 

15 A third primitive sign {yy) is more difficult to explain. In its 

earliest occurrence it means leader. Perhaps the perpendicular line 
represented a man and the horizontal a spear carried by him. This 
would easily represent a primitive leader or prince — a meaning 
which would naturally be extended to 7'ich, fat, bright, increase, wide, 

20 twin, rich, sprout, germinate, etc. The idea of bright would easily 

extend to fire, sun, etc. Possibly here belong the ideas of dwell, 

dwellings and rain — which might be connected with the ideas of 

fatness, increase. The suggestion of the spear carried by the leader 

would also give rise to the idea oi cutting, cutting down, destroying, 

25 These two signs maintained their identity in writing down to the 

time of Hammurapi, and sporadically even later, {cf, TC No 270). 

The forms so nearly coincided, however, that much mixture occurred. 

No 77 c was probably the picture of a sacrificial vessel across 

which a line was run to indicate that its contents were to be divided. 

30 This came to stand for part, portion, half, separate, divide, etc. From 
the last two meanings it naturally passed over to stand for decisions, 
commands. The meanings thus derived early mingled with those from 
the other forms, causing the bewildering multitude of meanings for 
which the one sign now stands. 

35 No 78 >f M ^ 

1. Idiqlat or Diqlat, IDIGNA, river Tigris, AL^ 7732 (B 1878). 

2. za'ibu, IDIGNA, flowing, CT 12 10 isb (M 1096). 

3. kamkammatu, DALLA, a metal object, a ring, CT 12 1648b (M I097). 

4. mamlu, DALLA, a monster, strong, CT 12 1644b (M 1098). 
40 5. maqaqu, DALLA, to fill up, wall in, CT 12 1645b (M 1099). 

6. muqququ, DALLA, enclosure i^) CT 12 1646b (M lloo). 



4-6 ' (§Ax(on, Qg^ae^fontan (^vitino^ 

7. nagu, IDIGNA, a district, CT 12 loisb (M lloi). 

8. nadbaku, IDIGNA, slope, mountain side, CT 12 lOisb (M 1102). 

9. rapasu, DALLA, be wide, large, CT 12 lOisb (M II03). 
10. supu; DALLA, bright, S^ vi 1% (B 1883). 

The sign was probably originally a statue of the god of the 5 
river Tigris, [cf. the ^^Naru of Hammurapi's Laws, passim, e. g. v 39). 
The river naturally suggested flowing, brightness , slope, enclosure, 
wide, strong, etc. Perhaps it was from the idea of enclosure that \i 
was thou^t to suggest a ring or some similar metal object. From 
idea of enclosure it was also extended to mean district. 10 

No 79 ^ 

1. ai, not, RH 50 27 30 (M II4I). 

2. (.?)amelu, man, CT 19 44 442617a (M II42). 

3. balu, not to be, 4^ 14 No 3 ii (B I961). 

4. zikaru, m^;^, 2 71c (B 1964). j^ 
5*. la, ;^^/, ASKT 5941 (B I962). 

6. salmu, image, 1 23 135 (B I963). 

7. siru, T^f^/^, 2 923c (B 1969). 

NU (MSI 342). LA (2 47 8c). 

The original picture apparently portrayed a bent bow. This 20 
suggested 7tot being and not. Bows were used by males; it accord- 
ingly suggested man. Flesh and image were extensions of this 
meaning. 

No 80 >TA 

1. urisu, a kid, 4^ 2624b (B 2030). 25 

2. biru, /^;;^^, young child, 4^ 22 No 2 8 (B 2025). 

3. bulu, ^^i^z'/^, 5 4248a (B 2026). 

4. lalu, young, offspring, HWB 377 a (B 2027). 

5. nib'u, sprout offspring, 2 ll73e (B 2028). 

6. sibtu, gazelle, 2 ll74e (B 2029). 30 



BIR (AV Syl ^Z). MAS (Res No 32). 

UKZ 160 explains the sign as composed of No TJ ^== gazelle, plus 
No 353 == mass] MSL 59 agrees with UKZ; OCS 235, as the picture 
of a young bird in process of being hatched from an ^gg. This is 
suppofted by analogy with Nos. 83, 84, 85, 88, and 89. The solution 35 
proposed in OCS seems to me the most probable. In our earliest 
known form the picture is conventionalized. 



Bi0i of "itfio^tdp^s 47 



No 81 

1. bulu, caU/e, 3 59 sab (B 2032). 

2. bul seri, caU/e of the field, 5 4249a (B 2033). 

Res No 31 explains the sign correctly as composed of No 80 
5 + No 211. 

No 82 

1. zibbatu, tail, 4^ 11 45a (B 2038). 

2. i?rapastu, a wide couch, CRT 2 11 10 (M II85). 

GUN (MS2 51). KUN (MS2 117). 

10 OC correctly explains the sign as the picture of a tail. In the 

oldest occurrence of the sign known to me it stands for tail in the 
sentence "one skin of a sheep's tail". How it came to designate a 
large couch, I am unable to explain. 

No 83 ^ 

15 1. amelu, man, 5 4410c (B 2050). 

2. ^Enlil, god Enlil, 5 4445c (B 2051). 

3. eseru sa issuri, PAG MUSEN, trap or cage, of a bird, 5 29 ese (B 2052). 

4. issuru, HU, bird, 5 51 76b & S^ i lo— 13 (B 2053). 

EM 2 108 explained the primitive image as a bird; H 464, as 
20 a bird; OC, as the picture of a bird; OCS 234, 251, as a picture of 
a bird; MSL 179, as probably descriptive of a bird in flight; 
LB A 3 11; as a picture of a bird; ML p. 23 and LSG 21, as a picture 
of a bird. The sign forms demonstrate that Oppert was right; the 
primitive picture was a bird. It came to stand for man, through 
25 the mythological bird-man, figured on Bab. seals, cf CSM p. 49 and 
No 'j'^. Prince (1. c.) suggests that it was in consequence of the 
resemblance of the dialectical word MUTIN = amelu with MUSEN. 
Perhaps it stood for Enlil because of the association of some bird 
with the god. The other meanings are obvious. 



30 



1. 



No 84 >M^ 

(?)ilu, god, CT 12 S9b (M 1198). 

2. (?)isu, wood, tree CT 12 5 sb (M I200). 

3. (?)iiknlil(?) god Enlil, CT 12 S^b (M I20l). 

4. (?)beltu, lady, CT 12 Sib (M I202). 

35 S. (?)huai??"^^ a hua bird, CT 12 57b (M 1205). 

6. hinnu, part of a ship, CT 12 5 21b (M I206). , 

7. (^?)kalu, keep back, restrain, CT 12 S 23b (M 1208). 



48 ®ar(on, (gafigfoman Q^titin^ 

8. (?)kalbu, do£; CT 12 S isb (M 1209). 

9. (?)karabu, ^/^j-j-; CT 12 519b (M 1210). 

10. (?)kasasU; de strong, powerful, CT 12 S 24b (M 12II). \ 

11. kissatu, totality, CT 12 S 5b & RH 117 sb (M 1212). , 

12. (?)m, strength, CT 12 5 isb (M 1213). 5 

13. (?)re'£i, shepherd, CT 12 510b (M 1214). 

14. rakabu, ride, CT 12 518b & RH 3820 (M 1215). 

15. (?)rikbu, a wagon, or messenger, CT 12 525b (M I216). 

16. (?)sagammu, ? CT 12 S 22b (M 1219). 

17. (f)sadu, be high, RH 841 (M i22o). 10 

18. saqu, be high, CI 12 520b (M 1221). 

The sign is clearly composed of No 82, a bird, plus No I27, the 
crescent moon. Probably the two were associated in consequence 
of some idea that each represented a favorable omen. For the moon 
as an omen, see TA 82ff For„a bird as an omen cf, JR 401. Most 15 
of the meanings are connected with the ideas of exaltation or strength, 
which such a conjunction of omens probably indicated. 

No 85 

1. ana, with, APR 4615 (M 1232). 

2. annu, NAM,\yi;^, 2 7i5g; CT 11 30 17 (B 2094). 20 

3. arnu, si7t, 5 ^31 46c (B 2095). 

4. hadu(.?) NAM, joy, CT 11 3019 a (B 2096). 

5. \i.Qk\x{^) is^Kyi, darkness, CT 11 30 is (B 2097). 

6. la, NAM, not, CT 11 3016a (B 2098). 

7. nabu, speak, 5 1940c (B 2139). 25 
'^. "^Sh-oXM, pronince, district, CT 11 3015a (B 2099). 

9, "^xrxktxx, flight, 5 2968e (B 2100). 

10. sinuntu, swallow, hU ^j i 39 (B 2101). 

11. sahalu, SIM, call, in. medicine, percolate, 5 1939c (B 2102). 

12. simtu, NAM, fate, CT 11 3014a (B 2103). 30 

H 464 ff. regarded the sign as a picture of a bird with extended 
wings dropping seed; Ward, PAOS, 1885, p Iviiff, as a picture of 
a bird; HOMMEL, Sum Les p6 No 6y, as a swallow; OC, a 
bird; BNA 13 378, as a bird at re^t; OBP 35 n 4, as a goose or 
water bird; Barton, JAOS 22 121, as a swallow; LBA 311, as, a 35 
bird. The sign was evidently the picture of a water bird of some 
sort, which was used in augury. From the bird itself the sign easily 
denoted flight. From its use in augury, fate, and indeed all the 
other meanings were easily derived, partly from the prohibitions and 
partly from the joy .that an omen might give. BBH 16 ff. thinka it 40 
was the muttering or chattering of the bird which connected it with 



&ht of 3e)^c$rd|?§0 49 

divination. He recalls as a szvallow or a crane so did I chatter 

(Isa. 38 9). 

No 86 >^M^ or >^]^^ 

1. aribu, raven, CT 11 322 (B 2229). 

5 2. eribu, raven, ASKT 71 i I4 (B 2230). 

3. eribu, raven, 2 5 4c (B 2266). 

4. issuru, bird, CT 11 322 (B 2232). 

5. issuru, bird, ASKT 72 i 3I (B 2267). 

6. dimetu, some kind of bird, CT 11 323 (B 223 1). 

10 H 466 explained the sign as compounded of No 85 + No 347. 

The original of the sign was either an early picture of a raven, or 
an offshoot of No 85. When this is recognized the origin of all the 
meanings is easily understood. 

No 87 ^y^ 

15 1. asabu, GAL, dwell, CT 11 2943a (B 2237). 

2. basu, GAL, MAL, be, CT 11 305a (B 2238). 

3. ^sdaltu, door, 2 152a (B 2239). 

4. kanu, GAL, be firm, established, CT 11 303a (B 2240). 

5. kasasu(.?^) be massive, strong, RH 775 (M 1264). 
20 6. labanu, GAL, throw down, CT 11 306a (B 224I). 

7. malu, Q^KL, fill, CT 11 2942a (B 2242). 

8. ^?mihir zamari, beginning of a song, 2 2951c (B 2243). 

9. nadu, throw, throw down, CT 16 1 4 (M I266). 
10. nasaru, guard, CT 11 304a (M 1267). 

25 11. naru, GAL, kill, destroy, AL^ 6948 (B 2244). 

12. mMx, GAL, lift up, 2 2718a (B 2245). 

13. pas^ (= basu), be, AL^ 134 S 61 19 (M 1268). 

14. pasahu, GAL, rest or refresh onesself CT 11 2944a (B 2247). 

15. pitu, GAL, open, CT 11 302a (B 2248). 
30 16. sabaru, seize, snatch, 2 20 45a (B 225 1). 

17. situ, exit or what goes out, 2 922c (B 2252). 

18. russunu, GAL, dignified {^) beatctifuliT) CT 11 2941 (B 2250). 

19. ^?sigaru(.?) bolt, lock, CT 16 2427b (M 1269). 

20. sakanu, GAL, set, CT 11 301a (B 2253). 

35 21. sarahu, GAL, be warlike, powerful, 4^ 20 No 1 26 (B 2254). 



IG (MSI 316). 

EM 2 108 explained the sign as a columnar lintel; UKZ 142, 
as motif for opeiting + motif for covering or fillings MSL 1 1 5, repeats 
Delitzsch; OC, as door-valve and hinge; OCS 237 & 252, as an 

Beitrage Ass.: Barton II^ 4 



50 (§axton, (gaBgfoman (^viiin^ 

Oriental door with its post and socket. The explanation given in 
HM is correct The meanings as well as the picture are best 
explained from that origin. Door, dwell, rest oneself, be establishedy 
protect, open, exit, set, be powerful, fill, bolt ox lock, are directly 
derived from the picture. From be powerful came the ideas, take 5 
possession of, throw down. Door would naturally stand for the 
beginning of anything, like the beginning of a song. 



No 88 

1. adaru, /^(^r, be angry, AL^ 8422 (B 2272). 

2. aladu, MUD, bear, CT 11 308a (B 2273). 10 

3. emuqu(?) MUD, be strong, CT 12 5 28b (M 1292). 

4. ikbu* MUD, clitorisi^) AL^ 6955 (B 2278). 

5. uppu, MUD, enclosure, wombij) CT 11 3010a (B 2280). 

6. banu sa aladi, MUD, bear, of children, CT 11 307a (B 2274). 

7. bisru, MUD, some 'sexual word, CT 11 3012a (B 2275). 15 

8. galatu, MUD, be frightened, CT 12 5 33b (M I294). 

9. gilittu, m5Vi,fear, CT 12 S 34b (M 1295). 

10. damu, MUD, kin, family, CT 11 309a (B 2276). 

11. da'mu, MUD, kin, family {i) 2 3946e (B 2277). 

12. nambu(.?^)t MUD, ? CT 11 3011a (M 1297). 20 

13. paradu, MUD, be impetuous, strong, CT 11 3013a (B 2279). 

14. pirittu, MUD, fright, terror, CT 12 5 36b (M 1300). 

OC holds the picture to represent a bird sitting on an ^gg\ 
MSL 242, explains.it as No 83 = bird + No 353 -^^ good. No wonder 
Prince remarks: "I cannot explain the sign in this connection"; 25 
OCS 235 & 252, as a bird and an ^gg\ LBA 31 1, as a bird sitting 
on an ^'gg. All the meanings are clearly derived from a bird and 
an ^gg, i. e. a nesting bird. All the sexual meanings are readily 
suggested by it, as well as the terror, impetuosity and strength of a 
birxi in anxiety for and defense of its nest. 30 

No 89 ^<^^ 

1. nabu, SA, speak, 2 739g (B 2290). 

2. iiNabu, god Nabu, 2 5474g (B 2291). 

HOMMEL, PSBA 20 291 ff, explains the sign as a couch with a 
bird on it; cf, Egyptian couch with horns. The sign was evidently 35 
a bird and a couch or bed, [cf below No 386), but how this asso- 
ciation of pictures suggested the meanings is not clear. Possibly 

* CT II 30 11 a reads nam-bu. f AL^ 69 55 reads ik-bu. 



Miet of "i^to^xap^s 51 

they were symbols ..of the god Nabu, and from the form of his name 
were employed to express the kindred verb, speak. 

No 90 >TT^ 

1. i?adaru, a vessel, KL,'^ 8417 (B 2296). 

2. ildaqqu(?) ILDAK, a sprouti>) CT 12 18 ^ob (M I307). 

3. gasasu, cleave, AV 8282 (B 2298). 

4. kasamu(?) to cut, grind, KM Taf xiii I9 [cf. pp.44, 45 and 66) (M I308). 

5. mahasu, shatter, CT 12 4227a (M I315). 

6. ka'^patmasallu, ^ mirror[}) 5 4219a (B 2297). 

7. ratu, SITA, water holder or conduit, S^ v 14 (B 2295). 

8. qasaru, zusu(?) bind, d 12 1839b (M 1310). 



RAD (MS 2 246). SUD (AV 8282). 

UKZ 160 holds the sign to be composed of 1 1 = \ y, water ,2.vA 
t>^, penetrate. The origin proposed by Delitzsch is too complex. 
15 It is more probable that the sign is simply a small section from the 
little water channels which may be seen in every Oriental garden. 
All the meanings except mirror (and this is an uncertain meaning) 
are directly derivable from such a picture. 

No 91 >TT^ 

20 1. abaru, be strong, AL^ jZ No 3 10 (B 2304). 

2. ahazu, take, 4^ 2219a (B 2305). 

3. esu sa , ? of . . ., AV 2937 (B 2346). 

4. idu, lamadu, know, learn, ASKT 58 \\\ 89 (B 2310). 

5. imnu, ZID, right hand, ASKT I3043 (B 2312). 
25 6. ittu, with, CT 11 25 isa (M 1319). 

7. basu, ^^, 5 2l20g (B 2306). 

8. butu, entrance or debt, ASKT 9056; cf, 91 56 (B 2307). 

9. diku, move, rise, MJ 78 No 3 7 (B 2308). 

10. a^^idiku(?) an official, Str. Nbk 16412; cfi I209 (M 1348). 
30 11. habu, } KU 78 No 3 9 (B 2309). 

12. hursu, mountain forest, 2 32 66g (B 2347). 

13. tehu, approach, RH 154 No 4745 (M I323). 

14. kanu, be firm, NU 78 No 3 4 (M I324). 

15. kenu, ZID; be firm, established, 4^ 239b (B 2313). 
35 16. kittu, ZID, fir 7n, faithful, 4^ 23 No 3 3 (B 23 14). 

17. karu, do or make splendid things, 5 21 iig (B 23 1 5). 

18. liqu(.?) take, JD No 469 rev 5 (M I326). 

19. magaru, be favorable, 5 21 i9g (B 2317). 

4* 



52 (§av(on, (g>a6gfoman (^titin^ 

20. mam (?)///, CT 19 68a (M 1328). 

21. ne'u(?) iturn, repulse, CT 16 2854 (M I330). 

22. nadu(?) throw down, RH 10827 (M I331). 

23. nadru, angry, MJ 78 No 3 s (B 2318). 

24. nazazu, stand, 5 5051a (B 2327). 5 

25. nalbubu, enraged, angry, PsU 78 No 312 (B 2319). 

26. namaru, shine, be bright, 5 12 38c (B 2320). 

27. napahu, kindle, enflame, 5 1239c (B 232 1). 

28. napistu, life, 2 1921a (B 2322). 

29. nasahu, wrench away, 2 ll52g (B 2323). 10 

30. nasu, lift up, MJ 78 No 3 11 (B 2325). 

31. nisu, raising up, 4^ l*6ic' (B 2326). 

32. nitu, ? 5 l633g (B 2328). 

33. sabu', be seven fold [}) be satisjiedi^) CT 16 2412 (M I335). 

34. sinbu, a kind of clothing, 2 3414a (B 2331). 15 

35. ^Bxikqa, press, close the mouth, 5 41 65a (B 2332). 

36. pilu, ? K\J 83 67a (B 2329). 

IJ, sabaru, snatch away, HWB 559 (M I336). 

38. resu(?) be first [}) RH 19 10 12 (M 1337). 

39. rabu(?) be great, RH 3811 (M I338). 20 

40. qasu(?) give, 4^ 1738a (B 2316). 

41. sahahu, sa..., oppress,oi.,.., CTI72519; AV4227 (M I350, B 2348). 

42. semu, hear, 5 21 i8g (B 2334). 

43. supsuhu, be appeased, CT 17 loes (M I351). 

44. saqu, be high, AL^ 78 No -^^ (B 2iii\ 25 

45. tebu, come, approach, ASKT 7735 (B 2335). 

46. tibutu, coming, RH 30 s (M I340). 

47. tarasu, stretch, extend, CT 19 6 10 a (M I342). 



zi (MSI 287). SI (2 32i4g). 

UKZ 131ft explains it as possibly a tree planted by water, but 30 

better, two motifs, > \- <(({ ; OCS 236, 254, as a plant or tree growing 

by water, Delitzsch correctly explained the origin of the sign, 
though his motif- theory led him to doubt it. A plant or tree growing 
by water would readily suggest life, strength, take, be, rise, be 
established, firm, do well, give, be favorable, stand, be bright, pull up, 35 
lift up, raise up, be high, be great, move out, etc. An extension of 
firmness through faithfulness led to the idea of right hand — that 
being the lucky side. An extension of the idea of living led to the 
meanings learn, know, cry, etc. The idea of brightness was extended 
to enflaTfie and anger. 40 



Bhi of 'iUo^vap^e 53 



No 92 



1. ^?abu, a hollow reed, DW 26; cf, ST K 286725 (M I372). 

2. ardatu, a servant maid, RH 858 (M 1383). 

3. edesu, uddusu, be new, CT 12 29 rev 3 ff. (M I374). 
5 4, ekemu, i-^V^^, capture, CT 12 29 rev 6a (M 1377). 

5. (?)ekepu(?) draw near, oppress, RH II526 (M I378). 

6. esiru, enclosed, 2 48396 (B 2389). 

7. u'uru ^a terti, ?, 0/ a command, CT 12 29 rev 9a (M I370), 

8. uhhuru sa serti, ?, of sin, CT 12 29 rev 13 a (M 1376). 
10 9. babalu(?) carry, bring, CT 12 29 rev 31b (M 13 88). 

10. biblu, produce, 2 3933e (B 2387). 

11. gimru, all, totality, 4^ 1944a (B 2Z'^Z\ 

12. duru, wall, RT 27 121 i 7 (M 1393). 

13. zikaru; man, 2 77c (B 2407). 

15 14. kanu, be firm, RH 96 is (B 2390). 

15. kenu, om, firm, faithful, ASKT 5923 (B 239I). 

16. kullatu(?) totality, CT 12 29 rev 22b (M I396). 

17. kamussatu(?) } CT 12 29 obv 22 a (M I397). 

18. kapasu, ? 2 3942e (B 2393). 

20 19. kisdatu(r) ? CT 12 29 obv 13a (M I398). 

20. lamadu sa ussi, learn or discover, of a foundation, CT 12 29 rev 5 a 

21. maharu, be before, 5 29 eg (B 2395). [(M I400). 

22. malu, be full, 5 29 7g (B 2396). 

23. malaku sa milki, consult, CT 12 29 rev 2 a (M I402). 
25 24. mursu, sickness, RH 80 24 (M 1403). 

25. matu, country, 2 3910c (B 2394). 

26. ne*u, turn, repulse, 4^ 23 No 23 (M I404). 

27. saharu, turn, CT 12 29 rev loa (M 1407). 

28. sekeru, dam up, CT 12 29 rev Ha (M I408). 
30 29. sanaqu, GIN, oppress, 5 4148 a (B 2399), 

30. pagugu, } KSf 7109 (B 2438). 

31. pihiu(.?^) close, lock, RH 6012b (M I4II). 

32. sabatu, seize, ASKT 181 xii (B 2397). 

33. sahru, small, 2 4821a (B 2398). 
35 34- qanu, a reed, 4^ 639b (B 2392). 

35. rakasu, bind, CT 12 29 obv 12a (M I4I7). 

36. riksu(?) bond, CT 12 29 rev 35b (M I418). 

37. sibtu, staff, 42 2427a (M I421). 

38. sadaru, entrust command, 4^ 617c (B 2400). 

40 39- suharruru, be narrow, be in trouble, RH 41 1 (M I423). 

40. sakamu, be intelligent, CT 12 29 rev 7 a (M I424). 

41. sakanu; set, place, CT 12 29 rev 8a (M I425). 



54 (§ avion, 00 aB^ionian (^vitin^ 

42. sakaru, de drunJk, 4-^ 1336b (B 240I). 

43. salamu, suUumu, de wko/e, entire, TA No 25 rev 2; RH 887b 

44. sumsu sa musi, ?, of night, CT 12 29 rev 12 a (M 1428). [(M 1427). 

45. simtu, fate, 2 7 12a (B 2402). 

46. sanu; double or repeat, 5 29 5g (B 2403). 5 

47. saparu, i-^/^^s?; 5 29 sg (B 2404). 

48. suttatu, hole, trap, CT 12 29 obv 11 a (M I430). 

49. taru, turn, 2 3942c (B 2405). 

50. taqanU; arrange, 5 29 4g (B 2406). 

51. taraku, beat, strike, TA No 25 rev 1 (M I432). 10 

H 493 thought the picture a gigantic reed; UKZ I26K, a com- 
pound of two motifs >-- + »»; OQ a reed; OCS 236, 254, a reed. 
The picture clearly represented a reed. The rapidity with which 
reeds grow, their hollow character, their various uses for binding, 
writing, etc. [cf HLC, Ft 16 and AJSL 27 322 ff.), would suggest 15 
all the meanings here given. As a stylus the reed suggested in- 
telligence, learn, and then man. Its bending and use for binding 
suggested repeat, bind, seize, dam up and all such meanings. 

No' 93 

1. abalu, bring, 4^ 2539a (M 1694, B 2555). 20 

2. alalu, rejoice or be bright, 4^ 22i3b (B 2556). 

3. alatu(.?) } 42 3022a (M 1714). 

4. eru* be strong, 4^ 1349a (B 2558). 

5. eru sa hXVCi, poison, of the teeth, 5 l638g (B 2557). 

6. eru sa ini, poison, of the eye, 5 1931c (B 2589). 25 

7. iilstar, goddess Ishtar, Str Nab 661 e; cf TN 246 (B 2561). 

8. ullu, old, distant, RH 10162 (M 1695). 

9. uUulu, rejoice, CT 17 3961 (M 1696). 

10. zaqu, ^r^<^/^ loose, to sto7-m, 4^ 29* 4b rev 8 (B 25 81). 

11. ziqqu, storm, wind, 4^ 535a (B 2582). 30 

12. i?habtu(?) some wooden object, AL^ %j ii 57 (M 1698). 

13. hasasu, think, 4^ 11 19b (B 2559), 

14. hatanu, protect, 5 4442c (B 2560). 

15. la*bu(?) oppress, 2 45 2ig (M 1699). 

16. laqu, take, 2 95Bc (B 2562). 35 

17. mahasu, break, shatter, RH No 753 (M 1701). 

18. i?mihir ameli, the front of a man, 2 2962c (B 2563). 

19. maqatu, /^//, 4^ 30 No 2 8 (M 1715). 

20. nabatu, Dl, shine, 2 4822c (B 2564). 



* Langdon, Babyloniaca 3 154, reads aru, to bring. 40 



;Et0t of 'ii^to^xap^s 55 

21. nadu, ES, t&row down, 2 4823c (B 2565). 

22. nararutu, ke/p, 5 2120c (B 2566). 
2^. nisu, remove, 2 2036a (B 2567). 

24. nasaku sa . . ., place, appoint, of , ,, 2 39i2g (B 2568). 
5 25. nipistu, DAL, structure, work, ZA 9 16221 (M 1705). 

26. saparu, surround with a net, 5 5049a (B 2574). 

27. parasu sa rihuti; divide, of a remainder, 2 28 69e (B 2570). 

28. parasu, j^, 4'^ 41b (B 2571). 

29. senu, sheep, 5 21 58g (B 2575). 

10 '^o, re'u, shepherd, feed, 5 21 59g (B 2572). 

31. rab^(?) great, CT 16 42 is; 4344 (M 1718). 

32. rihu(?) rest, CT 16 6239 (M 1707). 

33. rahasu sa . . . ., inundate, wash, of .... , 2 39i3g (B- 2591). 

34. ramu, love, 2 2617 a. (B 2573). 

15 35. sibtu(?) dwelling, CT 19 4817a (M 1708). 
36. salalu, spoil, 5 20 12 & isa (B 2576). 
-^j, suquru, costly, ZA 9 161 35 (M 1719). 

38. saruru, SA, brilliant, 2 48 24c (B 2577). 

39. sutatu, a pit{^) 4^ 2436a (B 2578). 

20 40. ^^^P^^tallu, a kind of vessel, 2 22i3d (B 2579). 

41. taru(?) turn, 2 96ic (M 1710). 

42. tarasu, ? 2 96ic (B 2580). 



RI (S^ i 14). 

BBH 13 explains it as a bird sign like No 83, but with two 

25 strokes across it; UKZ 1 76 ff., as No 358 reversed to indicate a 

change of wind; OCS 237, 256, as a net held by two hands. I still 

believe that the original represented a net held by two hands. 

Nearly all the meanings, such as bring, poison, be strong, rejoice, 

oppress, take, break, throw down, remove, divide, break Joose, 

30 (of which storm, wind were special applications), fy, surromid 

with a net, spoil, turn, were directly suggested. Rejoice, protect,. 

shine, help, structure or work, shepherd or feed, rest, dwelling, and 

brilliant were suggested by the game which the net secured and the 

uses to which it could be put. Ishtar and love came in by mixture 

35 with No 116 the form of which, in one period of the writing, closely 

resembled this sign. 

No 94 >M 

1. (?)iiAnu, god Anu, CT 12 18 9304 1 s (M 1724), 

2. iiEa, god Ea,lz^ 25e (B 2625). 

40 3. (?)ibru(?) friend, CT 12 18 9304112- (M 1723). 
4. (?)"Be], god Bel, CT 12 18 93041 9 (M 1725). 



56 (gavton, (gafi^fotttan (SOtitin^ 

5. (?)belu, lord, CT 12 18 9304I 13 (M 1726). 

6. madu, mucA, 5 l648d (B 2633). 

7. nunu, NUN, /i-/^ (JK 343 a weapon), 2 726g (B 2627). 

8. (?)iiSin, ^^^ 6'/;^, CT 12 18 9304I 11 (M 1728). 

9. qalapu, /^(3:/; //>^^ an onion, 4^ 746 a (B 2626). 

10. qitrudu(?) strong-, brave, CT 18 474a (M 1732). 

11. rabu, great, S^ ii e^^ (B 2628). 

12. xxHoh, prince, 5 1343a (B 2629). 

13. suhhutu, to make afraid, 4^ 12 rev 23 (M 1732). 

14. sarratu, queen, BA 5 6427 (M 1729). 

15. (?)tappu(?) companion, CT 12 18 9304 1 7 (M 1730). 



ZIL (AV 6763). 

Sayce and H 479 explain the sign as a sceptre which a prince 
carried; JK 343, as a weapon; UKZ 97 ff. 161 ff., as composed of. a 
motif for man plus the gunu signs; OCS 235 & 252, as a diagram of a 15 
fish. The earliest form of the sign indicates that it represented a 
fish pictured flat-wise. This signified fish, then Ea, the fish god of 
Eridu {cf, SO 196), then as the gods were identified with one another 
it came to stand sometimes for Anu, Bel, and Sin, From these it 
passed naturally to mean great, much, prince, queen, also brave, 20 
fear-inspiring (or make timid). Peal was probably derived from 
skinning a fish. 

No 95 ^Wn 

1. besu, caveij) 5 l8ioa (B 2665). 

2. basmu, serpent, 4^ 2614a (B 2666). 25 

3. tarbasu, TUR, court-yard, fold, S^ \\ 67 (B 2664). 

UKZ 91 ff. explains the sign as composed of a motif for* enclo- 
sure, plus a motif (i. e. No. 94) for great. The original pictograph 
probably represented a cave which had a long narrow entrance. 
Such caves are often still used for sheepfolds in the East. Serpent 30 
probably come into the meanings through a mixture of the early 
form with that of 328. 

No 96 ^Wf^ 
1. littu, wild cow, offspring, childb earing, 5 51 55b; RH I916 (B 2673, 

M 1750) 35 

SILAM (S^ ii 6Z\ 

MSL 316 explains the sign as ^^\f\ == great + <|T = palace, 
+ ^ = woman. The sign is apparently the same as No 95 with 
the sign for female inserted within it. 



Bisi of 3^eb0ira|?§0 57 



No 97 ^YYYCY^ 

1. apluhtu, AKAR, SIRIAM, /ear, honor , erroneous for aplutu, sonshipy 

S^ iii 1 (B 2676, M 1751). 
Clearly a doubling of No 96. 



5 No 98 

1. agargaru, AGARGARA, swarm of fish, S^ ii 55; CT 11 4928 (B 2678, 

M 1757). 

MSL 24 explains it as composed of ^JIJ = many + YT'^ ^=-fish. 
Our data come from a late period, but apparently justify Prince's 
10 explanation. 

No 99 >TIl 

1. kadapu, ? CT 19 36, S 620 (M 1758). 

2. kamaru, strike down, overthrow, RH loo 15 17 (M 1759). 

3. kitparu, destruction, RH 15 12 (M 1763). 

15 4. samu, heaven, CT 19 20 Rm 343 13 (M 1760). 
5. sumelu, GABA, left hand, left, S^ v 6 (B 2684), 

GUBA (S^ V 6). HUP (LTP p. 106). KAB (S^ vi I9). 

OCS 233, 245 and LSG 20 explain the sign as a picture of the 

left hand and arm. Two originally different pictures have been 

20 blended, but they both represented the left shoulder, arm and hand. 

AH the meanings, except heaven, are easily explained from this picture. 

It is not known why this meaning was attached to the sign. 

No 100 >TK 

1. dahu, oppress, humble, RH 31 54 (M 1769). 
25 2. hatu, TUN, overthrow, S^ v 6 (B 2697). 

3. kamaru, strike down, RH I3I 54 (M 1770). 

4. tahtu, defeat, ruin, BA 5 64215 (M 1768). 



HUB (2 2719 c). 

LTP p 106 explains the sign as compounded of No 99, plus 
30 No 337. Probably the sign is simply a variant of the preceding. 

No 101 ^ 
1. kit6, garment, clothing, 2 44 7g; 5 51 46b (B 2704, M 1771) 

GAD (CT 11 31 38b). GUM (MS2 114). KID (ZA 1 I82), 

Probably the sign originally represented a loin cloth. 



58 (§axion, (g>a6gfontdn (^vitin^ 

. No 102 ^ 
1, gallabu, KINDA, one who flogs, CT.11 2526b (B 2707). 
Origin unknown. 

No 103 >^^^T 

1. ikkillu, AKKIL, lamentation, wailing, CT 11 2524b (B 27 lo). 5 

2. killu, AKKIL, lamentation, wailing, 2 l6 6ia (B 2709). 

3. sisitu, AKKIL, cry, CT 11 361b (M 1774). 

4. tanuqatu, howling, CT 11 362b (M 177S). 

The sign is apparently composed of No loi, a loincloth, plus 
No 6Z, a cage, plus No I27, the moon's crescent Why it should 10 
denote lamentation is not now clear. 

No 104 >X.^^^ 

. 1. imtu, DUBBIN, a lancet, CT 11 3141a (B 2715). 

2. ubanu, DUBBIN, a sharp point, CT 11 3141a (B 2719). 

3. kakkabu, a star, Cfl CT 18 493b with CT 19 335b (M 1777). 15 

4. i?kirissu, some instrument, MSW 7 K 41728 (M 1778). 

5. masaru, DUBBIN, cut, CT 11 31 39b (B 2716). 

6. sumbu, DUBBIN, y&^^^r, sharp point, CT 11 3140b (B 2719). 

7. supru, DUBBIN, nail mark, CT 11 3I 40b (B 2718). 

The original picture probably represented some kind of a cutting 20 
instrument. All the meanings, point in that direction, though the 
original picture is now hopelessly lost. 



No 105 ' 

1. urru, SIZ, dig, CT 11 25 22b (B 2731). 

2. kakkabu, star, Cj, CT 18 494b with CT 19 336b (M 179I). 25 

Probably the sign is a variant of the preceding picture. 

No 106 >I^^^^ 

1. binu, SINIG, a tamarisk tree, CT 11 25 25b (B 2733). 

2. binu nahru, some plant i^) MSW 26 81-7-27 562 (M 1792). 

3. i?gumalu, a kind of tree, 2 23 i7c (B 2734). 30 

4. i?kipualu, a kind of tree, 2 2318c (B 2735). 

Probably the sign originally represented some kind of a tree 
or plant. 



^isi of 3beo$ta|)§5 55 



No 107 

1. umatu, DIM, arit(}) 5 11 36b (B 2742). 

2. balasu, ? CT 12 1228b (M 1794). 

3. dimmu, column, 2 730c (B 2ys^), 

5 4. dimtu(?) pi//ar, CT 12 1232b (M 1795). 

5. harasu, hold fast, 5 4258a (B 2739). 

6. mirditu(?) ? ZA 10 1981 (M 1797). 

7. marhasu, a kind of stone ^) GT 12 1226b (M 1798). 

8. markasu, DIM, a bolt or ^^r, AL^ 88 vi 32 & CT 12 12 25b (B 2740). 
10 9. pihu(?) close, lock, CT 12 1227b (M 1801). 

10. qisru(??) possession^) CT 12 1231b (M 1802). 

11. riksu, DIM, bond, S^ iii 30; CT 12 1230b (B 2741). 

12. (?)setu, wall, ZA 10 I984 (M ,1804). 

13. timmu(r) cohmtni^) CT 12 12 24b (M 1805). 

15 EM 2 111 explained the sign as 2. picture of water', UKZ 69 ff. 

as composed of No 3 plus No 227 and meaning bind firmly, MSL "jj 
agrees with Delitzsch. The original picture probably represented 
a column so shaped that it was of greater diameter in some parts 
than in others. All the meanings are readily suggested by this. 

20 No 108 "2^ 

1. (?)hapu, a kind of pot (^) CT 12 4227 (M 1874). 

2. tabtu, MUNU, good, S^ iii 3 32 (B 2765). 
■ 3. sabe, MUN, soldiers, 1 21 71 (B 2766). 

The original picture probably represented a jar pointed at the 
25 bottom, {cf DE Morgan's illustrations in RT 27 237 ff.). The perpen- 
dicular lines originally represented the contents of the jar. No 369 
is a variant of this sign. 



No 109 

1. pulukku, PULUK, circle, district, RH 80 s; S^ iii 35 (B 2769, M 1817). 
30 2. hisbu sa santi, cutting, of precious stones, AV 5557 (B 2770). 

The origin is unknown. 

No 110 >^ 

1. akalu, eat, ASKT II96 (M 1821). 

2. epesu, AG, Kl, NA, ME, do or make, CT 12 I0 34aff; S^ v 25 (M 1822, 
35 3. epesu ^a biti, build, of a house, 5 43 44c (B 2779). [(B 277%). 

4. eteru(?) cover, protect, CT 16 IS 43b (M 1827). 

5. banu, create, build, 5 43 40d (B 2775). 



6o, (§ avion, Qg'aBgfotttan (JOrttin^ 

6. belu, lord, 5 1350a (B 2776). 

7. gulibtu(?) ? ASKT 8662 (B 2777). 

8. habalu; injure, ruin, CT 17 2719 (M 1828). 

9. hasisu, ME, intelligence y 5 4342 c (B 2780). 

10. hasisatU; perception, wisdom, 5 43 42d (B 2781). 5 

11. huppu sa qane, breaking, of reeds, 2 2757g (B 2797). 

12. hasasu, SA, break, crush, CT 12 10 33a; 4^ 35a (B 2782). 

13. hussusu, ^K, fracture, CT 12 1033a (M 1823). 

14. liqtu(?) gripi grasp, ASKT 863 (B 2783). 

15. maharu, receive, 5 4341c (B 2784). 10 
,16. nabu, NA, speak, 5 43 4id; CT 12 10 34a (B 2785, M 1824). 

17. iiNabu, god Nabu, 2 740g (B 2'jZe), 

18. TisXijii^) fitting, suitable, 2 62 64a (B 2788). 

19. napasu(?) be wide, HWB 475 b (M 1825). 

20. pit uzni, opening the ears, 5 4343 c (B 2789). 15 

21. qiqittu(?) manipulation [magical), HWB 327 a (M 1831). 

22. ramu, throw down, 4^ 12 rev IS (M 1826). 

23. rapaqu, protect, ASKT 72 ii 4 (B 2791). 

24. rapsa uzni, enlarging of the ears, 5 4343 d (B 2790). 

25. rasu, rejoice, shout, 2 40 29g (B 2792). 20 

BNA 13 484 explains the sign as probably a rude picture of 
two hands grasping a tool; OC, as the picture of a tool. The origin 
is obscure, but HOMMEL's explanation is probable. A tool would 
suggest all the forms of making including speech, through which the 
sign came to stand for the god Nabu. From the same idea came 25 
also the meanings indicating intelligence, protection, and rejoicing. 
The same tool might naturally suggest the idea of breaking and 
destruction. 

No 111 >^ 

1. QikgOigVi, fight, resistance, CT.18 3428bp^. CT 18 4657b (M 1834). 30 

2. tahazu, ME, battle, S^* v 26 (B 2804). 

UKZ 54 ff. explains the sign as composed of No llo plus No 347; 
OC, as the picture of a sesame press. The origin is obscure. I 
suspect that the original picture represented a phalanx of soldiers 
like the representation of the army of Eanatum on the Stele of 35 
Vultures. 

No 112 ^ 

1. adi, EN, unto, together with, 2 197 a (B 2809). 

2. elu, high, 2 30i9g (B 2812). 

3. enu, (en), lord, 2 7i8g (B 2813). 40 



Bht of "ittoc^vAp^s 5x 

4. belu, (en, ENE), lord, 5 1349a (B 28 lo). 

5. sabsu, ? 5 2O40g (B 2814). 

6. sikanu, EN, creation^ fabric ation^ 5 279a (B 2817), 

7. samu, ENU, heaven, 2 50 21c (B 2815). 
5 8. sarru, EN, king, 5 3017a (B 2816). 

UKZ 162 ff. explained the sign as a compound of No 94, great 
and No 481, great; BBH 12, as the picture of the high-backed throne 
of the moon-god; OC, as the picture of a throne; LSG 20, 267, as 
the picture of a hand holding a sceptre. The explanations of Ball 

10 and HOMMEL are archaeologically impossible. A chair with a back 
of this elaborate sort was unknown in the earlier periods. Two 
different pictures have apparently been blended into one in the sign. 
One of these was a hand holding a sceptre [cf. No 616, pi. I44), the 
other, found in one of the earliest known inscriptions, apparently 

15 represented a boat with sails. In so early an inscription it can hardly 
be the distorted picture of a hand and sceptre. These pictures 
afforded the meanings, lord, king, high, from which the other meanings 
were naturally derived. 



No 113 ^6 

20 1. iiAdda, god Adda, PSBA 11 174^33 (M 1868), 

2. iiEa, god Ea, ^^ 2545a (B 2948). 

3. malku(?) king, CT 12 3417 a (M 1867). 

4. saqu, high, RH 20 is (M 1869). [B 2947). 

5. turahu, DARA, ibex or antelope, CT 17 I29; 2540; S^ vi 42 (M 1870, 

25 HOMMEL, Sum. Les, 8, 91, explained it as expanded from No 112 

doubled. The original picture probably represented the head and 
neck of an ibex. Thureau-Dangin, (ZA 18 133, n l), calls attention 
to the fact that Ea is represented by the head of an antelope or 
goat. See the picture of the head of an ibex among symbols of 

30 the gods in Del 1 168, and BE Series D 4 17, 30, 33, 34, 35, 45 and 73. 
Cf. also the picture of a goat's head, No 496 below. Being the symbol 
of one god the sign through a mixture of meanings came to stand for 
others, then easily indicated high and king. 

No 114 ^ 

35 1. ^^Adda sa zuni, god Adda of the rain, 3 6750 (B 2982). 

2. ederu or eteru, receive, ZA 1 I9911 8 & 4 (B 2963). 

3. enisu, decay, 4^ 29 No 37 (B 2965). 

4. esequ(?) divide, BA 5 64611 (M 1890). 

5. eru (?) stroke, smear, KM 81 is (M 1873). 

40 6. ^^"^urbatu, name of a plant, 2 24216. (B 2994). 



62 (gavtcn, Q0a6gfontan (SOtitin^ 

7. basamu, duild, beautify ^ 2 2752a (B 2962). 

8. zamaru, i-^V^^, 2 202a (B 2995). 

9. zananu, ram, 3 6749d (M 1875). 

10, zaru, kate, CT 17 25 24 (M 1874). 

11. habsu, ? AL^ 783b (B 2966). 5 
, 12. hasabu, be full, AL^ 786b (B 2767). 

13. tamu, spin, weave, ASKT 9055 & 58 (M 1877). 

14. kannu(?) vessel, receptacle for water, AL^ 789a (B 2968). 

15. kananu, lie, crouch, MJ 785b (B 2969). 

16. kapalu, ? MJ 784b (B 2970). 10 

17. kapiru; an officer, KSf 4I49 (B 2971). 

18. mazu, SUR, mixed, of wine, 4^ 2635b (B 2973). 

19. mazuru, SUR, a kind of vessel, 5 266a (B 2974). 

20. masaru, to cut, define, limit, 5 4249 c (B 2975). 

21. masahu sa . . ., measure, of . . ., AL^ 785b (B 2972). 15 

22. nadu, SUR, throw down, ASKT 82 is (B 2977). 

23. nadbaku, a slope, incline, AL^ 782b (B 2976). 

, 24. nazarbubu, furious, CT 11 33 K 7761 7 (M 1881). 

25. nasahu sa amuti, wrench away, of}, 2 6230a (B 2978). 

26. nasaUulu(?) ? AL^ 784b (B 2980). 20 

27. nataru, ? AL^ 781b (B 2981). 

28. sahatu, SUR, ? ASKT 9055 58 (B 2984). 

29. sukku, a dam, a river bank, AL^ 788b (B 2985), 

30. sarahu, be excited, rage, 2 20i6a (B 2986). 

31. suppuru, SUR, a cry^) 2 20 8 c (B 2988). 25 

32. sararu, SUR, vex, be hostile, 4^ 1623a (B 2987). 

33. sarru, hostility, CT 11 33 K 7761 1 (M 1883). 

34. ridu, ? AL3 787b (B 2983). 

35. salalu, spoil, CT 16 920b (M 1895). 

16, supilu, be low, RH 397 (M 1885). 30 

37. suqammumu, stand upright, raise ones self, AL^ 783 b (B 2990). 
Z^. sum, a bullock, AL^ 787b (B 2991). 

39. sarasu(?) sa.. ., ? MVAG 1905 256 (M 1886). 

40. tubqu(?) } BD 141-4 (M 1887). 

41. tugaru, } 5 l673g (B 2993), 35 

42. tamu, SUR, speak, swear, 4^ 828b (B 2992). 

MSL 301 thinks the sign composed of No 532 plus No 1. The 
original picture represented a bowl [cf No 532) with a ladle or spoon 
in it The meanings vessel, mixing, measuring, make, build, would 
all naturally be expressed by this. As Semites were boisterously 40 
vociferous at a feast, it would naturally signify sing, cry] from these 
it could pass to signify speak, and Adda, the thunderer. As cry may 



&i&i of 'i^to^vap^^ 6j 

either be one of joy or pain, this led to the meanings, oppressiotiy 
oppresSy veXy rage, throw down, take away, etc. The shape of the 
bowl suggested slope. 

5 1. ahulap, how long, ASKT 115 rev 5 (B 301 4). 

2. i^Istar sa Uruk, Ishtar of Erech, (B 3023). 

3. ussu(^) foundation, 4^ 27 u^. (B s^2o), 

4. buim, ? 5 13 33c (B 3016). 

5. bullu sa napisti, ?, of life, CT 18 4935b (M I900). 

10 6. zimu, MUS, splendor, outward appearance, 2 2614a; CT 12 11 sib 

(B 3021, M 1901). 

7. kannu(?) sa buri, water -receptacle, of a well, CT 19 35; S 89615 

(M 1902). 

8. i^Ninib saRamkute, TISPAK, Enmashtu of Ramkuti, 2 57 35c (B 3022). 
15 9. matu, MUS, die, 2 39i5c; CT 12 11 31b (B 3017, M 1903). 

10. nasahu, SUH, wrench away, oppress, CT 12 1132b (M 1904). 

11. nasaqu, praise, 5 6251a (B 30I9). 

12. nasqu, magnificent, pre ciotts, RH 10975 (M I905). 

13. naparku, submit, 5 Hub (B 3018). 

20 14. ramku, SUSSIR, /r2:>^/ or one cleansed CT 12 11 33b (M I906). 

15. iiSusinak, god Susinak, CT 12 11 35b (M 1907), 

16. turru(?) ? RH 92 bed (M 1908). 

SUH (CT 12 11 32b). §UD (AV 5411). suz (AV 8414). 

SUSINAK (CT 12 11 35 b). 

25 UKZ 63 and 71 ff. regards the sign as a Gunu of No II6. The 

origin is obscure. The inadequacy of the gunu theory renders 
Delitzsch's explanation impossible. The earliest form known is 
not from a primitive period. It suggests the possibility that the 
sign was composed of No II6 combined with No 48 1. The meaning 

30 Susinak, however, suggests a different origin, viz: — that the sign 
was a shorter way of writing the name of Susa (Susinak), which 
had frequently to be written iii the period from which our earliest 
form comes, [cf HLC 2 p. 12). In that case the sign arose from a 
fusion of No 486 with No 116. This origin seems most probable. 

35 On any theory it is not easy to account for all the ideographic 
meanings of the sign, but the suggestion here offered affords as easy 
a path as any. 

No 116 ^T 

1. iilnnina(?) m^, goddess Ininna{}) CT 12 11 25b (M I920). [(M I921). 
40 2. i^Istar, ENNIN, NIN, ISTAR, ZANAS, goddess Ishtar, CT 12 ll26bff. 



64 (Ration, Q0a6gfoman (^xitin^ 

3. zimu, MUS, appearance J face J CT 12 llsob (M I922). 

4. matu, MIM, die, CT 12 11 32, 38181 rev 7 (M I923). 

HOMMEL, Expository Times, 1900, p. I90, thinks the sign the 
picture of a post on which hangs the skin of an animal; OBG, as 
developed from a post surmounted by a star. An early symbol of 5 
Ishtar and Shamash was a post surmounted by a sun-disc or star 
(see CSM, No 22, and p. 37, and SCWA, Nos 223, 244, 257, 270, 
274, 283). It thus became the symbol for the goddess Ishtar. As 
the goddess was conceived as of splendid form, the sign passes to 
dQsigm.tQfor7njfeatureSj or appearajice. From the destructive functions 10 
of the goddess (cf, KB VI, 168 — 161), it came to designate die. 

Noliea^IfT 

1. kussu, SE, cold, CT 12 11 36b (M 1926). 

2. nahu, SE, rest, CT 12 11 36b (M I927). 

3. pasahu, SE, pacify , CT 12 11 37b (M I928). 15 

Probably a shortened form of No II7. 

No 117 ^T?<T^T 

1. halpu, HALBA, snoWy CT 12 Ilia, 4^ jgiia (M I929, B 3061). 

2. harbasu, SID, terrible storm, CT 12 11 39b (M I930). 

3. kasu, cold, BA 5 6405 (M 193 1). 20 

4. kussu, SID, cold, CT 12 11 38b (M I932). 

5. nahu, SID, rest, CT 12 11 38b (M I923). 

6. nihtU; rest, AWK S9i3b (M I934). [(M I935). 

7. pasahu, SID, SED, pacify, soften, 2 2616c; CT 12 11 39b (B 3062, 

8. suribu, AMAM, ASUGI, snowstorm, shower, CT 12 11 2a (M I936). 25 

9. surbu, snowstorm, shower, CT 19 4I972 (B 3064). 
10. surubbu, hail{>) 4^ 15* 37b (B 3065). 

In the absence of early forms it is, perhaps, hazardous to speculate 
as to origin, but the sign seems to be made up of No II6 + No 52I 
+ No 415, — a combination which would mean the goddess Ishtar 30 
pours down water. Since rain fell in Babylonia m. the cold season, 
cold and snow would in time, by natural processes of thought, be 
associated with the sign. 

No 118 i>fff 

1. akasu, hasten, CT 17 31 5 (M I954). 35 

2. atru* over-full, wide, lordly, 5 21 i5e (B 3071). 

3. \rv\\M, fetter, curse, ZA 1 179 n 2 (B 3075). 



Cf. MSL, 279. 



^iei of 'i^eo^vap^sf 65 

4. uqu, people, 5 21 ise (B 3084). 

5. bitu, housey 5 21 i2e (B 3072). 

6. buanu, a sinew, ASKT 8219 (B 3073). . 

7. damu; ^/^^^, 5 41 56e (B 3074). 

5 8. [kannii] sa pirti, ^ vessel, of:, CT 12 4637a; CT 12 SOisa (M 1938). 
9. kurnu; sa, sesame winei^) S^ iii S3 (B 3077). 

10. kasu, ? 4'^ 165b (B 3076). 

11. labanu, overthrow, 2 27116 (B 3079). 

12. markasu, a rope, cord, 4^ 1654a (B 3080). 
10 13. maqlu, burning, CT 19 1 25 (M 1955). 

14. rriasadu, overthrow, 2 48446 (B 3081). 

15. mussudu, overthrow, 2 48456 (B 3097). 

16. qallalu, qalqallu, ? CT 19 1 25; MSW 25, K %6je^ (M 1956). 

17. riksu, a bond, fetter, 2 48 28g (B 3082). 
15 18. i§setu, a net, a trap, 5 2662c (B 3083). 



SA (S^ iii 70). 

EM 2 111 explained the sign as an outstretched hand; UKZ l65ff., 
as the picture of a net; OC, as a net. The sign was clearly the 
picture of a net. Most of the meanings such as bond, fetter, sinew, 

20 rope, cord, overthrozv are derived directly from the picture. Blood 
is an extension of the meaning sinew. House comes from an early 
mixture of the sign with No 269, and people is- an extension of it. 
If wine is one of the meanings it was an extension of the meaning 
vessel, which was itself an extension of net, MSL 279 thinks we 

25 should read qarna instead of karna. This would g\YQ the idea of 
heaping up, kindred to over-full, . wide — ideas connected with the 
results of using the net. 

No 119 >flfT 
1. aban ka . . ., stones . . ., CT 18 3624b (M 2008). 
30 2. aban suluppi, date-stones, 5 1956a (B 3I86). 

3. eqlu, GKNK, field, AL^ 51 sa (B 3177). 

4. ittanpuhu, glow, 5 4247 c (B 31.88). 

5. ginu, omA, field, AL^ 517a (B 3176). 

6. ^^leihabbilu, an officer, 4^ 29 No 2 1 (M 2010). 

35 7- tapalu, KAR, besmear, suspect, AL^ 6510b (B 3183). 

8. kakkabu, MULU . . . GUNU, star, BA 5 642 25 & CT 18 496 (M 20II). 

9. karru(.?) } 5 2622c (B 3178). 

10. miristu, watered land, 5 5248b (B 31/9). 

11. nabatu sa umi, be bright, of day, 2 4836c (B 3187). 

40 12. napahu sa . . ,,. inflame, ^. . ., CT 19 40; Rtn ii 4142 (M 2017). 

Beitrage Ass : Barton II. 5 



66 -(garden, (g'aBgfontan (H^n'^tn^ 

13. nasu; KQK^KTh^t, produce^ 2 2646c (B 3180). 

14. nitu sa lame, an enclosure which surrounds y 5 1921c (B 3181). 

15. padanu, GAGUNU, way, 2 6233a (B 3182). 

EM 2 117 explained tlie sign as an enclosure; UKZ ISgfif., as 
a network of canals; OCS 236 & 255,. as irrigating ditches. One may 5 
still see irrigating ditches marked off thus in various parts of the 
East. I have seen them at Damascus and Birsaba. All the meanings 
connected with land and produce were directly suggested by these. 
The growth of vegetation with its promise of comfort to man suggested 
the meaning be bright, which, by an extension, became star. The 10 
mud of an irrigated field suggested besmear. 



No 120 >^ 

1. ahu sa ameli, GU, brother, of a man, CT 12 loib (M 2023). 

2. ahu sa nari, GU, side, of a river, CT 12 102b (M 2023). 

3. amelu, man, AL^ 8o2ff. (B 3208). 15 

4. asaridu, GU, leader, prince, CT 12 losb (M 2028). 

5. emuqu, GU, be strong, deep, CT 12 I0 4b (M 2025). 

6. ersitu, GU, land, CT 12 10 5b (M 202"]). 

7. igaru, a wall, 2 2754c (B 32II). 

8. idu, hand, side, 4^ 2814a (B 3212). 20 

9. ikmu, ? 2 3613a (B 3213). 

10. ilu, highi:^:) ZK 2 68 8 (B 3214). 

11. biltu, GU, GUN, tribute, CT 12 10 ib (M 2029). 

12. bitu, house, 5 4152 a (B 3209). 

13. bitramu, } 2 4410a (B 3250). 25 

14. daltu, door, 5 41 54a (B 3210). 

15. hasalu sa . . . ., crush, of , , ,, 5 1836c (B 325 1). 

16. (.?) huslu, crushing, CT 19 39, K 9888 rev 9 (M 2053). 

17. kasadu, neck, 4^ 346a (B 3215). 

18. mihistu, ^'^1 fight ^) wounding, 2 365c (B 3218), 30 

19. mohrM, front, before, 2 36666 (B 32 1 7). 

20. ismakutu, } 5 2657c (M 2031). 

21. matu, GU, land, 2 39i3c; cf RH 10412 (B 3216). 

22. nalbasu, a garment, 2 47340 (B 3219). 

23. napharu, assembly, totality, 4^ 23 i5b (B 3220). 35 

24. bel sa naphari, lord of all, 2 549a (B 3221). 

25. sikku, sikkatu, //;?^^, /^^, 5 1932a (B 3224). 

26. pahru, collection, totality, 4^ 305b (B 3222). 

27. resu, head, 4^ 2715a (B 3223). 

28. resu, resan, QV, first, CT 12 lO40a (M 2034). 40 



Biet of 'i^to^vap^e 6^ 

29. summa(?) if, CT 19 1413b (M 2035). 

30. sisitu, caU, cry, 4^ 305b (B 3225). 

TIB (S^ V 46). TIG (MS2 280). 

UKZ 177ff. explains the sign as originating' in a motif for direc- 
5 tion, plus a motif for wood; OCS 233, 244, as a rude outline of a 
head and neck in reversed position. I did not see when my former 
explanation was written that like 123, the sign is the picture of a 
jar. Its contents represented totality, sum, then head, then man, 
front, prince, call, etc.; through the meaning man, that of brother, 
lo side, wall', through the meaning neck (an extension of head) came, 
perhaps, the meanings /^^, be strong', through ^<?;2^ possibly came the 
meaning fight. The contents of the jar suggested the meaning 
tribute, which was extended by metonymy to land. House and door 
were probably suggested by mixture with No 147. 



15 No 121 >Hi 

1. banxi(?) kakkabe, USAN, make stars, CT 12 1012b (M 2104). 

2. lilatu, USAN, night, CT 12 lOiib (M 2105). 

3. re'u, MUNSUB, shepherd, WM 2T^. vi 7 (M 2106). 

4. simitan, USAN, twilight, CT 12 lOiib (M 2107). 
20 5. i^simetan, god of twilight, 5 3923e (B 112"]), 



MUSUB (S^ vi 33). 

UKZ 74 explains the jsign as composed of No I20, plus No 94. 
The known forms are, however, late, and the origin is quite unknown. 



No 122 



■>?- 



25 1. abunnatu, DUR, .?^ CT 12 10 9b (M 2108). 

2. ezimtu, DUR, lamentation i^) CT 12 loiob (M 2109). 

3. iiBel, god Bel, 2 544a (B 3331). 

4. kullatu, DUR, totality, CT 12 lOiob (M 21 lo). 

5. kaluma, J^\JR, young child or lamb, CT 12 lOsb (M 21 11). 
30 6. napharu, DUR, totality, CT 12 10 8b (M 2II2). 

7. riksu, DUR, bond, CT 12 10 7b (M 2113). 

8. turru, DUR, turning, benti^) CT 12 10 7 b (M 21 14). 

OCS 238 explains the pictograph as a jar with a pointed bottom. 

The form of the sign in early writing points to the picture of a jar. 

35 As a container it might suggest totality, bond, and from the use of 

liquids in religious services, Bel, and lamentation. From the latter 

meaning it might suggest a young or crying child. The form points 

5* 



68 (§ avion, (g>d6gfonmn (^vitin^ 

to this origin, but the meanings, while possible on this supposition, 
do not flow from the form as naturally as in many cases. 



No 123 ,^^ 

1. biltu, GUN, tridute, 2 38 ue; cf. S^ vi 34 (B 3835). - 

UKZ 123 n holds that the sign is composed of No 120, plus 5 
No 268; OCS 2S3 & 245, that it is a head and neck surmounted by ' 
a burden. The early form of the sign now known renders Delitzsch's 
explanation impossible. My own former explanation was, I believe, 
also wrong. Like No 120 this sign belongs in the series of jar 
pictures. It represented a pointed-bottomed jar sitting in a jar- 10 
supporter, and was a suitable ideogram for tribute, since such jars 
were used for the storage of grain and other valuable articles. 

No 124 

1. dispu, LAL, koney, S^ ii 39 (B 3339). 

2. tabu, o-ood, ASKT 8436 (B 3340). ' 15 

3. inittu(?) Ji^, 2 4S76e; cf. ZDMG 58 853 (M 2118). 

Barton, JAOS 23 24 n 6, explained the sign as a flying bee, 
or a bee entering a hive; OCS 238 & 257, as a picture of a jar. The 
sign is clearly the picture of a jar used for the storage of food of 
various kinds. 20 

No 125 ^T 

1. (?)ahiu(?) KUKKU, br other i^) companion Q) 5 23124; CT If 36 I30OU 

(M 2122). 

2. daspu, KUKKU, a sweet drink, 4 21 6b rev.; cf, CT 11 36 1 300 13 

3. tabu(.?) KUKKU, good, CT 11 36 I30012 (M 2124). [(B 3346). 25 

4. matqu, KU, a sweet food or drink, S^ iv 30 (B 3345). 

5. (?) siddat(?) KUKKU, apiece of furniture^) CT 11 36 I30015 (M212S). 

The sign is clearly a variant of the preceding, and was descended 
from the picture of a jar. 

No 126 ^ 30 

1. gurru, GUR, a large measure, AL^ 88 vi 20 (B 3360). 

2. kanaku, seal, 2 28 56f (B Zl^2), 

3. kannu sa pirti, a measure, of}, CT 12 5020a (M 2128). 

4. kuppuru, overthrown, ASKT 8665 (M 2136). 

5. malu* sa qubburi, be full, of a bird's nest, CT 19 2620b (M 2119). 35 



* M, reads la7nu. 



Bisi of 'i^toQxapi^s: 69 

6. nagarruru, GUR, run, 4^ 3 ^7^ (B 3363). 

7. nakru sa amati, hostile^ of a word, h\J 8349 (B 3364). 

8. saharu, turn, BA 5 640 19 (M 2130). 

9. sakapu, GUR, ove^^turn, 4^ l0 35b (B 3365). 

5 10. (?)qubburu(?) a bird's nest, CT 19 21 leb (B 2137). 

11. taru, GUR, turn, overturn, S^ iv 9 (B 3367). 

UKZ 96 ff. thinks the sign originally a variant of the following, 
and developed out of the horns of the moon. I believe the sign 
originally pictured a measure with handles on either side, perhaps 
16 of unequal length*. This with the idea than the measure was filled 
and grain was turned out of the measure would explain all the 
meanings, though possibly turning and overturning came from con- 
fusion with the following sign. 

No 127 

15 1. aramu, overthrow, AV 6614 (B 3376). 

2. asaru, SlG, pounce upon, 5 S0 4ia (B zm)^ 

3. emu, be like, 5 3946a (B 3383). 

4. enesu, SIG, be zveak, 2 48 20g (B 3384). 

5. (?)ensu, weak, CT 12 915b (M 2142). 
20 6. eseru, collect, CT 16 2 63 (M 2144). 

7. issakku, priest-king, 4^ 21* No 2 rev 8 (B 3385). 

8. (?)isaru, straight, just, CT 12 919b (M 2I4S). 

9. itanu, net, sling, CT 19 12 sb (B 3386). 
10 ubbulu, meager, spare, 2 l6i3e (B 34I3). 

25 11. i^)nha.nvi, point, peak, finger, CT 11 398c (M 2139). 

12. uhhuzu, setting, of gems, 2 332c (B 34I4). 
. 13. urru, light, CT 19 12 5b (B 3415). 

14. iiBel, god Bel, 5 4435c (B 3378). 

15. (.?)baqamu, cut off, pluck, tear, CT 12 918b (M 2146). 
30 16. giru, enemy, 2 4841c (B 3379). 

17. dababu, //^;2, CT 19 12 7b (B 3380). 

18. dabaru(?) t CT 19 12 sb (M 2147). 

19. dabasu(?) ? CT 19 12 sb (B 3381). 

20. (?)damaqu, be favorable, CT 12 95b (M 2I48). 
35 21. (?)dapapu, } CT 12 94b (M 2149). 

22. dMhhxx, plentiful, luxuriant, 4^ l*3ib (B 3382). 

23. zaku, clean, pure, ASKT 12625 (B 3416). 

24. zamaru, sing, 5 1625a (B 3433). 

25. zaqiqu, storm, wind, RH 6227 (M 2150). 

40 * Perhaps the unequal length came from the influence of the form of the 

following sign. 



70 (§avto% (gafigfontan (SOxitin^ 

26. kunn^, establish, set, CT 19 12 10 b (B 3389). 

27. kasu, thou, HAS xiii 20 21 (B 3387). 

28. labiru(?) be old, ZA 1 400 n 2 (B 3390). 

29. lamu sa limiti, enclosure, of environs, 5 1920c (B 339I). 

30. mihsatu, wound^) CT 18 366b (M 2153). 5 

31. (?)maku,/r^//, weak, CT 12 916b (M 2154). 

32. malu, SI, SIG, be full,! 3947e (B 3393). 

33. masu, be wide, large, 5 29666 (B 3395). 

34. vixhvlhi, plantation, CT 19 12 9b (B 3394). 

35. nagasu sa , , ., proceed, of. ., 2 36iig (B 3396). 10 

36. nagasu sa isati, proceed, of fire, CT 18 37 Mb (M 21 57). 

37. (?)nadu sa kar — , to throw down, of cities i^), CT 12 96a (M 2185). 

38. nakapu sa subati, tear, of a garment, AV 5957 (B 3397). 

39. nakapu sa quristi(?) tear, of reuding, CT 12 3332a (M 2158). 

40. nakpu sa naphari, tear, in general, 2 48196 (B 3399). 15 

41. (?)namaru; be bright, CT 12 991. (M 2159). 

42. naspantu, overthrow, ASKT 118 rev 1 (B 3400). 

43. (r)napahu, kindle, glow, CT 12 910b (M 2161). 

44. nuru, fire, light, AV 6614 (B 3401). 

45. (?)sabu, ? CT 11 394c (M 2162). 20 

46. (?)sibu, ? CT 11 395b (M 2163). 

47. (?)sib^, seventh, CT 12 917b (M 2164). 

48. (?)saharU; suhhuru, turn, overthrow, CT 11 396bff (M 21 65). 

49. samu, be dark colored, 2 3947f (B 3403). 

50. (?)saraqu, pour out, offer a libation, CT 12 9i4t (M 2167). 25 

51. setu, ? AV 8589 (B 3404). 

52. puqqulu(?) an irrigating histrmnent^) RH 3628 (M 2187). 

53. (?)piristu, decision^) CT 12 93a (M 2188). 

54. pitu, open, CT 19 12 4b (B 3402). 

55. samadu sa narkabti, harness, of a chariot, AV 6624 (B 3405). 30 

56. senu, ///, 42 20 26 (M 2189). 

57. qarnu, horn, S^ iii 43 (B 3388). 

58. sabu, be old, gray, KC 62 3 (M 2171). 

59. subabu, burn, KL No 60 iv 14 (M 2190). 

60. (?)segi^, rage, CT 12 912b (M 2172). 35 
61.. (?)sahu, ? CT 12 920b (M 2169). 

62. sahatu, SIG, tear off, fiay, 2 35 39g (B 3406). 

63. (?) saharratu, quietness, CT 12 94a (M 2I91), 

64. seliii, decider, prince, CT 19 12 6b (B 3410), 

65. samu, heavens, 2 50 25e (B 3407). 40 

66. sapaku, pour out, 2 3821a (B 3408). 

6"]. saqummu, quiet, still, CT 16 49302 (M 21 76). 
6Z. suqammumu, quiet {^) dark(^) RH 80 4 (M 2192). 



MiBt of 'i^to^tap^tf 71 

69, (?) saqummatu, quietness, CT 12 95a (M 2193). 

70, saruru, brightnesSy RH i05 10 (B 3409). 

71, sissu, ? 5 1910a (B 3411). 

EM 2 111 explained the primitive picture as horn\ UKZ 84ff., as 
5 the crescent of the moon; Delitzsch is right as to the origin of 
the sign. The crescent of the moon would satisfactorily explain 
nearly all the meanings. It would naturally suggest all meanings such 
as brilliancy, light, heavens, etc. The waxing and waning of the 
moon would suggest be weak, be old, and all kindred meanings. The 
10 horns would suggest horn, finger etc. An extension of horn would 
give the suggestion of all such meanings as overthrow, tear etc. 
Full, collect, pluck off, tear, pour out, throw down, overthrow etc. were 
perhaps attached to the sign by phonetic mixture with No 175. 



No 128 

15 1. ahzetu, UGUN, contour, features, 2 33 sc (B 3479). 

2. anabu(?)* sprout {^) 5 5252b (B 3480). 

3. asu sa isi u qane, grow, of trees & reeds, 2 6254c (B 3481). 

4. epu* shine, 5 52 52b (M 2221). 

5. equ, GUNU, wind, twist, CT 12 917a (M 2222). 

20 6. iltu, mK^,from, PSBA 11 I74ff., PI 2 18 (M 2220). 

7. banu sa ramani, GUNU, grow, of ones self CT 12 918a (M 2225). 

8. baramu, weave, ST, Rm 3437 (B 3482). 

9. birmu, a kind of clothing, Cf 1 4522a with 2 6728 (M 2227). 
10. burmitu(?) something woveni}) CT 19 38 11 228 4 (M 2228). 

25 11. burrumu, variegated cloth, 4^ 5 32 c (B 3485). 

12. bitrumu, many colored, 4^ 830b (B 3484). 

13. (?)hipu, break, smash, CT 12 Sea (M 2230). 

14. huppu, broken, ruined, 2 2975a + 2 279a (B 3496). 

15. kalu, lock up, restrain, 2 21 32c (B 3486). 
30 16. litu, DAR, destroy, CT 11 3029a (B 3487). 

17. mihsu, wound, ASKT 8226 (M 2335). 

18. matu, land, country, 2 39i4c (B 3488). 

19. (.^)nakasu, cut down, CT 12 58a (M 2238). 

20. salatu, DAR, cut up, 2 2973a (B 3492). 

35 21. samu, SI, be dark colored, CT 12 916a (M 2239). 

22. pilu, pilutu, SI .? AL^ 83 iii 66 (B 3490). 

23. pilu sa , .? 5 1919a (B 3491). 

24. pesu, DAR, white, CT 11 3031a (B 3489). 

25. purrusu, } 2 2776 (B 3497). 

40 26. (?)salaqu, cut open, CT 12 5 i6a (M 2245). 

* 2 and 4 are different readings of the same group of signs. 



^2 (^atfon, Q^aBjfoman (H)nh'n5 

27. (?)sataqu, ? CT 12 57a (M 2248). 

28. sutturu, DAR, surplus, CT 11 3030a (B 3493). 

29. tarru, DAR, ^r^^/^, broken, CT 11 3029 a (B 3494). 

UKZ 63, 65, 67, & 85 explains the sign as a gunu of No 127. 
As Res. Nos. 34, 48 and PeiSER, (ZA 1 110 n 3), noted, the sign 5 
represents two pictures which have blended. One was a variant of 
No 127 the crescent moon, but with lines inserted to represent the 
shading*. It had the same kind of meanings as No I27 with no 
appreciable difference in value. The other according to the analogy 
of Nos 80, 2>'^, 84, 85, & 86 pictured a bird. From this the meanings 10 
variegated, many colored, came. By an extension of these, or more 
probably by mixture with No 484, it was applied to maity -colored 
clothing, and then to weaving. 



No 128 a 

1. bim, SU, ? CT 12 Qua (M 2261). 15 

2. samu, SU, be dark colored, CT 12 910a (M 2262). 

3. sapadu, SU, mourn, CT 12 912a (M 2263). 

M p. 121 explains the sign as the gunued form of No 143, or 
as No 127, plus No 519. The sign is clearly No 128 plus No 519. 

No 129 ^I&?= ^^ 

1. amelu, man, AL^ 66 iv 17 (B 3S06). 

2. aplu, son, 5 4452 c (B 3507). 

3. aru, sprout, scion, 5 3936 c (B 3508). 

4. asaridu, "^KQ, prince, leader, 4^ 159b (B 3509). 

5. (?)elu, be high, CT 18 5 100295 (M 2269). 25 

6. (?)idistu, new7tess^) RH 655b & 7b (M 2268). 

7. ubbuqu, ? 5 4250 c (B 3527). 

8. ummanu(?) people, BN 31 15 (M 2271). 

9. beru, choice, 5 1334c (B 35 lo). 

10. biitu, choose, 5 2048g (B 3511). 30 

11. 6xnkn\x, person, self, 5 l6i3c (M 2275). 

12. zimu, brightness, HN Taf. vii 13 (M 2276): 

13. kabtu(?) heavy, 5 3923c (B 3514). 

14. muhhu, that which is above, CT 17 35 76 (M 2279). 

15. TuohTM, front, 4^ 546a (B 3516). 35 

16. mahru, /ri"/, 2 3275a (B 3517). 

17. muhru, /r^z^, 2 3276a (B 3518). 

* The Chinese picture of the crescent naoon sho-^s lines to indicate shadinj^ 
exactly analogous to that supposed here. See ECW. No 72. 



Biet of "i^toQvap^^ 'j'^ 

18. mamitu(?) oath, ZA 10 199 is (M 2281). 

19. matu, Imid, RH 832 (M 2278). 

20. nise, people, RH I3I 3 (M 2282). 

21. simanu, ? 2 2536a (B 3525). 

5 22. ^\\i^, personi^^| CT 17 35^3 (M 2284). 

23. puhu, person {}) 5 1612c (B 3521). 

24. pknuy face, 4^ 1943a (B 3520). 

25. putu, ^9^^;^/ i"/^^, HN 3015 (M 2283). 

26. qaqqadu, SAG, kead, 4^ 31a (B 3513). 
10 27. qarnu, korn, 5 l6iic (B 3515). 

28. rabia, ^reat, BBR xlv, No 279b (M 2287). 

29. resu, SAG, kead, 2 736c (B 3522). 

30. restu, SAG, first, ASKT 9857 (B 3523). 

31. restu ?^t)am i^p garment, 2 740 c (B 3524). 
15 32. Tustu, /r.y^'(?) CT 17 3941 (M 2286). 

33. ka^P^fsaqu(?) nmne of a vessel, 5 429c (M 2288). 

34. siriqtu, a present, 2 1940a (B 3526). 

EM 2 113 explained, as the picture of a head; UKZ 75 & 183 ff, 
as composed of two motifs ^ + =1; OC, as the picture of ahead; 

20 OCS 232, 243, as the picture of a head; LBA 311, as the picture of 
a head; ML, as the picture of a head; LSG 20, as the picture of a 
neck and head. The sign is clearly the picture of a head. This at 
once accounts for most of the meanings. Standing for the person, 
the head came naturally to represent man, then son, scion, people, 

25 country. Standing for the top it easily passed to signify first, then 
choice. Oath probably came in from mixture with No 15. 

No 130 ^^^ 

rruruhhu, . . . daib, head, hair, AL^ 66 iv 19 (B 3665). 

Probably the sign originated in the picture of a head to which 
30 some lines were added to represent hair. Why it was convention- 
alized as it is we do not know. 

No 131^^^ ' . 

1. muhhu, MUg, top, AL^ 66 iv 20 (B 3667). 

UKZ 69 n explains the sign as No 129, to which No 227 was 
35 added to denote point. Perhaps the original represented a head 
surmounted by a cap of some sort. 

No 132 ^mF 

1. uru sa aladi, an elder brother of a child, 2 2614 c (B 3669). 

2. zikaru, URU, man, 2 2744a (B 3670). 



74 (§axton, (gafigfoman (H)rtttna[ 

From the late form, one might conclude that the sign was 
composed of No I29 plus No 270, one of the originals of which was 
a form of head dress. 

No 133 ^T<^^ 

1. adaru, KAN, de dark, sad, AL^ 66 iv 22 (B 3673). 5 

2. adirtu, KAN, sadness, AL^ 66 iv 23 (B 3674). 

Apparently composed of No 129, kead, plus No 380, which repre- 
sented rain, clouds, and darkness. This was a fitting way of ex- 
pressing sadness. 

* No 134 ^X^-^ 

1. zinniStu, ERU, woman, 2 2745 a (B 3676). 

The sign seems to be composed of No I29, head, and No 497, 
woman. No 129 could mean person, and the female sign was added, 
like the fish sign in No 136, as a sort of determinative. 

No 135 ^JHf= ^5 

1. qarradu, GUTU, warrior, MJ 66 iv 21 (B 3679). 

2. quradu, GUT, warrior, 2 362 a (B 3680). 

Apparently the sign is composed of No I29, head, equal here 
to person, plus No $14, a dog, or devoted slave, ancient warriors being 
consecrated devotees. 20 

No 136 «^ff<#: 

No meanings for the sign are known. It is clearly composed of 
No 129 plus No 523. 

No 137 ^ 

1. elippu, MA, ship, S^ v 15 (B 3683). 25 

The original picture was a boat with a point resembling the 
beak of a bird. 

No 138 "^^^^ 

1. aku, DELLU, } S^ V 17 (B 3704). 

2. tarkullu, DIMGUL, anchor rope(^) great sailor^) a mast{^) CT 17 3^ 

33 34; Sb V 16 (M 2401, B 3705). 

Probably the original picture represented a boat with an attach- 
ment indicating a cable or mast or whatever the picture stood for. 



Bi0t of 'iHoc^xap^e 75 

No 139 ^^ 

1. enzu, uz, £-oat, S^ v 18 (B 3707). 

The picture represents either a goat's head in a highly con- 
ventionalized form, or an udder and two teats. No 496 gives a more 
5 natural picture of the head. 

No 139a ^^^ 

1. qablu, GUANA(?) midst, fight, CT 12 3I 355^64 (M 2403). 

Perhaps the picture was in some way connected with the picture 
for goat. If so, the meaning fight would naturally be suggested. 
10 It is impossible now, however, to be certain about it. 

No 140 ^^^ 

1. kalu, SURRU, magician, priest, CT 12 31 35 5863 (M '2404). 

2. kalu, ZUR, magician, priest, 2 2l4ic (B 3709). 

3. surru, [SURRU], magician, priest, CT 12 355862 (M 2405). 

15 Probably no safe inference can be drawn from the resemblance 

to two late signs which the sign presents. The origin is quite 
unknown. 

No 141 ^T^ 

1. kalu, SURRU, magician, priest, S^ v, 20 (B 3713). 
20 2. surru, SURRU, magician, priest, S^ v, 19 (B 37I4). 

The sign is clearly a variant of No 140. 
No 142 



1. qablu, GUANA, midst, fight, S^ v, 21 (B 3716). 
Probably the sign is a variant of No 139 a. 

25 No 143 ^>fTTf 

1. adaru, be dark, fear y^ 21 i9e (B 3723). 

2. ahazu sieze, 5 21 20e (B 3724). 

3. alaku, go, ZA 9 2I99 (M 2408). 

4. asasu, SIG, be troubled, 4^ 10 sb (B 3726). 

30 5- asasu sa ussati SA, be troubled, of trouble, CT 12 99a (M 24II). 

6. asustu, trouble, sorrow, 4 2 10 56 a (B 3727). 

7. atru, DIRI, abundant, surplus, S^ iii, 44 (B 3728). 

8. ataru, DIRIG (?) excel, exceed, 2 llese (B 3729). 

9. ell, high, ZA 9 219 10; cf 5 2giog (M 2407). 



^6 (§avton, (gafipfontan (^vitin^ 

10. igru, wageSy 2 62i8c (B 3731). 

11. (.?) daqu(?) sa . . . .? CT 12 2914a (M 2412). ;' 

12. zarabu, oppress, 4 2 199 a (B 3749). 

13. halapu, cover, hide, 2 3945f (B 3732). 

14. halapu- sa qarni, DIR, hide, of horns, TA 434b (M 24I4). 5 

15. hipu, broken, ruined, 2 2755 g (B 3733). 

16. mahahiu sa tm, pour out, of eyes, CT 12 295a (M 24I6). 

17. (?) maharu sa urpiti, be in front, of a cloud, CT 12 296 a (M 2417). 

18. makru, } 5 29 sod (B 3737)- 

19. ^^^^^^Makru, star Makru, 2, 5l64a (B 3738). 10 

20. malu, be full, 5 396of (B 3739). 

21. kakkabMeqit i^at* the star Abyss of fire, [i e. Mars) 2 49 31 e (M 2418). 

22. kakkabjvi^sih isat(?)* i-Z^r Mesih-ishat, 2 51 65a (B 3740). 

23. masalu, be like, equal, CT 19 1310b (M 2419). 

24. na'duru, darkness, fear, ZA 9 2195b (M 2420). 15 

25. nibiru, a pass, AL^ %Z, vi 14 (B 3742). 

26. nagarruru, running, HWB 204 (M 242 1). 

2^. (?) nadarruru, be strong, CT 12 298a (M 2422). 
2%. (.?) nazazu, stand, RH II4 %,i (M 2423). 

29. (?) nahallulu, ? CT 12 2912a (M 2424). 20 

30. nihappu, ? 2 6248 c (B 3744). 

31. nakapu, overcoming, ZA 9 2912 a (M 2425). 
12. (?) naparruru, broken, CT 12 2910 a (M 2426). 

33. (?) na^^xVMT\x, protected, CT 12 299a (M 2427). 

34. Ti\{^\^\x, pass, ZA 9 2193b (M 2428). 25 

35. nariru, help, ZK 9 2197b (M 2429). 

Z6, (?) nasallulu, despoiled, CT 12 2911a (M 2430). 
2,7, (?) nisalp^(?) be drawn out, CT 12 294a (M 243 1). 

38. samu, SA, be dark, S^ iii, 45 (B 3745). 

39. qapu, decay, ZA 9 220 la (M 2432). 30 

40. (?) rabu sa lit . . . be great, of. . . CT 12 2913a (M 2433). 

41. (?) §ahahu(?) bend, bow down, CT 12 2920 a (M 2434). 

42. ^um, SA,^ ? CT 12 97a (M 2435). 

43. suparruru, broken, destroyed, 2 3945e (B 3747). 

44. saqu sa ameli, high dignitary, of men, 2 306 a (B 3746). 35 

45. (?) surruhu(?) sa sikari, ?, of drink, CT 12, 292 a (M 2436). 

46. sutuqqu, ? 5 29iig (B 3748). 

47. suturu, abundance, surplus, "^h. 5 7077b (M 3437). 

UKZ 85 & 17411 explains the sign as composed of No I27 plus 
No 519. Delitzsch has rightly explained the origin of the sign. 40 



* These two are the same star; their names are written with the same cuneiform 
signs. The first is Meissner's interpretation of them, the second, Jensen's. 



But of 'ibtoo^tap^0 yy 

Many of the meanings coincide with those of No 127 which represented 
the moon's crescent. No 519 stood for water. Halos about the moon 
were interpreted as rivers and these were thought to portend abun- 
dance and invasions (c£ TA liff.). From the last idea the sign could 
5 express y^(3:r, oppress,, seize, etc. 

No 144 ^ 

1. athu, TAB, brother, companion, CT 11 38; R 25866 (M 2449). 

2. edelu, TAB, close, bar, CT 17 3575 (M 2447). 

3. ediru, TAB, receive money, CT II 3012b (B 3761). 
10 4. eli(.?) TAB, be high, CT 11 38; R 25869 (M 2448). 

5. esepu, TAB, gather, combine, CT 11 3013b (B 3762). 

6. 6S\\\Xj push, thrust, 2 62i2g (B 3760). 

7. damu, blood, ASKT 90 55 (B 3759). 

8. zikittu, oppression, 5 4247a (B 3776). 

15 9. hamatu, TK^, flicker, tremble, CT 11 3015b (B 3763). 

10. (?) kakasiga, } CT 11 35; R 25553 (M 2450). 

11. kilallan, TAB, two, both, CT 11 38; R 2,5867 (M 2451). 

12. (?) katamu sa pa . . . cover, hide, of. . . CT 11 35; R 2, 555 2 (M 2452). 

13. i?mihsu, an instrument that wounds, 4^ 18*17 a (B 3764). 
20 14. muhhusu sa . . ., crushed^) CT 19 394b (M 2454). 

15. masu, TAB, twin, CT 11 iZ\ R 2,5865 (M 2453). 

16. nasraptu, burned, 5 3965a (B 3772). 

17. (.?) sibu sa sipati, a garment of wool, CT 11 35; R 2, 555 5 (M 2455). 

18. sanaqu(.?) i:ks>, press, CT 11 38; R 2,5863 (M 2456). 

.25 19. sapanu(?) TAB, cover, overpower, CT 11 3017 b (B 3768). 

20. sabatu, seize, MSW 7; K 41665 (M 2457). 

21. surimpu, TAB, refined, immixed, CT 11 3020 b (B 3769). 

22. ru'a, TAB, neighbor, companion, CT 11 -^Z] R 2,58614 (M 2459), 

23. sakanu sa mimma, set, of anything^ CT 11 38; R 2, 58612 (M 2460). 
30 24. samatu(.^) TAB, } CT 11 38; R 2,58611 (M 2462). 

25. sanu, double, 2 ll50g (B 3770). 

26. sina, TAB, two, CT II 38; R 2,5862 (M 2463). 

27. surru, TAB, beginning, CT 11 3014b (B 3773). 

28. tu'amu, TAB, be doubled, be a twin, CT II 38; R 2, 5864 (M 2464). 
35 29. tamahu, TAB, take hold, CT 11 3018b (B 3774). 

30. tappu, TAB, companion, CT 11 3019b (3775). 

EM 2 113 explained the sign as composed of two parallel arrows ; 

'UKZ 45, as a doubled stroke or line. The sign was probably a picture 

of two arrows. Several of the meanings are the same as those of No 2 

40 which represented one arrow. AH the meanings connected with the 

idea of overpowering, crushing, covering, hastening were suggested by 



the arrows. Such meanings as two, brother, companion, twins, etc. 
were suggested by the fact that two arrows were represented. 

No 144a ^=>^ 

1. sahitu, SIBBUDA, ruin, CT 14 1 45 b (M 2469). 

Perhaps composed of No I44 and No ^6, As the only occurence 5 
of the sign is late, this is, however, uncertain. 

No 145 ^ 

2iVb2.\ four, 42 12 13a (B 3782). 

Clearly the sign was composed of four lines to denote the numeral 
four, Cf also No 532 a. 10 

No 146 «^ 

1. Qbktu, perish, 4^ 434b (B 3789). 

2. equ, TAG, surround, wind, iwist, 2 3645c (B 3791). 

3. ersitu(?) /a^zd, country, CT 12 2461a (M 2470). 

4. ^^"^ingu, some kind of plant, 2 4I 7c (B 3794). 15 

5. baru, TAK, hunt, catch, CT 11 3135a (B 3790)- 

6. dumqu* i:i\., favor, ASKT 9858 (B 379S). 

7. damaqu, be favorable, CT 12 2460a (M 2471). 

8. zu'unu, TAK, disturb, CT 11 3132a (B 3805). 

9. hissusu, TAG, ? 5 195a (B 3792). 20 

10. hatu, destroy, take away, 2 27 45 e (B 3793). 

11. tabahu, SUM, slaughter, 4^ 79a (B 3804). 

12. kakasiga, } CT 12 2464a (M 2473). 

13. labanu, cast down, CT 21 41 12 (M 2474). 

14. labasu TAG, disturb, CT 11 3I 33a (B 3796). 25 

15. lapatu, TAG, turn, 2, 48416 (B 3797)- 

16. mahasu sa mimma, TAK, shatter, of anything, CT11 31 34a (B 3798). 

17. nabasu, TAK, overthrow, CT 11 3136a (B 3799). 

18. nadu, TAK, throw down, CT 11 3137a (B 3800). 

19. naqu, TAK sacrifice, pour a libation, 4^ 1937 b (B 3801). 30 

20. salasu, TAK, hunt, chase, CT 11 31 35 a (M 3802), 

21. suklulu, complete, CT 12 2457a (M 2475). 

22. salu, TAK, send, throw, CT 11 3136a (B 3803). 

23. salatu, spoils booty, HN 30 19 (M 2476). 

H 476 explained the sign as the picture of a brick and half a 35 
brick; UKZ 77ff., as made up of No 11 plus a form of No 258, 
wood] OC, as a dagger, HoMMEL has correctly divined the origin. 



* Corrected by MSL, 326. 



Bi0i of 'iUo^ta^^s 70 

All the meanings are easily derived from a dagger or lance and the 
various consequences of using it. 

No 147 n^ 

1. aptu, AB, a house, S^ iii 54 (B 3815). 
5 2. abu, KB, fatkery 2 32 60c (B 3816). 

3. esu, ? AV 2391; cf. CT 19 428b (B 3818). 

4. essesu, assemble l^) PSBA 26 5625 (M 2500). 

5. ^"^®UrrisU; gardener, farmer, ASKT 7I 24 (B 3 8 19). 

6. iiBel, god Bel, Str. Nbk 2766; cf. B 7414 (M 2486). 
10 7. bitu, ES, house, HN, Taf. VII, 29 (M 2487). 

8. ara^Tebitu, month Tebet, Str. Nbk 8214 (B 3823). 

9. an^e^nasiku, prince, LS 58 ni (B 3820). 

10. qibu(?) speak, BA 5 67823 (M 2488). 

11. su, sina, him, his, them>, theirs, 4'^ 21 35b & 5 5^17 a (B 3824). 
15 12. sibu, AB, gray, gray-haired, CT 11 297b (B 3821). 

13. tamtu, sea, RH 4912 (M 2492). 

UKZ 92 n2 explained the sign as a motif for room, dwelling- 
room', OQ as a dwelling; OCS 237, 256, as a reed house built on 
stilts. The most probable origin of the sign is that it is the outline 

20 of a reed-house. Whether it represents one built on stilts so that, in the 
overflow of the river, the upper part could be inhabited (compare the 
form of No 201), or whether the central line represented a band about 
such a house {cf, PETERS Nippur 2 74, HiLPRECHT, BE. Sen D. 1 160 
and Clay, Light on the Bible from Babel, 282) is uncertain. This 

25 naturally meant house. Father, old man, prince and such meanings 
attached themselves to the sign because of the identity of the Sumerian 
syllable AB with the Semitic abu father. The pronominal meanings 
were also due to syllabic attraction. The other meanings grew out 
of the meaning father or were suggested by it. 

30 No 148 fc^ 

1. ilu, a god, CT 25 l8iib (M 2515). 

2. ilan, ILAN, upper part, height, CT 12 424b (M 25 1 6). 

3. iiBel, NAB, god Bel, 5 4446c; cf CT 12 421b (B 3851). 

4. kakasiga, nab, ? CT 12 423b (M 2518). 

35 5. kupadinnu, a cover i?tg, or garment, 5 1917a (B 3852). 

6. nabu, NAB, river i^) CT 12 419b (M 23 19). 

7. nabbu, NAB, bright, S^ i 3 (B 3849)- 

8. naru, NAB, river, CT 12 420b (M 2520). 

9. tiamtu, NAB, sea, ocean, CT 12 422b (M 2521). 



8o (§Cixton, (g»a6gfontan (Wtxtin^ 

UKZ 45 explains it as a star (i. e. No 13) doubled. The sign is 
clearly a doubled star. This easily suggested ^-od, and the specific 
god Be/, high^ and bright. It suggested a collection of stars or the 
milky way, which was conceived as a river, hence the meanings 
river and sea. The last meaning was suggested because the Baby- 5 
lonians conceived the ocean to be a salt river which encircled the 
earth. As the heavens were considered as a covering, it came to 
.suggest coverings or garment. ■ 

No 149 ^^ 

1. amartu, MULU, sight, aspect, CT 12 438b (M 2522). 10 

2. bi*u, MULU, seek, CT 12 439b (M 2523). 

3. bibbu, MULU, a quadruped, name of a star, CT 12 436 b (M 2524). 

4. banu sa sitirti, MULU, create, of} CT 12, 432 42 43b (M 2525). 

5. zu'unu, MULU, disturb, confound, CT 12 434b (M 2526). 

6. zabbu, MULU, a class of temple officers, CT 12 426 b (M 2527). 15 

7. kakkabu, MUL, a star, S^ i 4 (B 3855). 

8. kakubu, a star, BC, K II699 (M 2528). 

9. kunnu, u\JU], perfect, CT 12 433 b (M 2529). 

10. mulmuUu, MULU, a javelin^ CT 12 437 b (M 2530). 

11. nabatu, MULU, bright^ shining, CT 12 429b (B 3856). 20 

12. namaru, MULU, be bright, CT 12 431b (M 2533). 

13. napahu, MULU, glow, CT 12 430b (M 2534). 

14. xxhru^^^ light, TA 10310b (M 2531). . , 

15. papallU) MULU, sprout, twig, CT 12 435b (M 2535). 

16. sitru, MULU, writing, CT 12 427b (2539). 25 

17. sitirtu, MULU, an expressio?i applied to ihe heavens CT 12 428 b 

18. senu, MULU, a sandal, CT 12 441b (M 2536). [(M 2540). 

19. sepii, MULU, /^^/, CT 12 440b (M 2537). 

20. suquru, } ZA 9 161 37 (M 2538). 

H 462 explained the sign as three stars. UKZ 47, OC, and 30 
LBA 311 concur in this explanation which is undoubtedly correct. 
Nearly all the meanings are at once explained by this origin. Such 
meanings as sprout, writing, foot and sandal were for mythological 
or fanciful reasons suggested by the stars. 

No 150 ^=^^ 35 

1- aggu, UK,, vehement, ajigry, CT 12 8i8b (M 2549).. 

2. uggu, UK, vehement^ angry, CT 12 817b (M 2550). 

3. umu, UKU, day, AL^ 6713 (B 3861). 

4. umamu(.?) UK, a wild beast, CT 12 820b (M 2551). 

5. nuru, UK, light, CT 12 8i6b (M 2552). 40 



Biifi of 'i^to^tap^e gj 

6. asamas(?) UK, tke sun, CT 12 8i9b (M 2553). 

7. sarru, king, 2 475aff. (B 3862). 

H 481 explained the sign as originating in the picture of a foot 
- with the sun below it. The foot suggested a base and the whole 

5 represented day-break; UKZ 149, as composed of No 400 == strength^ 
and No 337 = the sun, a view in which MSL 344 concurs. The 
earliest form of the sign, when compared with Nos 139 and 496, 
which pictured the heads of goats, makes it probable that this also 
pictured the head of some animal with terrifying horns. The element 

10 which has been mistaken for the sun was a horn that had become 
dislocated. The fierceness of this animal suggested anger and per- 
haps the fire of his eye fire, sun, which in time developed into day. 

No 151 t^L 

1. asu, AZA, physician, AL^ 6712 (B 2>^6%), 
15 2. i?sigaru, a dolt, or bar, AV 8160 (B 3875). 

H 481 thought that the sign represented a yoke for ploughing 
or for mules or asses, UKZ 149 resolved it into No I49 plus No 521, 
an opinion in which MSL 44 concurs. Several of the early forms 
are probably derived from Elam. The native Babylonian form 

20 of the sign pictured the head of some animal {cf. Nos 139, 150, 211, 
and 496), near which was placed two little plants, which probably 
suggested healing herbs. The meaning bar, bolt is due to the abbre- 
viation of a compound ideogram; cf, M 2560. One of the Elamite 
forms pictured a couch and a liquid [cf. No 521) and suggested 

25 physician in another way. 

No 152 ^ 

1. eru, URUDU, bronze, S^ ii 48 (B 1^7^). 

H 475 explained the sign as a bronze object; UKZ 186, as a 
variant of No 157; MSL 354 repeats UKZ. Probably the original 
30 picture represented a bronze mirror. 

No 153 ^ 
1. amelu, man, 1 4621b (B 3881). 

The sign is a variant of No 289 derived from that sign through 
the Neo-Babylonian form. 

No 154 ^ 

1. iiBau, goddess Bau, TN xii & 232 (M 2570). 

2. babu, KA, gate, S^ iv 33 (B ^^^^l)^ 

Beitrage Ass.: Barton II. 6 



35 



82 (§axton, (gaSgfontan (H)nttn<5 

EM 2 117 declared the primitive picture to represent a gate. 
UKZ 167 explained it as composed of house (No 281), plus motifs 
for entrance derived from No 177; OC as a picture of a gate; MSL 198 
repeats UKZ. The sign clearly represented a gate. It is more likely 
that it was a real picture than that it was composed as Delitzsch 5 
thinks. How it suggested the goddess Bau is problematical. Perhaps 
because she represented the physical gateway of life. 

No 155 ^\ 

1. \€m.TiM, feasty 5 3l50a (B 3899). 

2. ummu, UMU, motii£r, S^ ii 52 (B 3898). 10 

3. qa^ummu, a kind of reed, HWB %6 (M 2579). 

4. pussu sa qan duppi, .^ of a tablet reed, AL^ %'i iii 79 (B 3900). 

5. pursumtU; white-haired woman, grandmother, AV I439 (^ 3901). 

EM 2 109 thought the sign originally repres ente d a picture; 

BNA 13 379, a picture of a mother like the Chinese XO; UKZ l86fr. 15 

derived it from the motif surround, signifying a mother's womb — an 
opinion in which MSL 346 concurs. All the explanations are on 
the right track. Probably the sign represented a female bust and 
abdomen. 

No 156 ^^TTtT ^° 

1. sulU; SUMUG, troubleQ) S^ ii 50 (M 2591). 

2. sutu* SUMUG, trouble {^) AL^ 65 ne (B 3914). 

UKZ 187 explained it as composed of No 155 in which No 340 
is inserted. Perhaps Delitzsch is right as to the origin, but from 
the late form inferences are precarious. 2^ 



No 157 

1. abnu, Dig, stoite, 2 2749 a (B 3923). 

2. aban birki(?) DIH, stone of blessing i^) CT 18 3623b (M 2594). 

3. adiptu, DUB, some instrument, CT 12 143a (M 2596). 

4. asu sa kispi. Dig, go out, of enchantment, CT T2 1415a (M 2599). 30 

5. edlu, MES, a man, CT 12 1417a (M 2595). 

6. eru, URUDU, bronze, CT 12 1411a (M 2600). 

7. umsatu, SAMAG, want, distress, CT 12 1425a (M 2597). 

8. upnu, KISIB, > CT 11 zi 100^2 6 (M 2598). 

9. dihii, Dig, .? 5 3l47a (B 3924). 35 

10. i?handilpiru, TEgi, trunki^) KU 81 57 (B 3925). 

11. kanaku sa kunukki, a seal, of a tablet, 2 39iig (B 3926). 

* Probably a mistaken reading of the preceding. 



BM of 'i^o^xap^^ 83 

12. kunukku, KISIB, tablet, CT 12 1422a (M 2601). 

13. la'abu, Dig, press hard, CT 12 14 ua (M 2602). 

14. irbu, T)m, pressure, CT 12 1413a (M 2603). 

15. lamu, DUB, surround, S^ ii 49 (B 3927). 
5 16. maru, MES, j^^;^, CT 12 1419a (M 2605). 

17. masadu sa umi(?) DUB, press down, of}, CT 12 147a (M 2606). 
. 18. saharu, DUB, turn, CT 12 142a (M 2607). 

19. saraqu, DUB, /^^r out, CT 11 2937a (B 3929 M 2625). 

20. palaku sa pilki, DUB, divide, of a district, CT 12 149a (M 2609). 
10 21. pallukku, MENBULUG, ? CT 12 1412a (M 3610). 

22. pussu sa qan duppi, DUB, ?, of a tablet reed, CT 12 148 a (M 2611). 

23. sibu, DUB, surround, catch, CT 11 2940a (B 3930). 

24. rubu, ME% prince, CT 12 1418 a (M 2613). 

25. rittu, YilsiB, seal, CT 12 1420a (M 26I4). 
15 26. suhtu, SEN, ? CT 12 1410a (M 2616). 

27. ^ulu sa suri> SUMUG, to send, of thought, CT 12 1423a (M 2615). 

28. sapaku, DUB, heap up, CT 11 29 35a (B 3931). 

29. sapaku sa ipri, TUB, heap up, of dust, AV 7996 (B 3932). 

30. tabaku, Vi\}^, pour out, CT 11 2936a (B 3933). 
20 31. tehutu. Dig, ? CT 12 1416a (M 2617). 

-^2, tuppu, DUB, tablet, CT 11 2938a (B 393S). 

EM 2 116 explained the sign as the representation of a picture 
(tableau); UKZ l86ff., as a variation of No 155, from the motif for 
surround', OC, as the representation of a tablet. The original picture 

25 probably, like No 152, represented a mirror or tablet of bronze or 
of stone, on which were some lines to represent writing. The various 
processes connected with the making, inscribing, and sealing of a 
clay tablet, together with its contents and writer, made it possible 
in time for the sign to stand for most of the values given above. 

30 The values man, prince, son, and want, with the syllabic value, MES 
came, as M pp. 14I n and 248 n has shown, from mixture with No 270, 

No 158 eHTT 

1. abgirri(.?) } CT 11 42 89-4-26 16518b (M 2615)=^. 

2. allahu, } CT 11 42 89-4-26 16520b (M 2616). 
35 3. azaru, wish, desirei^) 5 39 59e (B 3957). 

4. ana, TA, unto, 4^ 15* 54b (B 3946). 

5. annairat(?) } CT 11 45 89-4-26 16519b (M 2617). 

6. ina, TA, in, 2 1541c (B 3947). 

* This and the following references to M, so far as they relate to No 158, are 
40 found on M. p. 144. On p. 144 M. has repeated the ideogram numbers 2612 — 2628, 
which he had used on p. 143. 



84 (§avtont (0a6gfontan (^vitin^ 

7. istu,,TA, out from, ASKT 60 iv 8 (B 3950). 

8. itti, TA, with, 42 1326b (B 3949). 

9. ina qabal, ^*;^ the midst, CT 11 42 98-4-26 16521b (M 2624). 

10. u, and, 4^ 165^^ (B 3954). 

11. ultu, TA, out from, S^ i\ 3^ (B 3951)- 5 

12. 0diku, .? 5 1675c (M 2618). 

13. kirib, TA, in the midst of ASKT I02 No 25 (B 3948), 

14. kattu, figure, BN 38 (M 2619). 

15. mala, in comparison with, RH 10416 (M 262 1). 

16. miniu, what, why, 4^ 3012a isa (B 3958). 10 

17. (.?^)mitu, dead, 5 1674c (M 2620). / 

18. summap) £/; BD 119 n 287 (M 2625). 

19. tappu, companion, 5 3122a (M 2626). 

UKZ 178 ff. explains the sigvi as composed of a motif for direction, 
plus a motif which is unexplained; OC explained it as the picture 15 
of a basket; OCS as the picture of a phallus. As the early form of 
the sign so closely resembles a clay phallus found at Asshur, {cf Mit- 
teilungen der deutschen Orient- Gesellschaft, No 22, June I904, p. 26), 
an erect phallus would naturally suggest the primary prepositional 
meanings out of, in the midst of, out of which other prepositional 20 
uses were developed. Companion, and figure might also naturally 
be suggested by it. It is very uncertain whether the sign really 
signified dead. 

No 159 ^ 

1. asu, I, ^^ out, GT 11 2940 b (B 3977). 25 

2. eridu,, } 5 3027 b (B 3999). 

3. gugittu, } 2 2922c (B 3978). 

4. kamu, \, enclose, capture, CT 11 2939 b (B 3979). 

5. mu'u, } BA 5 67825 (M 2658), 

6. na'adu, I, exalt, CT 11 293738 b (B 3980). 30 

7. naqu, howl, lament, AV 3522 (B 3981). 

8. paraku, use force, compel, 4^ 1313b (B 4000), 

9. tanattu, I, exaltation, glory, RH 694b (M 2630). 

UKZ 192 ff. says the sign stood for the number five, with which 
somehow the Sumerians associated the idea of exaltation. Probably 35 
the sign is a simplification of No 566, an altar and a fire. This 
would explain the meanings. 

No 160 ^ 

1. iiAdad, god Adad,'Z 6^4:%^ (B 4043). 

2. alidu, bearer, begetter, 4^ 924a (B 4037), 4© 



BiBt of "ibtoc^ta^^^ 85 

3. annu, HU, HE, a receptacle, a vessel, 5 39i5g (B 4038). - 

4. eresu, plant, beget, TN 306 ff. (M. 2690). 

5. ibkennu, GANA, ? CT 12 losa (M 2687). 

6. dahadu, be abundant, 2 25420 (B 4039). 

5 7. ^^^P^*diqaru(?) UDUL, an earthen jar, CT 12 434a (M 2691). 

8. kullatu, GANA, totality, CT 12 102a (M 2692). 

9. (?)kannu(?) z;^i-^^/, receptacle, CT 19 35, S 896, 12; ^/ MVAG I905, 

10. kislimu, name of a month, ASKT 649 (B 4040). [p. 252 (M 2693). 

11. lu, li, HE, verily, CT 12 10 4a (M. 2694). 

10 12. na'duru, GIDI, tribulation, 5 30286 (B 4042). 

13. qarabu, GANA, approach, CT 12 10 1 a (M 2697). 

14. riksu, GANA, bond, CT 12^ 102a (M 2698). 

15. supku, supporter, RH I3O34 (M 2699). 

UKZ 104 declared the sign to be composed of No 228, oil, fat, 
15 plus No 258, tree\ OC explains it as a jar supported by a base — a 
view in which OCS 238 and 257 concurs, as does LB A 311. HOMMEL 
correctly explained the origin of the sign. The jar supported by a 
stand readily suggested all the meanings except kislimu, which the 
sign came to represent only by the shortening of a longer spelling 
20 of the month's name. 

No 161 "^^ 

1. amelu, man, 1 45 52a (B 4076). 

2. aplu, son, LTP 60 n 7 (B 4077). 

3. isu, wood, 5 11 50 a (B 4079). 

25 4. unnuttu, weakness, 5 2326a (B 4I09). 

5. unnusutu, weakness, 5 2325a (B 4II0). 

6. iiBan-mari(.?) child-creating god, ZA 10 276^13 (M 2729). 

7. er^(?)dubu, something made of bronze, MSW15 K 867613a (M2730). 

8. dallu, needy, humble, 5 23 27 a (B 4103), 
30 9. daqqaqutu, smallness, 5 2322a (B 4I01). 

10. duqququtu, smallness, 5 2323a (B 4I02). 

11. dumu(.?^) son, 5 4420 c (B 4078). 

12. zukkukutu, } 5 2324a (B 4III). 

13. ^"^zirzirru, small insect, 2 24156 (B 41 12). 

35 14- ^^^kurkizanu, kind of swine, 2 623c (B 4080). 

15. la'u, small, weak, HWB 366 b (M 2721). 

16. maru, DU, son, S^ v -^^ (B 4081). 

17. martu, } 42 421b (B 4081 B 4104). 

18. martu, daughter, 4^ 28* 54b (B 4082). 

40 19. ^^^(?)naptetu, something made of bronze, MSW I5 K 867612a 
20. sa'u, throw down, CT 19 4511b (M 2723): [(M 2731). 



86 (Ration, (^aB^fonian (^tiiinc^ 

21. paqu, ? 5 2328a (B 4105). 

22. saharu, TUR, de small, 2 15 21a (B 4083). 

23. sahru, TUR, small, young, 2 4820a (B 4084). 

24. sihru, TUR, small, young, ASKT 5919 (B 4085). 

25. sihhiru, small, RH 10672 (M 2724). 

26. suhhuru, wretchedness, 4^ 1342a (B 4108). 

27. karpatsihirtu, a small pot, 5 42306 (B 4086). 

28. sihhirutu, smallness, 5 2321a (B 4107). 

29. rabii, be great, RH 724b (M 2725 M 2732). 

30. tehi(i(?) approach, RH 4232 (M 2726). 



DAMU (2 404 a). DUMU (2 4833 a). 

BNA 13 491 explained the sign as No 227, beget, doubled; 
UKZ 101 ff., as No 12, be small, doubled; OC, as a picture of two 
breasts; OCS 234 and 248, as the udder of a sheep or goat. The 
picture is clearly the representation of an udder. That would naturally 15 
suggest a young aninial, then son, daughter, small and all the meanings 
except great, which seems to have been associated with the sign by 
the psychological law of antithesis. 

No 162 ^ 

1. abu, AD, father, S^ ii 2^ (B 4166). 20 

2. aban suluppi, date stone, CT 12 474Db (M 2747). 

3. ummu, mother, 5 3I eig (B 4I 67). 

4. rigmu, cry, RH 757 (M 2748). 

EM 2 108 explained the sign as the picture of a testicle; Sayce, 
TSBA 6 483, as composed of No 227, making, placed within a figure 25 
which represents a nest: BNA 13 488 ff., as a representation of a house 
plus No 59, protect', UKZ 58, as composed of No 147 plus No 59, 
the whole suggesting protect', OC, as a picture of a penis — a variant 
of No 214. Probably the picture was a representation of a penis 
and testicles. That would naturally suggest father, and in course 30 
of time might easily come to stand for mother. Through the part 
that the date-palm played in Babylonian religion [cf, SO, 90—100), 
it could naturally come to stand for date-stone. How it expressed 
cry or word is not clear. Probably the meaning was developed out 
of the ideas oi father or mother. 35 

No 163 ^ 
1. uddu, part of a ship, AL^ 8824a (B 4I92). 



2. i?hashuru(?) a plant, HWB 294b (M 2766). 

3. '^^^\t\M, fig-tree, CT 19 35 S 89616 (M 2767). 



Bi0t of 'S^to^tap^s Sy 

As we have no early form the origin is quite unknown; perhaps 
it was the picture of a plant or tree. 

No 164 ^T 

1. (?)upu, c/oud-mass, RH 70 26 (M 2781). 

5 2. dadaru, stenchy 2 l620e (B 4I97). 

3. martu, SI, gall-bladder, bitterness, S^ iii 60 (B 4196). 

4. natvi(?) strike, split, CT 19 317c (M 2782). 

5. surrupu, unmixed, pure, 2 3459c (B 4201). 

UKZ 57 explains the sign as No 147, house plus No 249, fear. 
10 Since JR 2 229 n 3 has shown that the sign stood for gall-bladder^ 
it is clear that the original picture must have represented that organ, 
which played such an important part in Babylonian omens. 

No 165 ^f 

1. kakasiga, lA, brightness, CT 11 14 26 (M 2793). 
15 2. tanittu(?) exaltation, CT 11 1425 (M 2794). 

UKZ 192 ff. explains the sign as composed of No 1 59 plus No 519. 
This is clearly right. Exaltation is derived from the first element 
and brightness from the second. 

No 166 ^^ 

20 1. uddudu, sharpened ox pointed ^^ CT 18 4047a (B 4234). 

2. ulluhiu, sharpened or pointed i^) CT 18 4046a (B 4235). 

3. (?)kakarissu, gir, } MSW 25, R 2588 39a (M 2796). 

4. lubasu, garment, 5 28 wb (B 4225). 

5. lubsu, garment, 5 2814a (B 4226). 

25 6. nasu(?) sway, tremble, CT 18 4044a (M 2797). 

7. silu, } CT 18 4045 a (B 4229). 

8. pillu, IN, a plant, KU 675 (B 4227). 

9. piltu, IN, a plant, AL^ 6j ^ (B 4228). 

UKZ 127, 136 explained the sign as composed of No 175, wood, 
30 plus No 227, make', OC, as the picture of a kind of grain. The 
sign pictured plants growing in a pot. This naturally gave the 
meaning plant. Sway, tremble was suggested by the swaying of a 
plant in the wind ; garment, by the use of flax, or some fibrous plant, 
for the making of garments. 

35 No 167 ^^ 

1. rabbu, rab, great, S^ v 62 (B 4244). - 



88 (gatton, (gaB^icnian (]QOvitin^ 

Cf, also M 2817 and the references there given. The sign occurs 
only in late texts. It is probably a variant of No 169, the sign for king. 
Such an origin would explain its one ideographic meaning oi great. 

No 168 ^^ 

1. makutu, DIM, some wooden instrument, perhaps a mast, S^ v 63 5 

(B 4252). 

We have no form of the sign earlier than Nebuchadrezzar II. 
He gives us a fairly archaic representation, however, from which it 
appears that the sign may have pictured a mast with spread sails. 

No 169 ^^ 

1. iiAdad, god Adad, PSBA 11 174fif. PI 1 4 (M 2829). 

2. be'elu, de lord, 2 1945b (B 4260). 

3. belu, lord, 5 1348a (B 4261). 

4. i^Lugaip) divine king, CT 16 49302 (M 2827). 

5. malku, arbiter, prince, 5 301b (B 4262). 15 

6. maliku, arbiter, prince, 5 302 b (B 4263). 

7. malik, arbiter, prince, 5 303 b (B 4264). 

8. salu, IN, decider, arbiter, 5 lliid (B 4265), 

9. sarru, LUGAL, king, S^^ v 61 (B 4266). 

10. turmahu, .?^ 2 3I sg (B 4267). 20 

EM 2117 explained the sign as the picture of a bee; Rylands, 
TSBA 6 462 n, as a man wearing a crown or carrying an umbrella, 
an opinion in which H who quotes it concurs; UKZ 51, as No 285, 
the picture of a man, plus a motif for great', OCS 23I ff. & 241, as 
the picture of a man wearing a striking head-dress or crown. An early 25 
vase-picture clearly shows this to be right*. Such a picture repres- 
enting a chieftain or king, would reaffily suggest all the meanings. 

No 170 ^1 

1. adaqa(.?) soft, young, CT 12 1226a (M 2839). 

2. asu, MA, go out, grow, 5 21 9e (B 4302). 30 

3. asu sa isi u qane, MU, grow, of trees and reeds, 2 6255c (B 4303). 

4. arhu(.?) swift, CT 12 1212a (M 2843). 

5. arqu, green, AL^ 83 73 (B 430I). 

6. edelu, bolt, bar, 5 2520c (B 4305). 

7. edesu(.?^) be new, cf KL 20690 with 19792 (M 2883). 35 

8. etillu, SER, lord, ruler, HAS ix (B 4306). 

9. isinnu, WLY.^, feast, 4^ 231c (B 4311). 
10. itanbutu, be oppressed, 5 4245c (B 4361). 

* Cf. Banks, Bismya, New York. 19 12, p. 268. 



Biei of 'i^fto^xap^e 89 

11. uddusu, new{}) CT 18 2933b (M 2840). 

12. i?urqu(?) ^-reen, HWB 243; c/. KING, Ma^-ic 12 6 (M 2845). 

13. banu, create, grow, 4^ IS* 52b (B 4304 M 2846). 

14. zamaru, MU, sing, 2 20 1 a (B 4347). 

5 15. zamaru, SIR, sing, CT 12 11 27a (M 2847). 

16. zimmeru, singer, RH liosi (M I0612). 

17. zaqtu, /^/;2/, ASKT 116 No 153 (B 4346). 

18. zarabu, repress, withhold, ASKT I22 No I912 (B 4348). 

19. zarbu, } 5 1623a (M 2848). 

10 20. habatu, acqtdre property \^) plunder, 5 3964e (B 4307). 

21. habatu h^i 2Xa!\sx, plunder, of a caravan, 5 3962e (B 4308). 

22. hamatu, quiver, hasten, 4^ 2845b (B 4309 M 2849). 

23. hannasruP) } CT 18 4211a (M 2885). 

24. harasu, restrain, hinder, AV 3224 (B 43 lo). 
15 25. taradu, drive away, hunt, 4^ 2128b (B 4344). 

26. kalu, lock up, detain, 2 2133c (B 43 12). 

27. kunuku, a seal, 5 274ig (B 4322). 

28. kanasu(.?^) kind of plant, AL^ 8034b (B 4313). 

29. kasu, bind, tie, 4^ 1629a (B 4316). 
20 30. kisru, possession, 4^ 36b (B 43 1 8). 

31. '^^^\x\x, park, 2 15370 (B 4315). 

32. karabu, bless, 4^ 1713a (B 43I4). 

33. kirimmu(?) womb, vagina, CT 12 1225a (M 2852). 

34. kirissu(?) an instrument, CT 12 12 29a (M 2853). 
25 35. kasadu, capture, ASKT ^2 i 31 (B 4319). 

'^6. kissu, cucumber^) 2 44 4 g (B 4320). 

37. katamu, cover, CT 4 8ia (M 2854). 

38. lasamu, gallop, 2 2746a (B 4323). 

39. ^^^lisan kalbi, dog's tongue plant, CT 14 20 20 (M 2855). 
30 40. melultu, joy, pleasure, CT 19 31 i9a (M 2856). 

41. musaru, plantation, 4^ 27 4a (B 4362). 

42. miristu, plantation, 5 21 3e (B 4324). 

43. muqqu, garment, festal clothingij) 5 1635a (B 4325). 

44. nabi(.?) sprout, offspring, CT 18 2932b (M 2857). 
35 45. nabatu, MU, shine, 5 4245 c (B 4326). 

46. namaru(.?) SIR, be bright, DW 208 (M 2858). 

47. napahu, glow, AL^ 134 No 31 (B 4327). 

48. napahu sa libbi, WJ ,^ glowing, of the heart, CT 19 40 R2, 414 5 

49. parasu, divide, 5 2436a (B 4328 M 2862). [(M 2860). 
40 50. sihirtu, cutting down grain^) AV 724I (M 2863). 

51. samadu(?) GIR, tie, harness, MSW 25 R 2, 58844a (M 2864). 

52. suppuru sa libbi, KESDA, cry, of the heart, 2 20 7c (B 4334). 

53. susu(.?^) marsh land, CT 12 12 27a (M 2865). 



90 (§atton, (gaBgfiontan (SOxxtin^ 

54. sarahu, /5^ excited, cry out, 2 20 ua (B 4333)- 

55. sirhu, crj/j lamentation^ RH 31 10 etc. (M 2866). 

56. qu, thready 5 21 se (B 432I). 

57. qasaru, SER, gather, asse^nble, S^ vi 15 (B 4317). 

58. qisru, assembly, 4^ 3 6b (B 43 18). 5 

59. rabasu(?) lie down, encamp, CT 18.3624a (M 2867). 

60. xoAkdixx, pursue, 2 3624a? (B 4330). 

61. rakasu, KESDA, bind, S^ vi I4; ^. ZA 1 60 n (B 433 1). 

62. riksu, a bond, 4^ l660b (B 4332). 

63. ramamu, cry, howl, CT 18 3927b (M 2888). 10 

64. rimmu, howling, CT 18 3925b (M 2889). 

65. rimmatu, howling, CT 18 3926b (M 2890). 

66. (?)ritu(?) pasture land, RH No 793 (M 2868). 

67. sa*ilu, priest or enchanter, BN 33 3 (M 2'^jo), 

6*^. suharru, ? 2 2122c (B 4340). 15 

69. ^^^P^^saharratu or suharratu, SAKAR, a kind of vessel, 5 42 3ie; 

70. sataru; SAR, wnV^, AL^ 678 (B 4336). [2 21 25c (B 4339). 

71. htm, placing(}) or fate ^) 5 21 7e (B 4337). 

72. samii, SIRIM, burn, boil, roast, 2 5024c (B 4335). 

y^^. siptu, incantation, CT 16 395 (M 2872). 20 

74. saqaqu(?) ? CT 12 1228a (M 2873). 

75. sannasru(?) ? CT 18 4212a (M 2891). 

7 6. surru, wSAR, brilliance {^) AV 8586 (B 4342). 
JJ. tobvui^) fullness, AV 724I (M 2874). 

78. tamu, speak, 4^ 34b (B 4343). 25 

79. tiaru, kind of cedar tree, AV 8875 (B 4345). 

80. tissulu, ? MSW 22, R 345 9 (M 2892). 

81. taqanu, become firm, right, RH 121 n (M 2875). 

KES (2 55 33a). HIR (2 21 26c). NISIGU (S^ iii 69). 

BNA 13 90 explained the sign as a picture of vegetable growth; 30 
UKZ 132 ff., as a motif for plant doubled, plus a vaotii for surround] 
OC, as the picture of a garden; OCS 236, as the picture of two trees 
growing; LB A 3 11, as the picture of a garden. As Thureau-Dangin 
has pointed out and our sign list shows, three originally independent 
signs have been merged into one. No 170 pictured two trees growing 35 
by a stream of water; No 170 a was, apparently, the ground plan of 
a temple; while No 170b represented the crossing of canals containing 
water. The confining of water seems to have suggested the meaning 
bind. No 170 a kept its identity in Babylonian to the end, but in 
Assyrian was merged by the time of Assurbanipal into 170. No 170 b 40 
can be traced in Babylonian to the Kassite period. The various meanings 
fall easily into three classes, those suggested by irrigation and vege- 



Miei of 'ii^toQvap^e 9I 

tation, those suggested by a temple and its services, and those 
suggested by the idea of confining water or binding. They may be 
classified as follows: 

From 170: green, grow, go out [of shoots) be soft, young, new, 
5 create or beget, womb, quiver [of leaves) be swift, an extension of 
quiver, park, forest, cover, plants, gallop, plantation, marsh-land, 
pasture-land, encamp, cedar-tree, point [of a leaf) cutting grain, pos- 
session, fulness, bless. 

From I'/o 3.: priest, boil or roast, glow, shine, incantation, speak, 
10 cry out, lament, lamentation, sing, singer, fate, write, (priests wrote), 
kind of vessel, feast, festal garment, assemble. 

From 170b: bind, capture, bond, be firm, right, bolt, bar, lord (one 
who binds), plunder, restrain, lock up, fetter, tie, harness, possession, 
captive, thread or cord, a seal, divide, pursue, drive away, repress, 
15 Some of the meanings such as glow, shine and seal could be 

derived from more than one of the original forms. 

No 171 ^B^ 

1. adaru, be wide, large, AL^ 8426 (B 4385). 

2. elu, BAD, be high, 2 30 9 g (B 4387). 
20 3. diiru, BAD, wall, S^ vi 16 (B 4386). 

4. (?)hinqu, narrows, CT 12 1239a (M 2908). 

5. kalu, lock up, hold, 2 21 45 c (B 4392). 

6. kamaru(?) strike down, overthrow, RH 111 11 (M 2909). 

7. lilatu, evening, CT 12 12 34a (M 2910). ■ 
25 8. matu, die, ASKT 8439 (B 4388). 

9. mutu, death, dead, ASKT 203 ii 18 (B 4389). 

10. mitu, dead, 4^ 2923a (B 4390). 

11. naru, kill, 2 1923a (B 4391). 

12. samu, heaven, CT 12 12313438a (M 2912). 
30 13. saqii, be high, CT 12 1230 33 37a (M 2913). 

UKZ 180 explained the sign as composed of the motif for 
surround plus the motif for open. The sign represented a city 
gateway with a bit of the contiguous walls, hence the meanings wall, 
lock up, high. Heaven was an extension of high, and evening was 
35 probably associated with bolting or locking the gate at night. In 
war fights occurred by the gate and ordinary executions may have 
taken place near it, hence the meanings kill, die, dead. 

No 172 ^=^M 

1. ullulu, . . . UD, rejoicing, CT 12 125b (M 2930). 
40 2. kidinu, UMBARA, protection, S^ vi 18 (B 439S). 



92 (Sfctxton, (g>a6^fontan (S^vitin^ 

3. (?)nararu(?) Mp CT 16 2834 (M 293I). 

4. nirarutu, Ae/p, 5 30 32g (B 4396). 

5. risatU; SIL, rejoicing, CT 12 12 6b (M 2933). 

6. samu, heaveUy CT 12 12 4b (M 2934). 

7. saqu, >^?;^>^, CT 12 124b (M 2935). 5 

8. talmutu, enclosure ^^ AV 4285 (B 4397). 

When the sign first occurs, at the time of the dynasty of Ur 
(OBI 125 15), it means wall. It is clearly, therefore, a variant form 
of No 171. This accounts for the meanings enclosure, protection, help, 
of which rejoicing is an extension. It also suggested high, of which 10 
heaven was an extension. 

No 172a ^^ 

1. duppuru(?) } CT 12 12 lib (M 2942). 

The form would suggest that the sign is a variant of No 171. 
The Babylonian form of No 174, [cf, pi. I39), confirms this view. 15 

No 173 ^^M 

1. risatu, ASILAL, rejoicing, S^ vi 17 (B 4400). 

UKZ 107 n 1 explained the sign as composed of No 170 a, feast, 
plus No 44I, music. The ideographic meaning is identical with one 
of the meanings of No 172, and probably like that sign this is a 20 
variant form of No 171. 

No 173a fc^SI 

1. asalalla . ., rejoicing, CT 12 129b (M 2946), ' 

2. risatu, SIB, rejoicing, CT 12 127b (M 2949). 

The sign is clearly a variant of No 17 1. 25 

No 174 ^Sl 

1. duppuru, } ASKT I17 rev 7, CT 16 4157 (B 4401, M 2950). 

BPS 46 ff. explained the sign as of similar origin to No 173. The 
Babylonian form of the sign, clearly shows that it is a variant of No. I71. 

No 174 a r ^T?T^ 30 

1. nisu, go away, depart, CT 12 4037 a (M 2951). 

2. risatu, rejoicing, HN Taf. X 3 a (M 2952). 

This is evidently another variant of No 171. It combines in form 
the features of No 173 and 173 a, or may be regarded as a variant 
of No 174. The meaning depart wdiS suggested by the gate of the 35 
original picture. 



Miei of 'il>to^t(xp^0 93 



No 175 



1. abalu, drin^-, RH IO162 (M 2953). 

2. ahadu, ? 5 2510 (B 4407). 

3. asahu(?) ? 42 1328b (B 4408). 

5 4. eseru, collect, harvest, CT 16 44110 (M 2954). 

5. babalu(?) SI, carry, bring, CT 11 3039a, cf, AL^ 70 ss (B 4409). 

6. dahadu(?) SI, ^^ abundant, luxurious, CT 11 3043a, ^ AL^ 7037 

7. zananu sa . . Si, adorn(^) of, . ,, AL^ 70 91 (B 4429). [(B 4410). 

8. hatu, ? ASKT 60 11 (M 2955). 

10 9. hasalu, SI, crush grain^ AL^ 70 90 (B 44II). 

10. hasu, SI, hasten, hurry, CT 11 3037a (B 44I2). 

11. lamu sa . ., Si, surround, of . .j CT 11 3045a (B 44I3). 

12. mullu, ^i, fullness, 4^ 1630b (B 4415). 

13. masalu, SIG, resemble, 4^ 913b (B 44I4). 
15 14. ^^Nabu, god Nabu, 2 S472g (B 4416). 

15. nadu, SI, SUM, throw down, AL^ 70 85 (B 4417)- 

16. nadanu, SI, SUM, give, AL^ 70 86 (B 4418). 

17. saharu, turn, RH 31 1 (M 2957). 

18. sapanu, ST, SIG, overthrow, AL^ 70 92 (B 4420). 
20 19. paqadu, SI, appoint, PAJ 70 88 (B 44I9). 

20. suharruru, be narrow, in trouble, or still, RH 31 1 (M 2958). 

21. sakanu, set, place, CT 19 434a (M 2959). 

22. sakaru, SI, become drunk, AL^ 6"^ 346 (B 4423). 

23. samu, put, place, 2 73a (B 4421). 

25 24. sapaku, ^IG, pour out, ASKT 5554 (B 4425). 

25. saqti, drink, 2 3016a (B 4424). 

26. saru, wander, 4^ 1547a (B 4422). 

27. sutlumu, ^l, present, offer, AL^ 70 si (B 4427). 

28. tamahu, SI, take, grasp, AL^ 70 82 (B 4428). 

30 H 475 explained the sign as a picture of grains of corn; 

BBH 19, as a pile of plants laid on a table as an offering to a god; 
UKZ 125 ff., as some rapidly growing plant written double; OC, as 
two ears of grain laid down; LBA 316 agrees with OC; OCS 236 
&i 255., as two heads of grain. The sign pictured two ears of grain 

35 laid down, probably as an offering. All the ideographic meanings 
are so readily suggested either by the ears themselves or their 
function as offerings, that an extended analysis of the meanings 
seems unnecessary. 

No 176 ^^^ 

40 1. uhulu, apla?it the juice of which was rubbed on the sick, 4^ 26 36 b 54 b 
2. [abanjuhulu, a kind of stone, CT 14 16 K 6003 2 (M 2975). [(B 4448). 



94 (^axtofif (gafigfonian (]§Oxiiin^ 

3. ^^"^mangu, TE, a garden plant, CT 11 45 6a (M 2976). 

4. ^a^qaqulu, TE, a plant, CT 11 457 a (M 2977). 

5. ramaku, fimkxi, pour out, libation, 2 48336 (B 4447). 

6. ^am^ametu, TE, a garden plant, CT 11 45 sa (M 2979). . 

ELTEK (AL^ 66 No 21). ERES (2 S271d). NAGU (5 22 29 b c). 5 

OC explained it as an ear of wheat; SO 218, as waving grain. 
The picture represented a head of grain, or part of a plant lying 
on a stand or support. It suggested vegetables for family use, or 
offered in sacrifice. This latter suggested also the idea of a libation 
or pouring out. Where it occurs in the inscription of LUGALZAGGISI 10 
it is part of the ideogram for the grain god. 



+ 



No !76 a >^ ^ ^ ^ ^ -i<M 



t 



1. asamsutu, rihamun, hurricane, 3 6952d (M 2982). 

2. igibru, RIHAMUN, } 3 6956d (M 2981). 

3. mehu(?) RIHAMUN, storm, whirlwind, CT 24 44149 (M I0627).. 15 

4. nagab nuhsi, rihamun, totality of abundance, 3 6957d (M 2984). 

5. sahmastu, RIHAMUN, uprising, rebellion, 3 6963 d (M 2985). 

6. tesu, RIHAMUN, r 2^/;^, rebellion, 3 6955d (M 2986). 

The sign is clearly No I3 plus No 176 quadrupled. Probably 
it stood for a god of fertility who, as among primitive peoples, per- 20 
formed all the functions of a deity including rain and storms. This 
Jed to the association of the meanings whirlwind and hurricane with 
the sign, and a figurative application of these meanings afforded the 
meanings rebellion, ruin. 

No 177 ^ 25 

1. urhu, road, pathy ASKT 12921 (B 4460). 

2. hamru, heap, throng, 4^ 323a (B 4462). 

3. "^^^Harran, country Harran, 1 14 71 (B 4458). 

4. harranu, KASKAL, road, way, S^ ii 11 (B 4457). 



Bisft of 'ilito^ta^^s 95 

5. iiSin(?) ^od Sin, BA 3 408, TN 272 (M 2987). 

6. rabatu, ? 4^ 2 4b (B 4463). 

KAS (S^ iij 10). RAS (AL3 65 4a). 

UKZ 45 & 120 explained the sign as the symbol for two (No I44) 
5 doubled, which became the motif for way. He is followed by MSL 201. 
The sign is apparently simply a diagram of cross-roads. This 
suggested road, way, and as the city of Harran took its name from 
cross-roads it came to designate it and its god Sin. Why the sign 
doubled should have designated a keap or throng is not clear. 

No 178 ^^ 

1. illat, ILLAT, strength, might, S^ ii 12 (B 4466). 

2. i^Illat, ILLAT, god Illat, ZA 7 280 (M 299I). 

The sign was apparently composed of No I77, roads, plus No 322, 
country or mountain. It is a late combination made by Semites. 
15 Why it designated strong is not quite clear. 

No 179 ^^ 

1. subtu, SUBTU, dwelling, S^ ii 13 (B 4468). 

^ The sign is a late Semitic combination of No 177, road, plus 
No 443, an enclosure. It either signified a dwelling on a road, or to 
20 which a path led. 

No 179a ^ll^- 

1. ersitu, ZIKURA, land, CT 19 1927a (M 2992). 

This sign is No 177, road, plus No 532, six. It is a late Semitic 
way of expressing one of the ideas connected with No 444. 

25 No 180 ^ 

1. ell, TUH, high, CT 12 llijsb (M 2993). 

2. epu sa [akali], DU, cook, of food, CT 12 11 4b (M 2994), 

3. irtu, GAB A, front, breast, 5 31 sc (B 4477, M 2995). 

4. galadu(?) fear, KB 6 34 n 3 & BD 2 2 (M 2996). 

30 5. du §a ill, DU, dwelling, of a god, CT 12 lliib (M 2997). 

6. dahhu sa ha . . ., DUDDA, }, CT 12 11 isb (M 2998). 

7. dahadu, DU, be abundant, luxurious, 2 25366 (B 4474). 

8. daku, DU, break, crush, 2 2717 a (B 4475). 

9. zu'unu, disturb, confound, CT 17 419 (M 3030). 

35 10. hamadu sa eni, DU, burn, of the eyes, CT 12 11 i6b (M 2999). 
11. hengallu, l^x^hM, fullness^ richness, 4^ 2021 (M 3031). 



96 (§ax(on, (^aBgfont'an (^vitin^ 

12. hasalu sa se'im, crusk, of grain, 5 1833c (B 4476). 

13. tahadu, tuhhudu, DU, TUH, be abundant, abundance, CT 12 11 9b 23b 

14. tuhdu (?) abundance, 42 59 22b; 0^. ZDMG 58 953 (M 3001). [(M 3000). 

15. kamaru sa suripi, DU, throw down, of fire, CT 12 11 lob (M 3002). 

16. kimru(?) overthrow, 5 1949a; ^^ HWB 337 (M 3003). 5 

17. kanaku sa sabe, DU, seal, of elders, 2 2857f (B 4479). 

18. kitmuru, fall, overthrow, 4^ 2223b (B 4480). 

19. labanu, throw down, AL^ 62 342 (B 4481). 

20. labanu sa libitti, DU, burn, of bricks, CT 12 llsb (M 3005). 

21. laban libitti, DU, burning, of bricks, 2 27ioe (B 4482). 10 

22. malu sa harti(?) DU, be full, of}, CT 12 11 sb (M 3006). 

23. nadu sa diti(?) DU, establish, of a decision, CT 12 11 12b (M 3007). 

24. natalu, look, 4^ 103b (B 4485). 

25. nansu, DU, } CT 12 Hub (M '3008). 

26. nasahu sa eni, DU, turn, of eyes, CT 12 11 7b (M 3009). 15 

27. napalu sa eni, DU, lower, of the eyes, CT 12 H 7b (M 3010). 

28. nupallu, DU, lowering, CT 12 llieb (M 30II). 

29. nasu, lift up, 2 ll46g (B 4483). 

30. nasu sa eni, DU, lift up, of eyes, AV 2032 (B 4484). 

31. pidu sa pi, TUH, open, of the mouth, CT 12 11 20b (M 3013). 20 

32. pahu, control command, 2 ll45g (B 4486). 

33. pihu sa elippi, DU, command, of a ship^ CT 12 11 6b (M 30I4). 

34. pataru, GABA, DU, TUH, split, tear asunder, CT12 11 17 b 19 b, AL^62345 

35. par'u, GABA, cut through, ASKT 8664 (B 4487). [(M 3015, B 4488). 

36. pitu, open, 4^ 25 64b (B 4490). 25 

37. pitu sa pi, TUH, open, of the mouth, 5 4254 a (B 4489). 

38. silu sa qutrinni, DU, burn, of incense, CT 12 lli3b (M 3016). 

39. qablu, 7nidst, 5 269c (B 4478). 

40. ri§aqu sa ameli, TUH, ?, of men, CT 12 11 21b (M 3017). 

41. sabu sa qati, DU, press, with the hand, CT 12 11 6b (M 3018). 30 

42. sahatu, tear off, flay, 4'-^ 747a (B 4491). 

43. satahu, TUH, } CT 12 1122b (M 3019). 

44. tarasu, direct, 5 5017a (B 4492). 

Although UKZ 101 n 1 and I44ff. discusses this sign, no solution 
of its origin is offered. The forms as given by EANNATUM and 35 
MANISHTUSU show that the sign originally pictured a section of the 
stalk of a plant split apart. This directly suggested most of the 
meanings: split, tear off, open, cut through, break, crush, throw down, 
overthrow, disturb, confound. Of this general class of meanings burn 
is a development, burning bricks and cook are special applications 40 
of it. From crushing, which was applied to grain, came the idea of 
abundance, fullness, an extension of which was be high, and then 



^ist of 'it>to^vap^0 gy 

divine dwelling. From the idea of overthrowing, came the idea of 
turning. This applied to the eyes gave all the movements of the 
eyes recorded above and the meaning look. The idea of opening 
was applied to the mouth and naturally passed into the idea of 
5 command, direct, establish a decision. The meaning breast came in 
through syllabic spelling. 

No 181 t^^ 

1. edinu, EDIN, plain, lowland^ desert, AL^ 658 (B 4526). 

2. bamatu, high place, 4^ 20 obv 3 (B 4527). 
[o 3. bitu, temple, house, RH 3I 10 (M 3048). 

4. matati, RABITA, lands, 2 47i5e (B 4528). 

5. seru, EDIN, plain, desert, KU 65 9 (B 4529). 

6. seru, back, upon, 5 5 64 (B 4S31). 

7. \.'dxh2.^\3i^) fold, stable, RH 2720 (M 3049). 



15 Ri (BPS 84), RU (2 56 59c). SIR (ASKT 17351). 

OC explained the sign as the picture of a leathern bottle, which 

one must carry with him into the desert, and which thus came to 

stand for desert; OCS^236 and 255, as a rough outline of the Meso- 

. potamian plain with its two great rivers and occasional sections of 

20 irrigated land. My former explanation still seems most probable. 

The additional lines in one fornl: which Thureau-Dangin calls 

gunus, are indications of the marsh lands near the Persian Gulf. 

The original meaning of country, plain, was extended to mean high 

land, back, then it passed to mean high place, and from that, when 

25 open air sanctuaries became temples, to temple and then house. 

No 182 

1. esepu, ^^z'^^r, combi?ie, ASKT 5545 (B 4535). 

2. hamat, haste, 2 39 4e (B 4S39). 

3. nararu, help, aid, 2 39 3e (B 4S36). 
30 4. rasu, help, assist, CT 16 7264 (M 3055). 

5. risu, helper, 2 195b (B 4537). 

6. ruddu, tread, march, ASKT 5546 (B 4538). 



DAH, TAH (5 1 83; LTP %%). 

UKZ 101 explained the sigh as No 62 doubled. The original 
35 picture was No 62 doubled i. e. a doubled arrow. This suggested 
cooperation in a fight, so that gathering or combining, help, aid, 
inarch, and haste were all suggested by it. 

Beitrage Ass.: Barton II. , 7 



98 (§axton, (gaBgfontan (WvHin^ 

No 183 ^ 

1. emuqu, de strong; deep, RH 3628 (M 3059), 

2. belu, /ord, 4^ 2763a (B 4S43). 

3. qarradu, Warrior, 2 55 7 a (B 4544). 

4. rimu, AMA, wild ox, S^ ii 30 (B 4545). 



AM (MSI 334). 

H 463 explained the sign as an ox's head surmounted by two 
horns, into which No 322 country, was inserted to indicate wild ox\ 
UKZ 56 agrees with this except that it explains the inserted sign 
as mountain', OCS 234 and 250 explains it as the head of an ox on 10 
which the eyes are represented. The sign was clearly the head of 
an ox. A warrior was called a wild ox\ thus king Rim-Sin bore 
a name which meant the wild ox of Sin, and Shalmaneser in his 
Monolith inscr. says: / t7'ampled like a wild ox\ and Sennacherib, 
iii 74, compares himself to a wild ox. From warrior it naturally 13 
passed to mean lord, and strong. 



No 184 "m^ 

1. nagbu, totality, h 21 esc (B 4558). 

2. siru, \}Z\}, flesh, S^ vi 23 (B 4559). 



SIR (AJSL 16 73 No 161 and e). 20 

OCS 234 & 248 explained it as the picture of a carcass of 
dressed meat. The form of the sign in HAMMURAPI suggests that 
the original was a dressed carcass hung up by the hind legs, as 
butchers in the East as well as the West are still accustomed to hang 
them. This would account for the two meanings flesh, and totality. 25 

No 185 ^^ 

1. abu, month Ab, Str Nbk 43 le (B 4579). 

2. ana, DE, unto, CT 12 23.4149910b, 4^ 26 64b (M 3079, B 4601). 

3. annu, NE, this, 5 319a (B 4580). 

4. emmu, in, with, ^^ 24 No. 1 12 (M 3078). 30 

5. essu, new, AL^ 88 v 11 (B 4583). 

6. ina, DE, in, CT 12 23 414999b (M 3080). 

7. i??Hirru, (Jximi., firebrand, ZA 9 220 10 (M 3081). 

8. (.?>)i??"kabbu, omih, firebrand, ZA 9 220 9 (M 3082), 

9. issitu, fire, 2 l6i8e (B 4584). 35 

10. uzzu,. GiR, wrath, MSW 25 R 2 58841b (M 3077). 

11. umu, day, RH 50 27 (M 3076). 



&iBt of 'it>toQxa^^0 99 

12. ummu, womd, Cf. 4'^ 55 2b with 5811a (M 10639).' 

13. umeru(.^) } AV 2030 (B 459^)- 

14. iiurru, /i£-/tt, day, 2 47 6ie (B 4599) •, 

15. billu(.^) outpouring^) 2 45 eoe (B 4581). 

5 16. basalu, boil, cook, roast, 5 5040b (M 3085). 

17. digmenu(.?) } CT 19 223a (M 3086). 

18. diparu, DE, snatch away, remove, 2 447 c (B 4582). 

19. hahu, } CT 19 i22b (M 3088). 

20. hamatu, burn, quiver, 4^ 22 is a; Surpu 7 7 (B 4585, M 3135). 
10 21. ^banhipindu(.?^) a kind of stone, 2 4060b (B 4586). 

22. kinunu, NE, warming pa?i, ZA 8 202 8 (M 3090). 

23. i^kararu, /r^, heat, 4^ l8i5b (B 4588). 

24. lu, verily, ZA 1 180 (B 4590). 

25. \Q:hM, flame, 2 28556 (B 4589). 

15 26. ^"^^^mussalU; enemy, thief, 4^ 13 No 1 49 (M 3093). 

27. maritu*(.?) DE, } CT 12 23 4I4998 (M 3094). 

28. vi2kAM, flame, 4^ ,2417b (M 3136). 

29. nahu, rest, 5 2l46g (B 4S91). 

30. numuru, brightness, 2 446c; cf HWB 302 (M 3096). 
20 31. napahu, Bl; kindU, glow, 2 3928g (B 4592). 

32. napahu sa isati, IZI, Nl(.?) glow, of fire, CT 19 40 R ii 4I4 (M 3097). 
II. paraku, bolt, bar, 5 5040b (B 4594). 

34. ^"^eisaltu, DU, quarrel, combat, RH 10641 (M 3099). 

35. sarahu sa libbi, rage, of heart, 2 20i9a (B 4597). 
25 36. qalu, BIL, burn, AV 7320 (B 4587, M 3100). 

37. (.?) i? qilutu, oimi., fire, ZA 9 220 9 (M 3101). 

38. iiqararu, /r^, CT 16 45^9 (M 3102). 

39. su, NE, he, ASKT 12917 (B 4600). 

40. sahanu, burn, glow, 2 3929g (B 4617). 
30 41. sarapu, burn, 5 5040b (B 4595). 

42. sussu, his, i?iine, 5 2l47g (B 4596). 

43. suatu, that one, VA, Samas iii 50 (M I0640). . 

44. (.?)tibu(.?) rise, RH 2728 (M 3104). 

USSI (3 51 37b). KUM (S^ ii 31). LAM (AV 5289). ZAH (S^ ii 32). 

35 EM 2 110 explained the sign as a picture of a burning firebrand; 

H 466 ff. thought that it represented wood laid for a fire in the middle 
of which was a circular bit of wood in which a dry piece was turned 
to generate fire; BNA 13 89 explained it as a picture of a burning 
fire; UKZ 177 ff; as orienting-motif gunued plus No 2^8, wood, the 

40 whole signifying fire or possibly two sticks of tinder turned in a 
wooden bowl; OQ as a picture of fire; Prince, JAOS 25 57 n 1 and 
MSL c;8. as a bowl with a handle against which two tinder sticks 

7* 



loo (§Mton, ®»a6gfontan (SOxHm^ 

are turned, a view in which OCS 240 & 258 concurred; LSG 20, as 
an altar and a fire. The meanings fall into two classes, the preposi- 
tional and pronominal, which were connected with the sign through 
syllabic usage, and the others most of which were obviously connected 
with fire. The month Ab was connected with it because of the 
shortening of a longer ideogram, and remove, because of the destruc- 
tive power of fire; dol^ or dar by the shutting of a furnace or oven. 
The explanation of Delitzsch in which Prince and the writer formerly 
concurred still seems to me to stand. 



No 185 a ^^ ^^ 



The si^gn is clearly 185 quadrupled. 

No 185b M^^ 

No ideographic or syllabic value of this sign is known. There 
is no clue to its origin. 

No 185 c ^M ' ^5 

EME (CT 19 3912a). 

This sign appears to be a" compound of No ^186 and 337, but 
the proof of this is wanting. 

No 185 d M^^ 

ENTE (CT 19 398 a). 20 

This sign is, apparently, composed of No 186 and 521, but in 
the absence of early forms and meanings it cannot be proved. 

^ No 186 ^^T 

1. edesu, GIBIL, de new, WM 2714 (M 3179). 

2. elitu, GI, strength, 2 3014c (B 4644). 25 

3. essu, new, 4^ 12 rev 23 (B 4645). 

4. subatg^^u^ new garment, 5 l5ioe (B 4646). 

5. is-eiip essetu, newness, AL^ 88 v 12 (B 4647). 

6. qarpate^^^t^ ^ ^^-^^ of pot, 5 42 32e (B 4648). - 

7. iddisu, shining, new, 4^ 5 40 c (B 4649). 30 

8. issapak, libationi^) GT 18 39i5a (M 3184). 



Biet of 'i^to^xap2>& loi 

9. (?)i?qilutu, GIBIL, burning, ZA 9 2209 (M 3186). 
lo. sapaku, pour out, heap up, construct, AV 7996 (B 4650). 

H 466 explained it in the same way as he did the preceding sign; 
UKZ 177 fF. also explained it as he did the last sign; OCS 240 & 258, 
5 as the picture of a torch. The early forms clearly point to the 
picture of a torch as the origin of the sign. This suggested directly 
the ideas of fire, brightness, and the last meaning suggested newness ^ 
which in its turn suggested strength. Fire was connected with 
sacrifice, which may have suggested pour out, and libatiofi, or these 
10 meanings may have been suggested by the way light seemed to be 
poured out from the torch. 

No 187 tt^ 

1. 3b\x, father, 2 32 58d (B 4656). 

2. t^^^Ulluru, a sprout, 2 264a (M 3190). 

15 3. ittu, NINDA, a measure, S^ iii 6'^ (B 4658). 

4. birU; a cistern, deep, AV 12 14 (B 4657). 

5. [gamatu], } CT 12 23 414999a (M 3245). 

6. [zingurru], } CT 12 23 4149913a (M 3246). 

7. (.?) mashaiu, } CT 12 23 4149926a (M 3191). 
20 8. [nahbu]; quiver, CT 12 23 414992a (M 3249). 

9. nahbalu, Vr<«/, CT 12 23 4149929a (M 3250). 

10. namandu, GUR, extension, measure, S^ iii 63 (B 4659). 

11. nindu, measure i^) 4'^ I4 No 37 (B 4660). 

12. sabu sa. . ., .?^ CT 12 23 414993a (M 3252) ■ 

25 13. sutu, a sinall vessel, CT 12 23 4149916a (M 3253). 

14. pan ziri, surface of seed, CT 12 23 4149928a (M 3254). 

15. pasiqtu, } CT 12 23 4149918a (M 3255). 

16. (.f^)sindu, rope, fetter, CT 12 23 4149925a (M 3I92). 

17. rikbu, } CT 12 23 4149914a (M 3258). 

30 18. sulusumtu(.?) } CT 12 23 4149924a (M 3259). 

UKZ 192 questions whether the sign may not be a modification 
of a circle; OC explains it as the representation of a measure. The 
sign probably represented an outline of a jar which was used as a 
measure. This directly suggested the three meanings which have 
35 to do with measurement. The form, too, suggested a cistern, while 
the idea of container or restrainer connected with the jar suggested 
thong, or fetter. It came to mean father through a confusion of the 
sign with No 147. 

No 187a ^^ 
40 1. malmala, equal parts ^>i CT 12 23 414995a (M 3201). 
2. sirinu, division, cutting, CT 12 23 414996a (M 3202). 



102 (^axton, Qg^afigfontan (]SOxxtm^ 

Probably a variant of the preceding sign. The meanings were 
apparently derived from the uses of a measure. 

No 187b t;<^l 

1. pan namandi; extended surface yCT 12 23 4149917a (M 3203). 

We have the sign in the Neo-Babylonian script only. Its form 5 
looks on the face of it as though it might be a compound of No 187 
with No 9. The meaning, however, suggests rather that the sign is 
a variant of No 187 — perhaps a measuring jar with, some orna- 
mentation on its side. 

No 187 c t-t^ ^° 

1. sutu, a small vessel] CT 12 23 4149915a (M 3204). 
The sign was clearly a variant of No 187. 

No 187d ^>:^S5 
1. panu, coMntena7ice, face, CT 12 23 4149931a (M 3205). 

Probably the sign is a variant of No 188. 15 

No 188 ^I^^ 

1. emu, USBAR, look at, examine, AV 2269 (B 4667). 

2. baru, UZU, AZU, seer, diviner, magician, S^ iv 2 (B 4666). 

UKZ 164 ff. explains the sign as composed of No 2I4, man, and 
No 94, great. Probably the picture represented the body and head 20 
of a magician, either covered with some official headdress or with 
tatoo marks. 

No 188a t:^E 
1 , SUBAR, > CT 11 28 82763 (M 3207). 

2 , USBAR, } CT 11 28 82764 (M 3208). 25 

Perhaps the sign is a variant of No 188, but there is no certain 
clue to the origin. 

No 188 b X^^ 

1. ^^^ name of an unknozvn deity, Surpu, viii lo (M 3230). 

The origin is unknown. 3*^ 

No 188c X^^ 

1. (?)pan namandu, extended surface, CT 12 23 4149919a (M 3231). 

2. maru, URU, child, son, CT 12 32 33329 ^ (M 3232). 



Mipt of 3beo.5t4^?0 103 

The meanings indicate that a variant of No 187 and a variant 
of No 188 have blended to form this sign. 

No 189 P^E 

1. aru, URU, sprout, flower, S^ iii 66 (B 4672). 
5 2. €^vx\x, fruit, 42 2710b (B 4674). 

3. ^Ti\\xt\x, family, kindred, 4'^ 1 40a (B 467S). 

4. esgurru, UGUDIL, 77^ze/^r(?) S^ iv 1 (B 4676). 

5. baru, URU, catch, hunt, AL^ 58200 var (B 4673). 

All the meanings connect the sign with No 187 and its meanings. 
10 Probably the variant arose from the ornamentation on a jar, or some 
Hnes to indicate contents, and were conventionalized into the present 
form by later scribes. 

No 189a ^^ 

1, (.^)santu, a kind of grain, CT 12 23 4149922a (M 3234). 

15 This is a variant of No I90. The storage jar with grain in it 

suggested the meaning grain. 



No 190 N^13 

1. samu, buy, purchase, ASKT 6636si (B 4680). 

2. simu, SAM, SAM, price, S^ iv 3 (B 4681), 

20 3. simu, SA, price, CT 12 32 33329? (M 3235). 

The original picture was a measuring or storage jar (No 187), 
in which was inserted the ideogram for grain (No 323). The code 
of HAMMURAPI shows that prices were ordinarily computed in grain, 
and the temple archives both of Telloh and Nuffar show that till a 
25 late period wages were paid in grain. This sign accordingly naturally 
stood for sel/, and for price. The determinative a-an was added to 
it in the time of the dynasty of Ur. 



No 190 a ^^ 

1. malmala, equal parts i^) CT 12 23 414997a (M 3236). 

30 The form of the sign differs but slightly from that of No 187 a 

and its one meaning is identical with one of the meanings of that 
sign. It is clearly, therefore, a variant of No 187 a. 

No 190b ^I^ 

1. sinnu, division, cutting, CT 12 23 414998a (M 3237). 

35 Facts identical with those mentioned in the case of No 190 a 

indicate that this sign is also a variant of No 187 a. 



104 (Ration, (§aB^iontan QQOvitin^ 

No 191 ^:^m. 

1. akilU; some animal, HWB 395 (M 324I). 

2. ziqqu, ZIG, wmeskin, S^ iii 65 (B 4690). 

3. kirru, la^nb, CT 14 1 5a (M 3238). 

4. sindU; /^zf/^r, harness, CT 12 23 4149932a (M 3239). s 

5. sabru, HAS, a seeri^) S^ iii 64 (B 4688). 

6. simtu, Zl2, fate, 5 3933e (B 4689). 

UKZ 66 explained the sign as a gunued form of No 187. The 
meanings indicate that the original picture represented a waterskin, 
such as are frequently seen in the East, which also suggested an 10 
animal. Seer and fate may have become connected with the sign 
through the meaning lamd which suggested a victim whose entrails 
might be inspected. 

No 192 ^<X 

1. abutu, UBI, necromancy, S^ vi 25 (B 4703). 15 

2. elu, GUD, be high, 2 30iog (B 4703, M 3261). 

3. zaqru, GUD, sharp-pomted, 2 1945b (B 4708). 

4. melu, KUD, SUKUD, flood, highwater, S^ vi 28; CT 17 2917 (B 4705, 

5. nakalu, be cunning, skillful, CT 16 2852 (M 3263). [M 3262). 

6. nikiltu, craft, cunning, BN 3228 (M 3264). 20 

7. naklu, [l]il, fine, artistic, S^ vi 27 (B 4706). 

8. sahu, grow tall, KH I415 (M 3265). 

9. sarru, king, 5 3011a (B 4078). 

Probably the original picture represented an ornamented vase 
or jar (cf. the silver vase of ENTEMENA). This would suggest skill, 25 
a7'tistic, and all kindred meanings. As such objects were the possession 
of kings it suggested king, from which large, grow tall, were soon 
derived, and then, as special applications of these, highwater and peak 
or sharp point. 

No 193 XX^ '^° 

1. harasu, coerce, hinder, CT 12 43 lob (M 3270). 

2. hasalu, QUM, crush, beat out, of corn, S^ iv 6 (B 4713, M 3269, M 3272). 

UKZ 78 explained the sign as compounded of No 392, plus 
No 258; OQ as the picture of a threshing flail. The picture repre- 
sented a flail or a pestle for crushing, which directly suggested the 35 
meanings. 

No 194 X^^ 

1. alaku, go, RH 4910 (M 3273). 

2. erittu, curse, CT 19 44; K 413812b (M 3275)- 



Miet of 'i^^o^va:p^s I05 

3. eqribu, prayer, 2 3I 24e (B 4724). 

4. ba'asu, stinki^) 4^ 2645b (B 4717). 

5. burrumu(?) blue, blue-grey, 2 4411a (B 4718), 

6. daku, GAZA, GAZ, kill, S^ iv 7 (B 4719). 

5 7. hipu, GAZA, GAZ, break, S^ iv 8; CT 16 33 iss; 4- ideia (B 4722, 

8. hipu sa eqli, break, of a field, 2 27 66g (B 4723). [M 3276, B 9089). 

9. hasalu, crusk, 4^ 29*20 (M 3277). 

10. hasalu sa seim, crush, of grain, 5 1834c (B 4721). 

11. (?)karabu, bless, TN 320 (M 3278). 

10 12. mahasu, shatter, 4^ 29 No 3 5 (B 4725, M 3279). 

13. ^?masgasu, a flail, or weapon, 5 1745c (B 4726). 

14. naru, strike, kill, CT 16 1 28 (M 3280). 

15. palaku(?) kill, CT 16 31 125 (M 3281). 

16. ^?sakasu, destroy, ruin, 5 1737c (B 4727). 
15 17. tiduku, killing, fight, 1 21 41 (B 4728). 

UKZ 78 explains the sign as gunu of No I93; OC, as a variant 
picture of a threshing flail. The meanings point clearly to the con- 
clusion that the sign is simply a variant picture of some instrument 
for crushing or fighting or both. All the meanings except two come 
20 directly from such a picture. Prayer and bless have been attached 
to this sign on account of mixture with No 393. 



No 195 



1. anaku, /, ASKT 12926 (B 4738). 

2. asru, place, 4 ^ 247b (B 4739). 
25 3. assu, because, DW 82 (B 4740). 

4. ersitu(?) land, RH 658 (M 3209). 

5. ixvu, fieldij) waste{}) 5 3933c (B 475 1). 

6. hisu, possession, RH 841012 (M 321 1). 

7. hisitu, possession, treasure, RH 8419 (M 32 1 2). 
30 8. lu, verily, 4^ 1033b (B 474I). 

9. (?)libbatu, wrath, anger, CT 11 28 85033 (M 3213). 

10. mu'uru, send, RH .74 rev. 4, 4^ 5 67a (M 3214, B 4744). 

11. madadu, AKA, measure, S^ iv 5 (B 4742). 

12. mimma, anything, 4'^ 1029b 33b (B 4743). 
35 13. ramu, AKA, cry, howl, S^ iv 4 (B 474S). 

14. ramamu, AKA, cry, howl, S^ iv 4 van (B 4746). 

15. sarahu, rage, be excited, HN Taf xiii 7a (M 3215). 

16. sa, who, which, 4^ 97b (B 4747). 

17. salamu, be whole, complete, DW 11 5 (B 4748). 
40 18. sut, } 42 20 No l23 (B 4749). 

19. tertu sa temi, command, of an order, 2 2745c (B 4750). 



lo6 (§axi<>% .(ga6^font,an (]00xitin^ 

BNA 13 378 explained the sign as a representation of fire within 
an enclosure. The picture represented some sort of an enclosure, 
probably an oven, with a fire in it. The idea of heat suggested the 
meanings ra£-e, excitemeitt. The meaning cry grew out of the meaning 
rage and then command was a further development of c7y. From 5 
the idea of measuring the sign came to stand for a measured field, 
then land, and place. Probably from the same idea (i. e. measuring) 
came the idea of being complete. The pronominal and conjunctional 
meanings were attached to the sign through syllabic spelling. 

No 196 ^^ ^o 

1. arallu, URUGAL, the underworld, 2 30i3e (B 4780). 

2. (?)ersitu, land, CT 12 23 9306311 (M 3291). 

3. parsu, \^^'\30\, grave, 5 329a (B 4785). 

4. qabru, URUGAL, tomb, St> iii 58 (B 4781). 

UKZ 57 explained the sign as No 147 doubled, plus No 300. The 15 
sign is a syllabic spelling of URU-GAL, the Sumerian name of the 
underworld. URU was a syllabic value of No 187 as No 189, its 
variant, shows. Our present sign is No 187 with No 300 written 
within it instead of after it, but representing this syllabic spelling. 

No 197 ^<^Ff 20 

1. parsu, UNUGI, grave, S'° iii 57 (B 4787). 

UKZ 57 explains the sign as composed of No 147, house, plus 
No 321, darkness. The sign was formed by placing No 3 21 within 
No 187. No 321 is a variant form of No 307, which was the picture 
of a well. Combined with No 187 it was an appropriate character 25 
to suggest an underground enclosure or tomb. 

No 198 &<<MT 

1. (?)ersitu, land, CT 12 23 930637 (M 3294). 

2. qabru, tomb, KSf 2667 (B 4788). 

Apparently No 187 plus No 419, and it described the underworld 30 
as the measured or enclosed land. 

No 199 t^^ 

1. Uruk^i UNUG, city Erech, 4^ 1935 b (B 4796). 

2. subtu, UNU, dwelling, S^ iii 56 (B 4792). 

UKZ 63 explains the sign as a gunu of No I47. 0GB 32 ff. has 35 
suggested that, as the sign is chiefly used in the names of cities like 
Erech, Ur, and Larsa, in which there were temples, that it may have 



&i^t of 'i^^o^xap^^ 107 

originated in a picture of a ziggurat such as one sees on the kudurru 
stones, {cf. BE, Series D, 4 74). This is a possible explanation, but 
the original picture may have been a variant of No I47, representing 
a reed hut, the perpendicular lines being a survival of the portrayal 
5 of the perpendicular reeds. 

No 199 a t^^ 

The sign appears only in the name of an unidentified deity 
(M 3289). It may be a compound of No 193 and 481, but its origin 
is really unknown. 

No 200 f^EJ 

1. ummu, AGARIN, mother, S^ iii 59 (B 4799). 

Jensen, ZA 1 409, explained the sign as composed of the ground 
form of No 195 plus No 528; UKZ 57, 121, and 187 as a child 
behoused. The sign is as the meaning shows, a variant form of No 155. 

15 No 201 ^<W<T 

1. Nina or Ninua, Nineveh or Nina, 5 23 6a & 1 19 101 (B 4802 — 4805). 

2. iiNina(.?>) goddess Nina, CT 16 13 ii 38 (M 3297). 

EM 2 117 explained the sign as the representation of a fish in 
an enclosure; H 475, and BBH 9 explain the sign as compounded 

20 of No 147, house and No 525, fish\ OCS 237 & 256, as a reed house 
built on stilts with a fish underneath as at the time of the overflow 
of the rivers. While the explanation which I formerly offered is a 
possible one, I am now inclined to think that the sign is a simple 
compound of No I47 and No 525 to express the idea oi fishing place 

25 or fish town just as in Palestine this was expressed by the phrase 
Beth-saida. 

No 202 ^I^^T 

1. emu, USBAR, father-in-law, S^ v lo (B 4807). 

2. emutu, kindred, RH 112 le (M 3321). 

30 UKZ 164 n declared the sign to be an incorrect writing of No 188. 

It is clearly a variant of that sign. 

No 203 ^I^ 

1. \h6M,^\:^w%foundation,^''' 1834b, WM BE l3367i 18 (B48ll,M3299). 

2. halapu, GIR(.?) cover, conceal, 4^ 1652a (B 4812, M 330I). 

35 UKZ 68 explains the sign, as the Assyrian scribes did, as a gunu 

of No 207. The original picture was, I think, a wall (which also 



lo8 (§axton, (gaBgfom'an (XDnttng 

represented drzcks, see below, No 509), with some added strokes to 
indicate that a superstructure rested upon the wall. 



No 204 

1. (?)alahhu, ? CT 11 28 85035 (M 3303). 

2. ubarru, embryo, BC 1377 S 61 11 (M 3302). 5 

3. lasamu, KAS, gallops ruity CT 11 I423 (M 3304). 

4. 3ubat mukku, TUGINI, a kind of garment, JRAS I90S 829 rev 32 

5. rabu, disappear, ^'^ 28 No 225a (B 4820). (M 3305). 

6. sanu, IM, GIR, a foal, you7ig ass, 2 2717c (B 482I; M 3306). 

7. sulu, a wild ox, 2 6268c (B 4822), 10 

Probably the original picture represented the leg and hoof of a 
young animal, hence the meanings young ass, einbryo, zvild ox, gallop, 
and disappear. 

No 205 ^^T •■ 

1. asurru, zvall, 2 ISiia (M 3312). 15 

2. isdu, X}'^, foundation, 4^ I5*ub (B 4832). 

3. ubanu, /^^>^, RH I3I53 (M 33II). 

4. usunu, UR, ? S^ V 9 (B 4837). 

5. utlu, UR, fozmdation, lower part, S^ v 8 (B 4836). 

6. lidu, part of a wall, ASKT I2013 (B 4833). 20 

7. iiNabu, god Nabu, 2 S473g (B 4834). 

8. sunu, UR, loins, 5 252c (B 4835). 

9. salalu, lie dow?t to rest or sleep, BC K 4I34 (M 33 14). 
10. rihu, cohabit, CT 16 27 is (M 33 1 5). 

Probably the original picture represented an upright wall with 25 
a shoulder near the top for the support of beams. This would 
account for most of the meanings. The sign itself suggested all the 
meanings connected with wall, the narrow part at the top suggesting 
peak. It came to stand for loi^is as the foundation or wall of the 
body. The meaning loins led to meaning cohabit and this to lie down. 30 

No 206 X:X^ 

1. kakasiga, IL, } S^ iv 27 (B 4848). 

The pictograph apparently represented a man standing with 
bent elbow and one hand resting on his hip. Unfortunately the 
meaning is unknown. 35 

No 207 >^ 

1. abalu, bring, 4^ 25 39 a (B 4870). 

2. ataru, cover, protect, 4^ 11 47b (B 4879). 



BM of 'iUo^xap^ii 109 

3. alaku, GIN, RA, TUM, DU, RI; go, CT 11 31 22; 5 2l55f; AV 9035 

4. alaku hamtu, £-0 swiftly, 5 11 sb 6b (B 4872). [(B 4871, M 3328). 
" 5. alaku maru, go fati^) [slowly}) 5 11 2b (B 4S73). 

6. anaku, GIN, I, CT 11 31 24 (B 4^74)- 
5 7. asu sa isi u qani, grow, of trees and reeds, 2 6253c (B 4875). 

8. aru, go forth, CT 16 4476 (M 3326). 

9. ar^, go, CT 17 35^6 (M 3329). 

10. aramu* cast down, 4^ 1513b (B 4894). 

11. asabu, TUM, dwell, 4^ 1646a (B 4876). 
10 12. atta, tkou, RH 5815 (M 3330). 

13. atti, thou, AL3 13511 & 17 (B 4877)- 

14. ataru, exceed, abound, 5 5038b (B 4878). 

15. isu(?) be, 5 1223a (B 4882). 

16. itti, DI, with, SFG 54 (B 4883), 

15 17. uzuzzu, GUB, settle, WM. BE I3667 i 17 (M 3327). 

18. dalu, go about, pursue, CT 17 31 7; 4^ 167b (B 4881, M 3357). 

19. babalu, carry, bring, ASKT 8846 (B 4880, M 333 1). 

20. zaqapu sa ziqpi, GUB, plant, of a stalk, 5 4261a (B 4904). 

21. i? zaqapu, //(2;^/, 2 lS30c3ic (B 4905). 

20 22. -ku, / (verbal ending),. RH I0782 86 (M 3334). 

23. kalu, hasten, CT 16 3125; 2 21 34c (M 3332, B 4886). 
.24. kima, like, RH 586 & s (M 3333). 

25. kanu, GIN, RA, GUB, be firm, CT 11 31 23 (B 4884). 

26. kenu, om, faithful, firm, AL^ No I36 (B 4885). 
25 27. kapasu, bend, subdue, 2 3942e (B 4887). 

28. liqu hamtu, take quickly, 5 11 8b (B 4888). 

29. ma, ?^Ct'i8 474b (M 3335). 

30. magaru, GIN, GE, be favorable, CT 11 31 24, MSW 25, R \\ 58827b 

31. mandatu, tribute, RH 14 17 (M 3358). [(M 3336, B 4889). 
30 32. malahhu, boat^nan, 2 32 i3e (B 4916). 

33. maru, /^z' [slow}), 5 11 12a (B 4920). 

34. iiMarduk, god Marduk, BL 285 K 210713 (B 4917). 

35. na'alu(?) lie down, RH 7713 (M 3337). 

36. hamaru(?) be bright, AL^ 82 6a (B 4890). 

35 37. naptanu, GUB, meal, feast, h l63ig (B 489I). 

38. nasahu sa amuti, tear away, of a part of the body, 262 29a (B4892). 

39. nazazu, GUB, stand, 2 ll70g (B 4893). 

40. naqu(?) po2ir out, RH 7727 (M 3338). 

41. paradu(?) be strong, impetuous, PSBA 17 64ff. ii 9 (M 3339). 
40 42. pirittu, terror, RH 2722 (M 3340). ^^ 

43. re'utu, lordship, 4^ 15* 56b (B 4919). 



B reads ramamu(?). 



no (§axion, (j^aB^ionian (SOtUinc^ 

44. ridu(?) Ir^ad, CT 16 37 41 (M 3341). 

45. rahasu(?) wasA, RH II613 (M 3342). 

46. rakabu, ride, 4^ 12 9b (M 3343). 

47. rakasU; dind, 4^ 143a var (B 49I8). 

48. (?)sadadu, draw, drag, pttll, 5 20 47 g, RH 111 9b (B 4895, M 3344). 5 

49. siddu,. a piece or part of furniture, 5 20 46g (B 4896). 

50. sakanu, set, place, 5 llsie, RH 1234a (B 4897, M 3345). 

51. sulu, direct, lead, 5 11 9 b, 5 11 11 a (B 4901, B 4920). 

52. salalu, lead captive, ASKT 8011, RH 844 (B 4898, M 3346). 

53. sanu, GIM, GIR, be different, change, MSW25, R 2 5883036b (M3347). 10 

54. sananu; be similar, ZA 10 276 ff. ii jZ (M 3348). 

55. saparu, GIN, send, CT 11 3I 24, CT 16 270 (B 4899, M 3349). 

56. sipru, mission, dispatch, 2 3627g (B 4900). 

57. tabalu, TUM, take away, rob, 2 957c (B 4902). 

58. tabalu hamtu, take away quickly, 5 11 7b (B 4903). 15 

59. tallaktu, going, CT 16 46187 (M 3362). 

EM 2 64, HWB 138 n 4, UKZ 28 & 6% OQ LB A 311, OCS 234 
& 247 and LSG 22 have all explained the sign as originating m the 
picture of a foot or leg-. This explanation is undoubtedly right. It 
explains nearly all the meanings directly, and most of the others 20 
with a little reflection. Growth, of plants comes from the idea of 
going out, be favorable from the idea of the coming of what one 
desires, tribute from the idea of bringing. Be and the pronominal 
values were attached to the sign through syllabic identity. The foot 
was an obvious object for an ideogram in all. early writing, cf MHP 25 
I. Nos. 122—124, Petrie, Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty, I. PI. XXVII, 
Evans, Scripta Minoa, 19, Messerschmidt, Corpus Inscriptionwn 
Hettiticarum., Tafel I, and passion. 



No 208 OK( 



l>{>H 



1. abalu, bring, 2 22i6a (B 4933). 30 

2. alaku sa mes . ., -U, go, of. . ., CT 11 329a (B 4934). 

3. alaku, LAH, go, 4'-^ 2i8a (B 4935). 

4. aradu, descend, ASKT 12751 (B 4936). 

5. uzuzu, -U, settle, CT 11 327a (B 4943). 

6. kanu, -IJ, be firm, CT 11 327a (B 4.937)- 35 

7. kesu sa elippi, the deck, of a ship, CT 11 328a (B 4938). 

8. nazazu, LAH, stand, ASKT. 5619 (B 4939). 

9. re*u, -U, shepherd, CT 11 326, RH 674 (B 4940, M 3366). 

10. ramu(?) cast down, throw, RH 946 (M 3367). 

11. ridu, tread, ASKT I2751 (M 3369). 40 



Bi0t of 3^^O5ta|j^0 111 

12. salalu^ s^oll, CT 16 43 5^ P 33^8). 

13. salalu sa alaki, LAH, spoi/, of a raid, 2 367ig (B 494I). 
- 14. salalu sa ameli, LAH, spoi/, of men, 2 2715a (B 4942). 

UKZ 44 has correctly explained the sign as formed by the 
5 doubling of No 207. All the meanings bear out this view. 

No 209 ^ 

1. atnelu, man, 1 I980 & 83 (B 4951)- 

AL^ p 127 No 137 explains this as a variant of No 207. I suspect 
rather that it is a variant of No 1 87, or 2I4. 

No 210 ^ 



■ 1. agagu, IB, de angry, 5 2l40c; RH 61 7b (B 4954, M 3370). 

2. aggu, anger, RH I1530 (M 3371). 

3. atta, thou, HAS ix 14 (B 4955). 

4. epsetu(.?') deeds, 5 21 6g (B 4957). 

15 5- uggatu, IB, anger, 4.^ I0 48a (B 4961). 

6. hardatu, TUM, strength^) S'^ iii 26 (B 4956). 

7. nuggatu, IB, wrath, 4^ 10 la RH 3240, (B 4959, M 3372). 

8. qibu, speak, command, CT 16 8292 (M 3373). 

9. qablu, IB, fight, battle, S^ iii 25, CT 16 99 (B 4958, M 3374). 
20 10. tebu, rise against, 5 21 42 c (B 4960). 

OCS 232 and 242 ff. explained the sign as representing the legs 
of a man. This suggested rushing to attack, battle, deeds, be angry 
and all the meanings except thou, which was attached to the sign 
because of syllabic similarity. 

25 No 211 ^<^ 

1. adru, herd^) AV 5962 (B ^1982). 

2. amaru, stable for assesi^) 2 3619a (B 4983). 

3. imeru, ANSE, ass, AL^ 8832a, CT 12 31 381773 (B 4984, M 3385). 

4. imeru, a measure, (homer), XA 1 8990 (B 4985). 
30 5. sisu, a horse, AV 5983 (B 4986). 

UKZ 149 explained the sign as composed of No 400, foot^ plus 
No 249, staff, an explanation in which MSL 34 concurs. The proto- 
Elamitic sign clearly represented an ass. The sign in the Hoffman 
tablet [cf. Pt. 1, p vii, iii, 4) represented the head and neck of.a donkey. 
35 No 211b, the form from which the cuneiform sign was descended, 
represented the head and ears of a donkey wearing a bridle, which 

* B 4946, itaslulu, and B 4947, nasallulu, are derivitives of tliis root. 



112 (Ration, (gaB^fonidn (^vitin^ 

was surmounted by a tassel of crest The four lines across the nose 
are the remains of the reins. Compare No 496, which represented 
the head of a billy-goat with a beard. In the period between 
URKAGINA and HAMMURAPi the forms of this sign were considerably 
mixed with the forms of No 400, which was distorted from the 5 
picture of a sandal. All the meanings of this sign (No 211) clearly 
grew out of the picture of a donkey, the homer-measure being an 
ass load. 

No"212:^T 

1. arku, EGIR, thereupon after^ 4^ 20 obv 3 (B 4999). 10 

2. arkatu, EGIR, back, back part, future, S^ iii 27 (B SOOl). 

UKZ Nachwort, 45 n 1 explains the sign as an outline of the 
buttocks, which evidently represented the back-side, an explanation • 
in which OCS 232 & 243 concurs. It satisfactorily accounts for the 
meaning. LSG 20, calls it "a man walking from left to right". 0GB 15 
suggests that the forms which picture additional lines at the right 
represented the earth under the feet 



No 213 

1. karanu, GESTIN, wine, S^ iii 20 (B 5006). 

2. kurunnu(.^) KURUN, sesame-wine, CT 12 1921b (M 34II). 20 

3. (.?)sabu(?)/^^r outi^) CT 17 3833 (M 10688). 

4. pihu(?) PIHU, close, shut, CT 12 1920b (M 34I2). 

MA 439b explained the sign as compounded of No 217, plus 

No 425. The early forms of the sign point clearly to the picture of 

a jar or flask as its origin. Such a picture would suggest all the 25 
meanings. 

No 214 X^ 

1. abadu, US, serve, CT 11 2912b (B 5026). 

2. abatu(.?) sa kibri, perish, at a river bank, CT 18 3420a (M 3420). 

3. adaru, be large, AL^ 8433 (B 5027). 30 

4. ahazu, sieze, 2 l6i8e (B 5029). 

5. alik urki, become an Urku- officer, MSW 2, K 2012 rev 7 (M 3421). 

6. amelu, man, CT 19 4413a (M 3422). 

7. aru, go, CT 16 16 vi 1 (M 3423). 

8. €^Q.\}3i, be high or erect, 2 30i5g (B 5031). 35 

9. emedu, US, NITAH, stand, CT 11 2911b (B 5032). 

10. iiEnmastu* {NIN -IB), god Enmashtu, 2 5769c (B 5028). 

* Cf. Clay, HM I 289ff. 



Bi&t of "S^to^tap^^ 113 

11. isaru, Gis, 3e straight, CT 11 2933a (B 5033). 

12. birku, penis, Cf. CT 14 148c; IS 32b (M 3424). 

13. zikaru, GIS, NIT AH, man, CT 11 2932 a (B 5048). 

14. zakkaru, male, 3 59 34b (M 3425). 
515. kabasu, tread, AV 3985 (B 5036). 

16. kullu, end, completion, AV 7616 (B 5037). 

17. kasu(?) a kind of magic, ASKT 71 23 (B 5034). 

18. malu,///, HN Taf. X 13 b (M 3426). 

19. malaqu, ? 4^ 3015a (B 5038). 

10 20. misru(?) boundary, territory, Str Cyr No 308 1 & 3 (M 3428). 

21. ^"^^^maru, LUGURUS, /^z^, 2 32 65a (M 3429). 

22. mutatu, condition of death i^) 5 2531c (B 5039). 

23. nasu, lift up, 2 2657c (B 5040). 

24. qananu sa qinni, duild, of a nest, 5 42 64a (B 5035). 
15 25. ridu, US, penis, cohabit, S^ iv 28 (B 504I, M 3431). 

26. rihu, GIS, pour out, water, CT 11 2934a (B 5042). 

27. saqu, be high, 2 301a (B 5043). 

28. seru, flesh, AV 83 lo (B 5044). 

29. seru, germinate, grow, 2 3415a (B 5045). 
20 30. sussu, sixty, AV 8598 (B 5046). 

31. temeru sa isati, ascend{f) of fire, 2 3471c (B 5047). 

EM 2 HI, UKZ 92ff:, OC, LBA 311, MSL 355, and OCS 233 & 245 
have all rightly seen that the sign was originally the picture of a 
phallus. This with its various functions readily suggested nearly all 
25 the meanings. Tread (Kabasu) is a synonym of one of the meanings 
of ridu. Enmastu was ix\ one of his functions a god of fertility, while 
sussu was a large number. 

No 215 ^TI ■ 

1. epiru, SAHAR, dust, ASKT 8611 (B 5083). 

30 2. ipru, SAHAR, dust, S^ ii 57 (B S084). 

3. baku, ISI, weep, ASKT II64 (B 5082). 

4. e"bgarabu(?) itch, leprosy, CT 14 94a (M 3461). 

5. titu*(?) clay, RH II411 (M 3462). 

6. sadu, ISI, mountain, S^ ii 56, RH 4910 (B 5086, M 3463). 
35 7. turbu'tu, SAHAR, dust cloud, 2 5 3a (B 5087). 

BBH TSS \j explained the sign as originating in the picture of 
an eye with flowing tears. The primitive form of the sign apparently 
represented a network of canals such as irrigated a field. This 
represented the meaning water which has survived only in weep. 



40 * So Ungnad instead of Reisner's Kiki. 

Beitrage Ass.: Barton II j 



114 (gariott, (gafi^fontan (St>xxtxn^ - 

When such a field was dry it suggested dust. It seems to have 
come to represent moufitain through the meaning dust 

No 216^^3- 

1. sinatu, KAS, urine, S^ iv 29 (B 5116). 

2. ^arpat^inati, KISI, chamber, 5 4220a (B 5117). 5 

UKZ 55 has correctly explained the sign as composed of No 2I4, 
penis y plus No 5 19, water. 

No 217 ^ 

1. ana, unto, 2 1626b (B 5129). 

2. anaku, /, CT 11 42 No 165 isb (M 3471). 10 

3. atta, thou, CT 11 42 No 165 ub (M 3472). 

4. ina, in, 5 5129b (B 51 30). 

5. u, and, 42 18 No 1 21a (B 513I). 

6. dababu(?) BI, speak, plan, CT 12 21 9305810 b (M 3473). 

7. hissatu, ^\, perception, wisdom, CT 12 21 903589b (M 3475). 15 

8. kakasiga, ? CT 12 2439a (M 3476). 

9. kannu, EPIR, a vessel, CT 12 2441a & 4621a (M 3477). 

10. nabu, BI, speak, CT 12 21 930587b (M 3478). 

11. naqui, Bl, pour out, CT 12 21 930588b (M 3479). 

12. nBX.Qk\x, pour forth, CT 12 2440a (M 3480). 20 

13. ^^^feSimanu, month Siman, 2 4471a (B 5125). 

14. qabu, Bi, speech, CT 12 2I 93058 6b (M 3481). 

15. qibt,- speak, 4^ 1551a (B 5124), 

16. -sa, her, hers, 4^ 12 48a rev 35 (B 5136). 

17. su, Bl, he, his, 4^ 436b, CT 12 21 93058 4b (B 5132, M 3482). 25 

18. sikaru, KA, strong drink, 4^ '2635b, RH I0637 (B 5126, M 3484). 

19. (?)salalu, take captive, RH 112 u (M 3486). 

20. -sina, theirs, them {fem), 4^ 1557a (B 5138). 

21. -sunu, BI, them, theirs (masc) 2 1658a, CT 12 21 930585b (B 5137, 

22. sasu, he, him, DW 57 le (B 5133). [M 3487). 30 

23. suatu, that one, 4^ 79a (B 5134). 

24. tehu, approach, 4^ 1557b (B 5128). 

25. tamu, speak, 2 3021c (B 5127). 

BBH 20 18 explained the sign as a cup, OC, OCS 238 %l. 257, 
LB A 311, and ML 23 have all correctly explained the sign as the 35 
picture of a jar. It is a drinking jar with a spout at the side, such 
as one still sees in the East. This suggested vessel and drink\ then 
because drink loosens the tongue, speak, an extension of which was 
plan, wisdom. Siman is an abbreviation of a longer ideogram, and 



BM of 'i^co^vap^e 1 1 5 

the pronominal values were attached to the sign on account of 
syllabic identity. 

No 218 ^'^TT 

1. ^^"^urqitu, ^-reen grass, K\J> 8372 (B 5165). 
5 2. riqqu, .^;^ aromatic plant, CT 17 3839 (B 5163, M 3522). 
3. ^^^tabaqu, the pouring-out plant, 2 413c (B 5164). 

RIG (MS2 236). SIM (MS2 260). SIRIS (III 68g5e). 

BBH 20 18 explained the sign as composed of No 21/; aip, plus 
No 215; aromatic dust or tears', OC, as a jar with a support. Pro- 

10 bably the original picture represented a pot supported by props. 
The additional lines at the right of some of the forms may have 
represented the ground or may have pictured wood for a fire; 
cf, GE 11 I58ff. e. g. in KB 6 240 (see also Haupt, NE, 141, 159), 
where at a sacrifice wood was arranged under the pot. The aroma 

15 of that which was cooked afterward drew the gods like flies. 
That this sign represented a pot which contained ^some aromatic 
substance, is indicated by the fact that tabaku, which means to pour 
out, is used among its ideograms as the name of a plant. 

No 218 a ^^f^T 

20 This sign has been found in the inscriptions of GUDEA only. 

Neither its ideographic or syllabic values are known. SAK, 108 
explains the sign as a compound of Nos 21 8 and 330, which is 
apparently correct. 

No 218 b ^^I^TT 

25 This sign is found only in the inscriptions of GUDEA in company 

with the preceding. Its ideographic and syllabic values are not known. 
SAK 108 has suggested that it is a compound of Nos 218 and 504, 
which is probably correct. 

No 219 ^^^T-T 

30 1. egU; sini>) 2 20 48c (B 5204). 

Res No 391 explains the sign as composed of No 21/ into which 
No 308, equal to No 32 1, has been inserted. The original was evi- 
dently a picture of a jar on which was some ornamentation. Possibly 
the marks were intended to indicate the contents. 

35 No219a^^a<T 

No ideogram is known, nor any light on the origin of the sign. 



Il6 (§cixio% (g^aB^fonian (^xitino^ 



No 219 b MP^Jy^y 

1. w>^ &=<^yy^y XJze name of some unidentified deity , 4^ 56 55b (M 3583). 

2. ^^ ^^yyfy Z;^^ name of an official, CT 22 No 31 s (M 3584). 

The sign is, perhaps a variant of 2 19 or 220, but owing to the 
nature of our evidence nothing definite can be said about its origin. 

No 220 tt^ 



g^ ^>iyYT The designation of an official, CT 22 No 51 4 (M 3587). 

The sign, like No 218 seems to have originated m the picture 
of a pot under which wood was arranged, and which was represented 
as containing food. 10 

No 221 XV\ 

1. i?gisallu, GISAL, strong woo d\J) strength^) AL^89vi6ia, CT 12 2443a 

(B 5207, M 3588). 

In the absence of early forms and of assured meanings, guesses 
are hazardous, but I suspect that the sign is a variant of No 218 ^5 
where the picture of a jar, and a pile of wood are brought together. 
If not this, it is probably a late combination of No 217, jar and 
No 258, wood. A wooden jar would be less fragile than one' of 
pottery, and so would suggest strength. 

No 222 X^ 

1. passuru, BURU, table or anything on which food is placed, S'^ i 65, 

CT 11 43 6a (B 5215, M 3594). 

The sign occurs earliest in GUDEA (Cyl. B, vi 26), where it 
clearly is composed of No 21 7, a jar, and No 306, a well filled bowl. 
The two are not closely welded in GUDEA. Indeed SAK l26ff., 25 
translates them separately. A well-filled bowl of food and a jug of 
drink are the natural symbols of a table. This was clearly the origin 
of the sign. 

No 223 ^f 

1. duhhudu sa mirsi, overflow, of a stormfloodi^) 2 25 4ie (B 52I9). 30 

2. seru, ULLU, a plain, CT 12 4831b (M 3595). 

3. i?fibhu, a kind of tree or plant, 2 2321; (B 5218). 

4. i?salluru, a kind of tree, MSW 23 R 367 rev 11 (M 3S96). 

The picture, like 170 b, apparently represented the crossing of 
two irrigating canals. These suggested overflow^ and plain. The tree 35 
values were later developments of the meaning plain. 



Biet of 'iUoc^tap^^ II7 

No' 224 ^f 

1. abnu, I, NA, SI, SA, stone, AL^ 81 ii 77—80 (B 5229). 

2. maltu sa puti, ? 2 47 bse (B 5230). 

3. saqu sa eqli, to water, of a field, 2 3012a (B 5231). 

5 EM 2 113 explained the origin of the sign as cut stone] H 177, 

as a brick and a half brick; UKZ 123 K, as composed of No 228, 
plus No 347; meaning full of light. The early forms of the sign 
suggest that it may have been composed of No 228, bright, plus 
No 337; sun. Bright or shhiing sun, may have been a name given 
10 to a precious stone, and to the results of irrigating a field. 

No 225 ^T<C^ 

1. rfi , UTUL; pastured herd(}) 2 3255a (B 5238). 

The sign is apparently composed of No 224, irrigated field, plus 
No 392, calf, plus No 259, ox, the whole standing for pastured herd. 



■15 No 226 ^t%MS2 

1. rfi . . . ., UTUL, pastured herd[}) 2 3254a (B 5240). 

This one is apparently composed of No 224, irrigated field, plus 
No 392, calf, plus No 482, sheep, plus No 80, kid. This picture of a 
pastured herd is accordingly a little more inclusive than the former. 

20 No 227 ^ 

1. adaru, be wide, great[}) AL^ 8434 (B 5246). 

2. (?) ahhazu, evil spirits, Surpu VII 5 (M 3625). 

3. astu, might, RH I0835 (M 3624). 

4. elu, DU, be high, 2 '^01%^ (B 5252). 

25 5. emu, surround, ASKT 121 No 18 4, RH 10 127 (B 5253, M 3607).- 

6. epesu, DU, do, make, 2 15 32a (B 5254). 

7. i^Istar(?) goddess Ishtar, 3 6828 c (M 3626). 

8. babadu(?) ? AL^ 85 le (B 5247). 

9. banu, DU, RU, build, beget, 2 3I 26g (B 5248). 
30 10. ,^"i«ibanu, builder, 5 1657a (M -^60%). 

11. ^ipatbu^ikku, ? 5 1418a (B 5250). 

12. gabbu, totality, JD 2112, rev 4; cf iii 436 (M 3609). 

13. danuttu, DU, ? CT 11 31^2 (B 5251). 

14. zaqapu, DU, plant, 5 42 eoa (B 5270), 
35 15. hamatu, hasten, 5 30 63a (B 5255). 

16. kikittu(?) magic ceremofiy, HW 327 (M 3627), 

17. kalu, DU, all, complete, ^^ Ilia, CT 16 3734 (B 5256, M 3610). 



118 (gation, (gaBgfontan (^xiiin^ 

18. le'u, strength, HAS ix 9 (B 5257). 

19. mahasu, shatter, 5 1737a, CT 12 4241a (B 5258, M 3611)., 

20. mudti, be numerous, HAS ix last line (B 5260). 

21. madadu, measure, CT 17 15 21 (M 3628). 

22. malu, DU, be fidly CTH,3i (B 5259). 5 

23. nibu, issue, gush forth, 5 21 lOg (B 5262). 

24. nadu, cast, throw down, 5 l4 56e, RH II49 (B 5261, M 3612). 

25. '^^^\^V2Xm, peg, plug, AL3 7920a (B 5267). 

26. sanaqu sa dupsarruti, /r^i*^, of day tablets, 5 41 46a (B 5266). 

27. paqadu, appoiiit, 2 2764c (B 5263). 10 

28. pataqu, form, make, 5 2157c (B 5264). 

29. sabaru, catch, seize, CT 12 4047a (M 3613). 

30. serU; throw down, AL^ 8220 (B 5268). 

31. ritu, DU, erect, strengthen, 4'^ l6iia (B 5265). 

32. sakanu, set, place, 5 25 27 c (B 5269). 15 
-^l, tarasU; stretch, spread, CT 16 8282 (M 3630). 



GAQ (Sb iii 59). DA (1 1725). 

UKZ 69, OQ and Barton, JAOS 23 26 explained the sign as 
, a picture of a peg, MSL 83, as a wedge, LSG 20, as a wedge. The 
original picture was a block of wood, [cf No 258), sharpened at one 20 
end into a peg. This probably suggested a tent-peg. The sign 
accordingly stood naturally iov peg, plant, build, erect, make, do, be 
strong. Be numerous was an extension of ^^ strong. Be wide -wd.s, 
perhaps, suggested by the space between the tent pins, while be full, 
high, complete, etc., are extensions of this meaning. Hasten, a,nd press 25 
were connected with the sign by syllabic mixture with No 207. 

No 228 ^ 

1. abalu, bring RH 8813b (M 3641). 

2. abullu(.?) city gate, 5 1654c (M 3642). 

3. azal, ZAL, a plant, 2 483x6 (B S313). 30 

4. ana, unto, CT 11 42 les ob sb (M 3644). 

5. etequ(.?) come, bring, Str Nbk No 18815; cf TN 307 (M 3646). 

6. -ia, mine, 4^ 1941b (B S334). 

7. is, an adverbial suffix, 4^ 2411b (B 5333). 

8. ina, in, CT 11 42165 ob sb (M 3645). 35 

9. uhhuru, } 2 4757e (B 5326). 

10. umsatu(.?^) want, distress, CT 19 12 135955 (M 3643). 

11. i?utaqqu, > 5 29 sg (B 5327). 

12. bab ekalli, gate of a palace, 5 1653c (B 3647). 



Mist of 3^^o0td)>^0 119 

13. (?)banu(?)* hn/d, beget, CT 12 2^ 383727 (M 3647). 

14. (?)bunnunu, creature, appearance, CT 12 23 3837213 (M 3648). 

15. baru, ZAL, become full, satisfied, 4^ 30 No 2 4a (B 53I4). 

16. birtu, satisfaction, 4^ lOsoa (B 5315). 

5 17. (?)dababu, plan, speak, CT 12 23 -^^-^72^ (M 3649). 

18. zikaru, man, 2 7 iic (B 5328). 

19. (?)kamu, enclose, seize, CT 12 23 383725b (M 3650). 

20. (?)kisu(?) ? CT 12 2Z 3^372 Q (M 3651). 

21. (?)labaku, lubbuku, ? CT 12 23 ^^'^7212 (M 3652). 
10 22. (?)lubku, ? CT 12 23 3837212 (M 3653). 

23. masu, be bright, 2 47590 (B S316). 

24. na'alu, lie down, 4^ 2744b (B S318). 

25. nahu, be fat, 2 2738c (B S317). 

26. namaru, be bright, 2 47586 (B S3I9). 

15 27. nasahu/ tear out, remove, 2 3938c (B 532I). 

2^, (?)napasu sa ameli, breathe, of men, CT 12 23 3837215 (M 3655). 

29. narabu, DIG, ? 2 48326 (B 5320). 

30. (?)nurrubu, ? CT 12 23 383728 (M 3656). 

31. (?)puzzudu, ? CT 12 23 383727 (M 3657). 

20 32. (?)sar sa. (?) flowing[}), foe{}) of.., CT 12 23 2>^2>72Qh (M365S). 

33. qamu sa nabli, burn, of flame, 5 1948c (B 5359). 

- 34. (?)qatu, end, cease, CT 12 23 383728b (M 3659). 

35. (.?)rabu, be angry, CT 12 23 z'^Z7'2^h (M 3660). 

-^6. rabu, be great, 4^ 30 No 2 24a (B S323). 

25 37. (.?)ruttubu, irrigated{}), CT 12 23 3837210 (M 3661). 

38. \i)T3.%hu,* ditch, CT 12 23 383729 (M 3662). 

39. (?)rimutu, ? CT 12 27^ 3^372 5 (M ^^63). 

40. ruqqu sa kisalli, LI, unguentary, of a temple court, 2 4842a (B S324). 

41. -sa, her, hers, 4^ 12 rev 35 (B 533I). 

30 42. samnu, lA, oil, AL^ 88 iv 11, CT 12 32 93070 7 (B 5325, M 3665). 

43. sutabru, ZAL, satisfied^) CT 12 ll rev la (M 369I). 

44. su, lA, he, 5 2353c, CT 12 32 93070 5 (B S329, M 3664). 

45. su, him, his, 4^ 12 rev 3I (B 5330). 

46. -sunu, them, theirs, 4^ 5 75a (B 5332). 

35 47. sutabru, ZAL, plenteousnessQ) RT 27 I2224 (M Z^66). 



I (2 3951c). ILI (S^ i 20). LI (2 4842a). m, ne (S^ i 18). 

ZALLI (S^ i 19). 



* M 3647—3669 tentatively attributes to this sign the meanings given in CT 12 
23 38372. On what ground this is done is not clear. It would seem that more of 
40 the meanings there given are appropriate to the preceding sign (No 227). I believe 
that they belong there. 



120 (^avton, (g>a6gfontan (SOvitin^ 

EM 2 109 explained the primitive picture as ^e//e, i. e. a shovel 
or scoop] UKZ 191, as No 440 (lal) doubled; OQ as the picture of 
an oil lamp; OCS 234 & 249, as the picture of a pair of teats. 
The original picture probably represented the udder and teats of 
a goat. This would naturally suggest become full, be satisfied^ be fat, 5 
be great Since butter becomes oil in warm climates, it naturally 
stood for oil. An extension of be satisfied was lie down] of fat, be 
bright. Probably bring and tear out, or remove are survivals of a 
meaning to m,ilk, which originally attached to the sign. It came to 
designate 2. gate either of a city or palace, from an extension of the 10 
idea of bring (abalu, suggesting abuUu). The prepositional, adverbial, 
and pronominal meanings were attached to the sign because of 
syllabic similarities. 

No 229 ^^ 

1. abalu, ER, IR, bring, 4'^ 21 No 2 rev 3 (B S379, M 3709). 15 

2. alaku, go, 5 Ilia (B 53^0). 

3. alaku hamtu, go swiftly, 5 11 6a (B 5381). 

4. alaku maru(.?) become fat or go slowlyi}) 5 11 2a (B S382). 

5. ana, unto, 4^ 346b, CT 11 42 16512b (B 5392, M 3711). 

6. eresu, smell, ASKT 8825 (B 5383). 20 

7. ina, in, CT 11 42 16512b (M 3712). 

8. isutu(.?) IRI, } CT 12 32 93070 7 (M 3713). 

9. i?irru, IK, fetter, rope, sling, AL^ 8970b (B 5385). 

10. habatu sa ^2\sX\, plunder, of spoil, 2 26iig (B 5 384). 

11. ku, thee, thy, CTII 42 16511b (M 3714). ' 25 

12. kamu, sieze, lead captive, 5 21 64g (B 5386). 

13. kariktu(.?>) .? CT 11 314a (M 3716). 

14. liqu hamtu, to take quickly, 5 11 8a (B 5387). 

15. sa, her, hers, CT 11 42 16510a (M 3719). 

16. su, him, his, CT 11 42 165 9a (M 3720). 30 

17. sulu sa ....,.? 5 11 9aff. (B 5389). 

18. salalu, ER, to spoil, 2 2714a (B 5388). 

19. sarasu(?) sa . ., } CT 19 46 4S973b (M 3721). 

20. tabalu hamtu, bring quickly, 5 11 7a (B 5390). 

The Assyrian scribes named the sign gak-gunu as though it 35 
were related to No 227. UKZ 68 took this as the real explanation 
of its origin, an explanation in which Barton, JAOS 23 26 concurred. 
The original picture is probably to be found by bringing into con- 
junction the oldest form of the sign with the one concrete meaning 
in the above list, i. e. sling. The picture, perhaps, represented the 40 
central part of the sling without the strings. This picture would 



Bi0i of 3^eo0t(ip?0 121 

readily suggest £-0, go swiftly, bring , bring swiftly , plunder , spoil, 
take quickly, seize, and unto. Of course unto, like all the prepositional 
meanings, may have been attached to the sign on account of syllabic 
similarity. How it came to signify smell is not clear. 

5 No 230 ^^ 

1. aladu, GA, bear, bring forth, CT 11 3011b (B 5415). 

2. alaku, GA, go, CT 12 27 200 4b (M 3736). 

3. -ia, -i, my,. mine, 4^ 2l*i8b (B 5423). 

4. iasi, ^ BA 5 643 7 (M Z7z^\ 

10 5. 'uru, be light, 5 62 44a (B S440). 

6. basu, be, ASKT 5927 (B 5430). 

7. bitu, GA, house, CT 11 3010b, CT 12 27 2005b (B S416, M 3738). 

8. i?kakku(.?') weapon, 4^ 12 isb (M 3739). 

9. kalu, GA, agreei:^) CT 11 3014b, RH 5735 (B 5418, M 3745). 
,15 10. kanu, GA, be firm, CT 11 3013b (B 54I7). 

11. mahasu, break, shatter, ASKT 71 7 (B 543I). 

12. matu, land, RH 16 20 (M 3746). 

13. nahu, rest, RH 7710 (M 3747)< 

14. (.^)namu, ruin, decay, CT 16 2627 (M 374I). 

20 15. nasahu sa tirti, remove, of a command, 2 6226a (B 5432). 

16. puhru(.?^) assemblage, 5 30i6g (B 5433). 

17. pisannu, an earthen jar, CT 12 27 2009b (M 3742)., 

18. suppuru, refined, 2 34iog (B 5435)- 

19. sarapu, S7nelt, refine, 2 3463a (B 5420). 
25 20. rahasu, wash, 5 ll25e (B 5434). 

21. sakaiiu, GA, set, place, CT 11 3012b (B 5421). 

22. sakanu maru, lay on fat, 5 llsse (B 5437). 

23. samu, decide, determine, 4^ 1414b (B 5436). 

24. sunuhu, sighing, lamenting, 4^ 2733 a (B 5439). 
30 25. saraqu, give, present, 2 11 25c (B 5438). 



MAL (Sennacherib v 85). MA (Ham Laws ii 57). 

EM 2 114 explained the primitive picture as a house; UKZ 120, 
as a variant representation of No 258, which represented a log of 
wood; OC, and OCS 237 & 256, as a representation of a house. 

35 Probably the sign originally represented a reed hut, the line across 
the middle representing the band which holds such a hut together; 
see Peters, Nippur 2 74 ff., BE, Sen D. 1 160, and Clay, Light on 
the Bible from Babel, 282. It is a variant picture of No I47. This 
naturally suggested house, be firm, set, rest, and decay. It came to 

40 stand for weapon and earthen jar perhaps because they were closely 



122 (§avhn, I^a6gfcntan (S^titinc^ 

associated with the defense and the service of the house. Bear was 
naturally associated with the family home, while re/ine may have 
come from household cooking. Go, was perhaps an extension of the 
meaning decaj/. 



No 230a ^IMJ 5 

1. bit , EHALLA, Aouse of. .,, CT 12. 22 36991 sb (M 3753). 

The sign was evidently regarded by the Assyrian scribes as a 
compound of No 230 + No 2 + No 54. The data for proving or 
disproving this view do not exist. 

No 231 ^i^ ^ ^^ 

1. ummu, mother, 5 2965g (B 5457). 

2. gabsu, massive, strong, 2 2610 c (B 5450). 

3. kalu, hold, carry, 4^ 2310a (M 3757). 

4. ribu, be broad, 2 22i8d (B 5456). 

5. ramu, love, 4^ 23 loa (B 5454). 15 

6. rimu, womb, grace, 4^ 924a (B 545 S). 

7. rapasu, DAGAL, DAMAL, be wide, exte?isive, A V 6727 (B 545 1). 

8. rapsu, DAGAL, DAMAL, wide, 5 I227e (B 5452). 

9. rupsu, width, 5 20 5ig, CT 12 27 20013b (B 5453, M 3758). 



AMA (S^ V 8). EHI (2 32 48c). EMI (5 2969g). MAL (AV 5962). 20 

H 474 explained the sign as a cavity, receptacle, or house, plus 
deity; UKZ 121 ft, followed by MSL -^o, explains it as No 230, house, 
plus No 13, high. The sign was clearly composed of No 230 plus 
No 13, which would make it mean hoztse of deity, but the meanings 
indicate that this was used as a figurative expression for womb. The 25 
marvel of birth and the early Semitic conceptions of the divine 
nature of reproduction made such a figure natural. This circle of 
ideas easily gave the sign the meaning mother, of which love was an 
extension, and the conditions of pregnancy led to the meanings be 
wide etc. These meanings in turn developed into strong, 30 

No 232 ^^ 

1. (.^)etutu, darkness, CT 12 27 20010b (M 3779). 

2. (.^)upu sa same, a cloud, of heaven, CT 12 27 200 11 b (M 3780). 

3. bultitu, worm-eaten woodi^) 2 47 39c. (B 547^)- 

Such data as we have suggest that the sign is a compound of 35 
No 230 and No 70, but the nature of the evidence does not clearly 
prove this. 



&iet of 'i^toQvA^^& 123 

No 233 ^^SJ and l^ ^ {}) 

1. (?)ganunu, thalamus, CT 12 27 20021b (M 3781). 

2. (?)mitru, rain, CT 12 27 20022b (M 3782). 

3. tibnu, GARAS, st7^aw, 5 3047a (B S478). 

5 If an inference from the late form in which the sign is known 

were allowable, we should conclude that it was composed of No 230 
plus No 99, i. e. of house plus left hand. This origin affords, however, 
no connection with the meanings, and at present no solution of the 
origin is possible. 

10 No 234 ^^ 

1. kisallu, KISAL, a temple platform, S^ iv 3I (B 5483, M '^^'^'^\ 

2. samnu, oil, 4^ 13 eob (B S484). 

UKZ 50 f. says that the sign is written in late Babylonian as 
though it was composed of No 228, fat, plus No 258, tree, but that 

15 really the origin is unknown. OC explains it as the diagram of a 
platform. It is clear from the table that two originally distinct signs 
have blended in the Assyrian. One was the diagram of a temple 
platform, the other was composed of the signs indicated by DelitzsCH, 
a combination which stands for oil in all periods of Babylonian writing, 

20 because they used an oil made from wood. 

No 235 ^ 

As there are no simple ideographic meanings and no early form 
of the sign known, we have no clue to the origin. Possibly it may 
be a variant of No 234, 



25 No 235 a ^yy^^T 

No ideographic or syllabic meanings are known and no early 
forms. We have accordingly no clue as to the origin, except the 
Assyrian form which suggests that it is a compound of No 230 and 
No 170. 

*3o • No 236 ^ 

1. mastaku, abode, dwelling; CT 11 .2531a; RH 14 7 (B 5488, M 3792). 

Apparently composed of No 230, house and No 227, do, or make, 
i. e. a house that is constructed, but in the absence of early forms 
this is uncertain. 

35 No 237 ^T 

1. i^Istar, goddess Ishtar, JRAS I905 I44 rev 7 (M 3793). 

2. i^Nisaba, goddess Nisaba, CT 12 27 200 isb (M 379S). 



124 (§ationt (gafigfontan (^titinc^ 

3. puhadu, PUHAD, /amd, kid, MJ> 66 v 19, CT 12 27 20017b (B 5489, 

M 3794). 

. Apparently composed of No 230, /louse and No 251, staff. It 
probably signified an animal that was shepherded or folded. As 
Ishtar was the giver of such animals it came in time to stand for 5 
her, and later for Nisaba also. 

No 237a ^yy^^W] 

1. bit ersiti, ELILLAL, house of the earth, CT 12 22 3699I sb (M 3799). 

2. bit zaqiqi, ELILLAL, house of the storm wmd, CT 12 22 3699I 6b 

(M 3801). 10 

3. bit seri, ELILLAL, house of the plain, CT 12 22 3699I 7b (M 3802). 

The sign is apparently compounded of No 230, No 269 and No 440. 

No 238 ^rt" 

1. edelu sa babi, URU, bar, of a gate, CT 12 22 369917a (M 3805). 

2. ezzu, URU, strong, CT 12 22 3699I 4a (M 3806). 15 

3. uru, beam, 4^ ,l6 64a, CT 12 27 20023b (B 5503, M 3807). 

4. uru, beam, CT 18 ^Z i9a (M 3808). 

5. ba'u, to come, seek, 5 4253c, RH 383 (B 5492, M 3809). 

6. badaru(?) URU, ? CT 12 22 3699116a i9a (M 3810). 

7. budussu, URU, ? CT 12 22 3699112a (M 3811). 20 

8. barru, pure, 5 l46ie (B 5493). 

9. i?gusuru, beam, 2 15i2a&i4a (B 5494, M 3812). 

10. daru, URU, eter?iity, eternal dwelling, CT 12 21 477794b (M 3813). 

11. kabu, hew, 4^ 12 rev 27 (B 5495). 

12. kidinu, VRV, protection!, protege, CT 12 22 3699I s (M 3814). 25 

13. kaparu, URU, cover, CT 12 21 47779 Qh (M 3815). 

14. kuppuru sa maski, URU, covering, of skin, CT 12 21 4777911b 

15. kapasu(.?) URU, ? CT 12 22 36993a (M 3816). [(M 3815), 

16. karu, wall, 5 1639a var (B 5496). 

17. katamu, cover, ZK 1 308 note 2 (B S497). 30 

18. mataru(.^) sa eqli, URU, to rain on, of a' field, CT 12 21 47779 idb 

19. misdu, purification^, 4^ 197b (M 3818). [(M 3817). 

20. mussu', plunder, HWB 428b (M 3832). 

21. mussudu, oppression, ASKT %6i^^ (M 3833). 

22. masaru, droopi^) RH 6221 (M 3834). 35 

23. masru, droopingi^) 5 l46ie (M 3819). 

24. neribu, URU, entrance, CT 12 22 3699I 17a (M 3820). 

25. nasmadu, URU, span, CT 12 21 4.7779 ^h (M 3821). 

* Cf. Surpu^ pp. 38, 39, II. 80 ff. & BBR p. xi. B 5501 reads Sipsitu. 



Bist of 'i^toc^v(X:pi^0 125 

26. saparu, URU, surround, CT 12 2I 477798b (M 3S23). 

27. pasatu, URU, smear, cover with clay, CT 12 21 47779 7b (M 3824). 

28. rubsu(?) URU,>/4 j-/^^/^, CT 12 2I 477793b (M 3825). 

29. rakabu sa kalami(?) W^^; of anything, CT19 31 12a (B 5498, M3826). 
5 30. sabatu sa , overthrow, CT 12 50 435921a (M 3828). 

31. sabatu sa abubi, overthrow, of a deluge,. CT 12 50 4359 22a (M 3835). 

32. sakaku, harrow, ASKT 71 is (B 5499)- 

33. sakaku sa eqli, URU, harrow, of a field, CT 12 21 4777913b (M3829). 

34. ^ipa^sintu, some kind of woolen clothing, 5 1430 c (B 55oo). 
10 35. ^^tumanu, beams, 4^ l664a (B 5502). 

EM 2 117 explained the original picture as a representation of 
timber-work; H 479, as the picture of a door plus that of a beam 
or staff; UKZ I2I n which MSL 35 1 follows, explained it as No 230, 
house plus No 282, lord, the whole meaning lord of construction. The 

15 original picture represented a large house which contained a frame- 
work of beams. This directly suggested the meanings beam, bar, 
strong, hew, cover, protect, protection, span, entrance, wall, surround, 
fold, and smear. As one of the functions of a house was to protect 
from rain, the meaning rain on may have been suggested, an extension 

20 of which may have been pure, purification. A beam resting on 
something suggested the idea oi pressing. This suggested all such 
meanings as oppress, droop, ride, an extension of the last of which 
gave come. Oppress was extended to mean plunder, overthrow, 
harrow. The large strong house with beams suggested an eternal 

25 dwelling or eternity. 



No 238 a ^ 



1. bit nakmiti, EGIA, treasury, CT 12 22 3699I i3b (M 3840). 

2. bit telilti, EGIA, house of incantations, CT 12 22 3699I i4b (M 3842). 

The suggestion of the late form Is confirmed by the meanings 
30 which indicate that the sign is composed of No 230 plus No 283. 

No 238b ^YY^^^T 

1. bit ni(?) , EBURRA, house of , CT 12 22 3699I leb (M 3845). 

The late form suggests that the sign is compounded of Nos 230, 
306, and 287. Unfortunately we have no ideographic meaning by 
35 which to test this suggestion. 



>- 



No 238 c r^fgTf 

1. Be , BARA, ? CT 12 22 36991 15b (M 3846). 

The late form indicates that the sign is compounded of Nos 230 



126 (^atton, (^aSgfontan (^xitin^ 

and 308, but in the absence of a complete ideogram we have no 
way of testing the suggestion. 

No 238d ^^MT 

1. bit kuzbi, EHILI, Aozcse of splendor, CT 12 22 369914b (M 3848). 

The form and meaning indicate that the sign is compounded of 5 
Nos 230, 353, and 59. 



No 238 e ^ y(^^^ 

The form suggests that the sign is compounded of Nos 230 and 
373, but in the absence of a simple ideographic value we cannot 
test it. 

No 239 ^ 

1. kissu, dwelling, shrine, CT 11 25 soa, RH I26 No 77a ib sb (B 5508, 

M 3852). 

The sign is apparently compounded of No 230 and No 380. 



No 240 ^EST 15 

1. agU; MEN, enclosure, shrine, 2 20 4ic (B 55 11). 

2. gu, cord, CT 11 2528a (B 5512). 

3. zokxx, pure, bright, AL^ 66 11 a (B 5514). 

4. minnu, a diadem, BA 5 63813 (M 3853). 

5. ^^^imu'irru, leader, commander, MSW 2 20I212 (M 3854). 20 

6. sarrii, king, 4 2 915 a (B 5513). 

The sign was a compound of No 230, house, and No 112, to 
which No 478 was afterward added. A house containing a lord who 
was also a priest naturally suggested shrine, dwelling and by ex- 
tension, pure. Such a sign might also stand for leader, king. Diadem 25 
came from syllabic confusion with No 304. Perhaps it came to 
mean cord from the idea of leader, {cf. Esarhaddon's stele from 
Zendjirli) or from the idea of enclosure. 

No 241 S^ 

1. ibu or ipu, womb or cook, CT 11 3032a (B 5517, M 3855). 30 

2. ba'u(?) seek, 2 1944a (B 5 5 16). 

3. silitu, mercy i^) CT 11 3033a. (B 5520). 

4. rtrciM, favor, ASKT I2216, RH 5921 (B 5518, M 3857). 

5. rimu, beloved, CT 11 3034a (B 5519). 

6. suzubu(?) deliverance, BD 2 349 (M.3858). 35 

H 474 and UKZ 121 have both explained the sign correctly as 



Bx0t of 3^eo3;ra^50 12/ 

compounded of No 230 and No 497, i. e. of Aouse plus woman. The 
meanings grow naturally out of this combination. 



No 241 a ^ 



i>?^ 



The sign appears to be compounded of Nos 230, 521, 294 and 
5 523. As no meanings have survived, we, cannot test the correctness 
of this inference from the late form. 

No 242 >TT T? ^^T 

Pi(?) (2 47 25b). 

H 474 explained it as compounded of Nos 230, 52I, and 406. 
10 The form is in favor of this explanation, but full proof is lacking. 



No 243 ^\ 

1. malaku, take counsel, TA 823 (M 3863). 

2. maliku, arbiter, decider, BDA 923 (M 3864). 

3. milku, MEGA(?) prudence, AV 5302, CT 12 3413a (B 5525, M 3865). 

15 The sign is evidently compounded of No 230 and No 530, 

house and food. This suggested prudence, counsel. 

No 244 ^ 

1. nagasu sa ameli, overthrow, of men, HWB 448 a (M 3871). 

2. nsizsizu, stand, RH II43 7 (M 3868). 

20 3. napaltu, PAR, spread out, 2 2748a (B SS31). 

4. naqaru, tear down, CT 17 25 32 (M 3872). 

5. i^parru, PAR, a 7tet, 4^ l6iia (B 5532). 

6. rapadu, DAG, stretch out, encamp, 2 274:7a (B 5533). 

7. subtu, dwelling, CT 16 50 12 (M 3869). 

25 8. suparruru, BARA, spread out, S^ iv 37 (B 5534). 
9. Tarasu, extend, RH 3I8 (M 3873). 

UKZ 168 explained the sigh as No II8, net, plus a motif for 
spread out. The original picture represented a net, of a different 
form from those represented by Nos II8 and 273. As the net was 
30 used for catching things the idea overthrow, tear down, was suggested 
by it, as also spread out. From the latter came the meaning encamp, 
from which came dwelling, and stand. 

No 244 a MC^ 

We have no ideogram of this sign, but Clay has made it 

35 probable, (BE 14 p. 27), that it means bull. It looks as though it 

might be composed of No 244 plus No 383, which is a variant of 



128 (§ avion, @a6gfcntan (pjn^tn^ 

No 353. How the meaning du// could be suggested by this is not 
clear. It is possible that the second element is a variant of No 373, 
which means cow. 

No 244 b S<^ffil 
Kisi (CT 12 2724a). 5 

It seems to be composed of Nos 244, 383, and 10, but may have 
had an altogether different origin. 

No' 245 M<^ 

1. narmaktu, some object of tribute, 2 33 9c (B 5537). 

Possibly composed of the same two signs as the two preceding 10 
plus No 54, but the origin is really unknown. 

No 245a ^?<^ 

ZIBIN (CT 12 27 19a). 

Possibly it is composed of Nos 244 283 (or 253), and 64. 

No 245 b ^<(^^! 15 

KiSi (CT 12 2723a). 

The values have not been preserved. Possibly it is a compound 
of Nos 244 283 (or 253), and 92. 

No 245 ^f<@C 

KISIM (CT 12 2713a). ^ .20 

It is, possibly, a compound of Nos 244, 283 (or 253) and I27. 

No 245 d ^<^a^ 

MARUN (possibly barun) (CT 12 2720a). 

It is, possibly, a compound of Nos 244, 283 (or 253), and 185. 

No 245 e ^C^l 25 

UTUA, UTUL (CT 12 27 14 & 15a). 

It is, possibly, compounded of Nos 244, 2%-^ (or 253) and 214. 
No 245 f S<«! 

HARU (CT 12 2726 a). 

It is, possibly, a compound of Nos 244, 283 (or 253), and 217. 30 



^i&t of 'ibto^xap^^ 129 



No 246 ^^ 



1. isid bukani, SARIN, an insect of some sort^ CT 14 4231c (B 5545). 

2. zirbabu, KISI, KAS, a destructive insect, S^ iv 51, HWB 723 b 

(B 5560, M 3886). 
5 3. karpatharu, a kind of vessel, 5 4231c, CT 17 2644 (B 5546, M 3887). 

4. harubu, IJARUB, grasshopper, S^ iv 52 (B 5544). 

5. kisimmu, KISIM, a destructive animal^ S^ iv 53 (B 5547). 

6. nabbillu, ZIBIN, an animal or insect destructive of young plants, 

7. sasiru, SURIN, a destructive insect, 2 5 20c (B 5549). [2 5 i9c (B 5548). 
10 8. sihu, KISIM, a destructive animal or insect, 2 5 isc (B 555o)- 

YiA;j4, thought the sign was possibly composed ofNos 244, 2^^, 
and 10; UKZ 171 n regarded it as a composite sign. The analogy 
of Nos 247 and 248 would indicate that the sign is not a compound. 
The meanings suggest that the original picture represented an insect. 

15 No 247 ^^<Cwr 

1. sirtu, AGAN, a female breast, S^ iv 50, CT 12 27 i7a (B 5554, M 3890). 

2. tulu, UBUR, a female breast, S^ iv 49, CT 12 27 isa (B 5555, M 3891). 

UKZ 171 n believed the sign to be composite. MSL 24 believed 
it to be a composite of Nos II8 and 275. The sign clearly repre- 
20 sented originally the human breast Some ornamentation or tatooing 
on it was afterward formed into the sign for milk. 

No247atS!<^^ 

SARAN (CT 12 2721a). 

The form suggests that it may be a compound of No 244 and 
25 No 309, but it may have had quite a different origin. 

No 248 ,^^<^M2 

1. suburu, supiiru, AMAS, wall, S^ iv 48, CT 12 27 iia (M 3893, B 5558). 

2. puhalu, } CT 14 11 9308013a (M 3894). 

3. (.^)re'u, UTUL, shepherd, 2 3254a (M 3895). 

30 4. rasubu, mighty, prince, CT 14 11 9308014a (M ,3896). 



KISIM (CT 12 27 12). 

UKZ 171 n regarded the sign as a compound; MSL 31 explained 
it as an enclosure with a door in it. Possibly the sign represented 
a wall with a door in it; perhaps^ a sheepfold which contained a 
35 sheep and a staff. 

Beitrage Ass.: Barton II. 9" 



No 249 ^ 

1. sidiru, fear, CT 19 10 4X97 9 (M 3952). 

2. ameiaklu, scribe, ZK 2 3029, 5 134a 45c (B 5568, M 3901). 

3. amelu, MU, man, ZA 9 1634 (M 3907). 

4. appu, top, 42 15* 14b; CT 17 1810 (B 5569, M 3909). 5 

5. ^?aru, PA, offspring, spawn, S^ iv 11, CT 16 6212 & 1422 44 (B 5570, 

6. (?)asatu, ? CT 12 22 3818011b (M 3912). [M 391 1). 

7. (?)eli, upon, CT 12 22 381803b (M 3903). 

8. elatu, height,! 4855c (B 5572). 

9. (?)elatu sa same, height, of heaven, CT 12 22 381805b (M 3905). to 

10. (?)elitu, height, CT 12 22 381804b (M 3904). 

11. erebu, SIG, enter, ASKT I2749 (B 5615). 

12. itanbutu sa kakkabe, HUD, shine, of stars, 5 4256c (B 5617). 

13. (.?)isu, wood, CT 12 22 381807b (M 3910). 

14. usu sa . . ., GISTURU(.?) } CT 12 22 3818010a 11 a (M 3908). 15 

15. uptarrusu(.^) ZIQQU(.?^) } CT 12 22 38180 le (M 3953). 

16. bellu(?) ZIQQU(.?) } CT 12 22 38180 15 (M 3954). 

17. gappu, wing, 4^ l6 65a (B 5571). 

18. damaqu, be favorable, RH 3I26 (M 39I3). 

19. zaqu, blow violently, storm, BC 882 K 79262 (M 39I4). .20 

20. zaqiqu, ZIKKU(?) SIG, storm, wind, 5 50 25a (M 3955). 

21. zarabu sa libbi, SIG, oppress, of the heart, 2 28 60d (B 5593). 

22. zurbu, SIG, oppression, 4^ 2650b (B 5594). 

23. zurub libbi, oppression, of the heart, CT 19 4I97 10 (M 39IS). 

24. hattu, HAT(?) sceptre, CT 12 22 381809a, 2 28 60f (M 3916, B 5573). 25 

25. hasu, SIG, hasten, ASKT I2749 (B 5616). 

26. ka'aru(?) .? CT 12 22 3818010a (M 3917). 

27. ^^^P^^kabduqqu, a kind of vessel, possibly an inkhorn, 642 ise (B 5574). 

28. kamu, sieze, 2 3470a (B 5575). 

29. kappu, wi7tg, CT 16 11 67a (M 3918). 30 

30. (?)lu*bu(?) oppression, 2 45 24g (M 3956). 

31. mehu, storm, rain, 2 38 22g (B 5619). 

32. rriahasu, SIG, shatter, 5 1955c (B 5576). 

^2^. mihsu, SIG, wound, ASKT 84/8539 (B 5577). 

34. malaku, consider, 4^ 15i7b (B 5618). 35 

35. masalu(.?) sinkij) 2 27 iig (B 5578). 

36. (?)miqtu(.?) } 5 3l29e (M 3919). 

37. iiNabu, god Nabu, 2 5467g (B 5579). 

38. nibritu, SIG, hunger, famine, CT 19 10 K 4I97 11 (M 3920). 

39. nadu, throw, cast, 4^ 1 loa (B 5580). 40 

40. nitu, right, BA 5 63911 (M 3958). 

41. nakasu, cut, 4^ 352b (B 5581). 



Bi&t of 'S^to^vap^fe 13I 

42. namaru, HUD, KUN, de bright, AL^ 82 iv i, 2 (B 5582). 

43. nasaku, appoi7it, CT 17 67 (M 3959). 

44. (?)napasu, breathe, CT 12 22 381806b (M 3921). 

45. naradu, SIG, become weary, ASKT.I2749 (B 5583). 
5 46. naratu, be weary, RH 7 i4 (M 3922). 

47. nurmtu, slow, heavy, RH 722; 126 No 783 (M 3960). 

48. i^Nergal sa suqi, god Nergal, of the street, CT 24 4I 74 (M 10751). 

49. natu, strike, crush, 5 1748c (B 5620). 

50. saliaru, turn, CT 16 4342 (M 3923). 

10 51. pasahu, SIG, be at rest, HAS xiii lo, ii; CT 17 33 19 (B 5584, M 3924). 

52. pastu, a two edged sword, CT 12 4250a (M 3925). 

53. karpatsindu(?) a coupling, fetter, 5 42 i4e (B 5586). 

54. (?)qatu, hand, CT 12 22 381808b (M 3926). 

55. rapasu, beat, crush, 5 1729c (B 5621). 

15 56. ritu, SIG, erect, make firm, 4^ 304a (B S585). 

57. sabu(?) be old, RH 786-9; CT 16 43 62 (M 3928), 

58. sabu, be old, 4^ 1945b (M 3962). 

59. (?)sabattu, sceptre, CT 12 22 381809b (M 3929). 

60. sahahU; SIG, bow down, oppress, 4^ 39a (B 55^7)- 

20 61. sahatu, SIG, tear off, flay, 4^ 6i9c; CT 16 43 56 (B 5623, M 3930). 

62. saharratu, SIG, a kind of vessel, AL^ 74306; 2 '^Z 25g (B 5624 B 5588). 

6-^^, sapiTu, scribe, ZK 2 30210 (B SS90). 

64. suqamumu(?) SIG, silence^) 4^ 1358b (B 559I). 

65. saqummu, quiet, silent, CT 16 2844 (M 393I). 
25 66. saqummatu, silence, 2 38 24g (B 5625). 

6"]. sarU; wind, 2 38 2ig (B 5622). 

6S. sutaktumu, overpower, CT 19 15 S448A6 (M 3965). 

69. tamhusu, SIG, brokeni>) 4^ 139b (B 5626). 



, ZAG (ASKT 75 obv 4). LU (CT 18 37 7). ugulu (CT 12 22 38180 2a). 

30 EM 2 109 explained the sign as the picture of an oil flask; 

OC, as a stylus. The sign probably represented the head of a 
primitive club used in fighting, which afterward developed into a 
sceptre. The sign stood for sceptre. As the stylus was of similar 
shape it represented that also. Its two uses as a club and a stylus 

35 account for all the meanings. Perhaps the club could alternate with 
the picture of a battle axe; cf No 563. From the club came all 
such meanings as fight, shatter, oppress, storm, etc. From the stylus 
came scribe, god Nebo, and height. It was made of wood. Fire 
and shine may have developed from wood, or from storm. If 

40 from the latter, it was because of the lightning which accompanied 
the storm. 

9* 



132 (§^xton, @a6)^fontan Q30xi(in^ 

• No 250 ^H^T 

1. tertu sa sipri, GARZU; TERTUM, TERTIM, command, of a communi- 
cation, 2 2747 c (B 5643 cf, M 3988). 

The late form suggests that the sign is compounded of Nos 249 
and 7, but in the absence of earlier forms this cannot be asserted. 5 
The meaning does not clearly confirm the suggestion of the form. 

No 251 '^>^ 

1. billudu, BILLUDU, divine command, S'^ iv 15 (B 5649). 

2. parsu sa ili, KUS, command, of a god, 5 1933 c (B 564^); 

3. parsu sa sarri, GARZA, command, of a king, S^ iv 14 (B 5647). 10 

UKZ 158 has correctly explained the sign as composed of 
Nos 249 and 13. 

No252&MIl^ 

1. aru, go forth, 5 5129a (M 3991). 

2. parasu sa siri, divide, of a wall, 2 2867 (B 5653). 15 

3. sarapu, bu7'n, ASKT 12913 (B 5654). 

4. saraqU; /r^.$-^;2/, 2 1940a (B 5655). 

5. taru, turn, 5 5129a (B 5656). 

The sign was clearly composed of No 249 plus No 99, to which 
No 207 was later added. No 249 originally represented a club, 20 
No 99, an arm, and No 207, a foot. Why this combination should 
have the above meanings is not clear. 



No 253 &^^ 

1. rabisu, MASKIM, watcher, demon, S^ iv 16 (B 5659). 

The forms show that the sign was compounded of Nos 249 and 25 
204. No 249 represented a club and 204, the head of a young animal. 
It was easily possible for the combination to suggest demon. 

No 253 a ^^^ 

1. nabalu, PARIM, dry land, RH IO131 (M 3994). 

The sign is evidently a variant of No 253. Perhaps a club and 30 
an animal suggested cultivation, and hence, dry land. 

No 254 ^^^ 
1. sabru, SABRA, seer, magician, S^ iv 17 (B 5663, M 3995). 

The sign is clearly a compound of Nos 249 and 260. It is often 
used in the temple archives to designate a class of priests or magi- 35 



Bist of 'it>to^ta^^& 133 

cians. No 249 designated an officer or priest, while No 260, which 
pictured a pick-axe^ probably suggested that the priest could pene- 
trate the future. 

No 255 ^ffll 

5 1. (?)^"^^iutullu, a kind of priest, NE 4458 (M 3996). 

2. baqamu(?) SAB, cut off, tea}' off, CT 11 322b (B 5667). 

3. baru sa siri, SAB, inspect, of flesh, 2 6237a (B 5668). 

4. harasu(?) SAB, coerce, bind, CT 11 321b (B 5669). 

5. qablu, SAB, midst, ASKT I2743 (B 5670). 

10 6. sabbu, SAB, so7ne kind of a vessel, S^ iv 18 (B 5671). 

7. ^^^P^^sappu, a kind of vessel, CT 16 4819 a (M 3997). 

8. saramu, SAB, cut off, S^* iv I9 (B 5672). 

UKZ 50 has correctly explained the sign as a compound of 
Nos 249 and 480. Here No 249 indicated officer and the other part 

15 represented some article of clothing (either a belt, breastplate or 
turban) worn by seers, (see below No 480). JR ch. XX ff. has shown 
that the inspection of the liver was an important function of seers 
in ancient Babylonia. When one takes into account the location of 
the liver and the cutting necessary to get at it, the connection of 

20 all the meanings with the sign is easily accounted for. 

• No 256 ^^ 

1. i^Nusku, NUZKU, the god Nusku, S^ iv 12 (B 5683). 

Clearly composed of No 249 and No 481 b. Why the combination 

represented the god Nusku is not altogether clear. Since No 481 b 

25 represented a garment, it is probable that, as in the instance of the 

preceding signs, a priest was at first designated by some article of 

clothing, and that from this it passed to denote the god himself. 

No 257 ^M- 

1. belu, lord, 5 I3 53a (B 5687). 

30 2. re'u, SIBA, shepherd, S^ iv I3 (B 5688). 

UKZ 50 correctly explained the sign as a compound of Nos 249 
and 482 — staff or club and sheep. It originally signified shepherd. 
Lord arose from a figurative application of shepherd. 

No 258 ^ 
35 1. esu, Gis, wood, AL^ 163 (B 5700). 

2. eseru, be upright^ TN 3I7 (M 4004). 

3. idlu, GIS, bolt, bar, AV 3955 (B 5702). 

4. issu, wood, 5 26446; 2 45 57e.(B 5701, M 4003). 



134 (8*<^rion, ®a6gfontan (]§OxitinQ 

5. iiQilgames, Gilgamesh, MVAG 1902 637 (M 4005). 

6. zikaru, GIS; remembrance, 2 7 sc (B 5707). 

7. zikru(?) mention, SAK 170 No xi 16 (M 10771). 

8. ^^eimaru, ;^^;;^^ ^^;^ ^j9^^^r, 5 21 39g, 2 3267a ^/HWB 425 (B 5703, 

9. niru, yoke, Cf. Z 7 22 with Assurnasirpal iii 22 (M 4018). [M 4006). 5 

10. rabu, great, 2 4818a (B 5704). 

11. rigmu(?) ^rj, MSW 7, 41666 (M 4007). 

12. samu, GES, MU, kear, 2 50220 (B 5705). 

13. sutesuru, rule, AL^ 163 (B 5706). [(M 4008). 

14. tertu(?) sa pihati(?) command, of a governor, CT 19 29 43782b 10 

EM 2 111, UKZ 16 & 77, OC and LBA311 have explained the 
sign as a beam or a piece of wood. The sign was clearly the 
representation of a log or section of the trunk of a tree. Most of 
the meanings arose so clearly from this that little comment is 
necessary. As it stood upright it came like No 439 to signify man, 15 
If it really stood for mention it was because of the similarity in 
Semitic of zikru, mention and zikaru, man. It came to stand for 
Gilgamesh through the abbreviation of the ideogram GIS-TU-BAR. 
Cry, hear, rule and command were extensions of the meaning yoke. 

No 259 ^ 20 

1. a^a^Airu, month lyyar, Str Nbk 2213 (B 5736). 

2. alpu, GU, GUD, ox, 42 2720b (B 5737). 

3. ekimmu, demon, spirit, 4^ I*i4ci6c (B 5738). 

4. harru(?) canalij) MSW 25 R 2 5885b (M 4036). 

5. 1ft, ox, AV 4841 (B 5739). 25 

6. matu, land, RH 19 6 (M 4038). 

7. qarradu, warrior, RH 20 28 (M 4039). 

DAPARA (2 51 13c). HAR (3 68 64a). 

EM 2 64 explained the sign as the picture of a horned animal; 
H 463, as the horned head oi an ox; UKZ 179, OQ OCS 234 & 250, 30 
and LB A 311 all explained it as the picture of an ox-head; LSG 20, 
as the head and neck of an ox. The picture was clearly the head 
and horns of an ox. As the wild ox fights and the domestic ox 
ploughs the land, it could stand for warrior and demon on the one 
hand, and for land on the other. Airu is abbreviated from a com- 35 
pound ideogram. The other meanings were directly suggested by 
the picture. 

No 260 t3^ 

1. i?allu, AL, a pick-axe, BE 1 No 84 i 39, S^ iv 26 (M 4068, B 5747). 

2. idinnu, SITIM, .? RT 27 1205 (M 4067). 40 



Biai of 'i^toc^xap^0 I35 

3. nasaru, guard, 5 4454c (B 5748). 

4. seru, high, lofty, AL^ 8226 (B S749). 

LSG 20 explains the sign as the picture of a pick-axe. This 

is evidently correct. It became the designation of a class of priests 

5 {cf. No 254) perhaps because they had oversight of the diggers. 

Possibly it was from the functions of these priests that it came to 

mean guard, and high. 

No 260 a ^ <^Tny 

No syllabic or ideographic value has been preserved. Possibly 
10 the sign is composed of Nos 260 and 99. 

No' 260 b 4^^^^T 

HIBIS, SUSBAR (CT 12 3I 38885 4 & 7b). 

Possibly the sign is compounded of Nos 260 and 2 14. 

No 260c ^^HT 

15 GISBAR (CT 12 31 388855b). 

Possibly the sign is compounded of Nos 260 and 258. 

No 260 d ^<^^T 

LIDIM (CT 12 31 388856b). 

Possibly the sign is composed of Nos 260 and 395. 

No 260 e ^<MT 

Neither syllabic or ideographic value has been preserved. Possibly 
the sign was compounded of Nos 260 and 4I9. 

No 260f ^^ 

, IL (CT 12 31 388859). 
25 Possibly the sign was compounded, of Nos 260 and 434. 

No 260 g 

HIBIRA (CT 12 31 388858b). 

Possibly it was composed of Nos 260 and 523. 



^ 



No 261 ^p: 

30 1. illuru, a sprout, 2 264a (B 5780). [M 4099). 

2. kibratu, territory, region, 2 35 40 a; KL 97 & 98; 45 + 90 (B 5782, 



136 (gartcn^ QE^afigfontan @S)nim$ 

3. karmu, ar, arable land, S^ v 42, CT 12 11 4a (B 5781, M 4I00). 

4. na*adu, exalt, HAS xiii 18 (B 5783). 

5. tubqU; UB, enclosed space, inner chamber S^ v 41 (B 5786). 

6. telu, UB, lofty, CT 12 11 5a (M 4I0I). 

7. teltu, loftiness, glory, 2 35 sia, CT 12 39 Rm 2 25 5 (B 5785, M 4I02). 5 

8. tanadtu, tanadatu, loftiness, glory, 2 35 32a; CT 12 11 4a (B 5784, 

9. tanittu, loftiness, glory, CT 12 11 sa (M 4103). ^ [M 4103). 

EM 2 109 explained the primitive picture as a nose] UKZ 175, 
as a variant of No 330, MSL 37 follows UKZ; OC explains it as a 
pentogram. It is doubtful whether the original picture can now be 10 
divined. It is possible that originally the sign pictured a ploughshare. 
That might denote arable land, then territory, eizclosed, space, and 
sprout. From the idea of the possession of such land it might come 
to designate exaltation, glory. All this is, however, doubtful. 

No 261a ^^\ 15 

1. siblukku, SIBBULUG, } S^ iii -^6 (B 5808). 

The form of the sign is not certain, CT 11 and AL^ 96 170 
copy it differently. It seems to be a compound of No 261 and 
No 557, or No 260 doubled. 



No 262 t=\\>- 20 

1. asabu, dwell, ASKT II914 (B 5812) 

2. eseru, bind, RH 75? (M 4121). 

3. equ, twist, go astray, 2 36446 (M 4I22). 

4. urbatu, a field-devastating animal ij) HWB 720a (M 41 23). 

5. hasu, hasten, RH 31 is (M 4125). 25 

6. labanu, MAR, throw down, 4^ 20 obv 9 (B 58I3). 

7. migganu, ? 2 289b (B 5814). 

8. malu, ///, RH 27 is (M 4127). 

9. marru, a chariot, PSBA 23 200 is (M 4I26). 

10. nadu(.?) throw down, RH II849 (M 4I29). 30 

11. nahu, rest, CRT Ilea (M 4128). 

12. nasahu, wrench away, 5 ll37d (B 5816). 

13. i?narkabtu, a chariot, AL^ 89 vi 75 (B 5815). 

14. salu, throw, 4^ 28* No 436b (M 4I30). 

15. pataru, /;>r^^; 5 1626a (B 5817). 35 
16., v2.\i^M, flood, 5 ll24d (B 5818). 

17. sahatu, destroy, ruin, 5 ll26d, BA 5 632 is (B 5819, M 4131)- 

18. sakanu, MARA, set, place, S^ v I3 (B 5820). 

19. saqasu(.?) destroy, ruin, RH 7525 (M 4132). 

20. ^2SQlq;}i, present, bestow, 5 11 sed (B 5821). 40 



Biet of 'i^eo^tap^ff I37 

21. tultu, worm, HWB 720 a (M 4134). 

22. taru, turn, 4^ 926a (B 5822). 

The origin of this sign is obscure. The objective meanings are 
chariot and worm. Perhaps the sign was a diagram of a chariot 
5 when viewed from above, the single line representing the pole and 
the two lines at the left thQ projecting wheels. The use of the 
chariot in war would suggest destroy (a later extension of which 
would give worm), throw down, wrench away, bind, hasten and turn, 
A common figure of speech, to overthrow like a deluge Shal. ObL 
10 face A, 21, would connect flood, fill with throw down. Another 
extension of the same meaning would give set and dzvelL All this 
is, however, problematical. 

No 263 ^ 

1. ana, unto, 4^ 13446 (B 5847). 
15 2. e, water, RH 68 rev 4 (M 4155). 

3. iku, lake, reservoir, 2 3814a (B 584I). 

4. ittu(.?) side, CT 19 28 48487b (M 4156). 

5. babiluH Babylon, Str Camb No 3963 (B 5840). 

6. mu, zvater, 4^ 1344a (B 5844). 

20 7. qabu, E, water, ditch, reservoir, S^ iv 44 (B 5842). 

8. qabu, Y., reservoir, S^ iv 45 (B 5843). 

9. qibu, speak, TN 329 (M 4157). 

10. rabu, be great, 4^ 15* 52b (B 5845). 

11. sadu, be high, 2 50 55c (B 5846). 

25 MSL 92 explains the sign as the representation of an irrigating 

ditch. It is, I believe, a part of a system of such ditches or canals. 
Such a . ditch would easily suggest lake or reservoir. It might 
naturally suggest be great, an extension of which would give high. 
Perhaps the prepositional meanings came about by a syllabic mixture 

30 of E with A, or rather the deflection of A to E. It came to express 
the verb speak from the likeness of qibu to qabu, reservoir. In late 
writing it designated Babylon through the accident that the Neo-Baby- 
lonian form of the sign is identical with the last part of the Neo- 
Babylonian form of TIR (No 329). The name TIN-TIR was abbre- 

35 viated by writing the last, TIR, which chanced to coincide with 
our sign. 

No 264 ^% 

1. urrubbu, URRUB, } CT 12 21 930582b (M 4196). 

2. ursubbu, URSUB, } CT 12 21 930583b (M 4197). 

40 3. damu, KURUN, blood, red wine, CT 12 21 930586b (M 4I98). 



138 (gdrfon, (g>a6gfontan (JDrth'n^ 

4. tabu, KURUN, good, good wine, CT 12 21 930585b (M 4199). 

5. i?kannu sa me, vessel of water, CT 12 4619a (M 4200). 

6. kannatu(?) . . . IR, ? CT 12 2430a (M 4201). 

7. karanu, KURUN, wine, CT 12 21 93058 9b (M 4202). 

8. kurunnu, KURUN, sesame-wine, CT 12 21 930587b (M 4203). 5 

9. Vqx^qSm, pot, vessel, 4^ 2633b, CT 12 2426a (B 5893, M 4204). 

10. luttu, ? JRAS 1905 82945 (M 4226). 

11. lummu, ? JRAS 1905 82944 (M 4227). 

12. nalpatu, knife, JRAS 1905 82946 (M 4228). 

13. sursubbu, SURSUB, ? CT 12 21 930584b (M 4207). 10 

14. sikinnu, hv^l'^, homage, worship, CT 12 21 930581b (M 4208). 

15. sikaru, KURUN, strong drink, CT 12 21 930588b (M 4209). 

MSL 89 and OCS 238, 257 have correctly explained the sign 
as the picture of a drinking jar. One still sees such in the East. 
The picture is identical with the original of No 217. The sign 15 
naturally meant vessel, and that which was drunk from it, such as 
water and various kinds of wine. From the wine it came to stand 
for good and blood, and from the use of wine and blood in libations, 
for worship. 

No 265 ^ 20 

1. inbu, m^^J, fruit, 5 1957a; cf. UKZ 105. 

GURIN (5 1959a). 

UKZ 105 ff. explains the sign as composed of eight wedges, 
which indicate eightfold, which stood for increase [cf English hundred- 
fold) and so came to signify fruit. In reality the sign is a variant 25 
of the following sign. . 



No 266 

1. inbu, BURU,/r^//, 5 l957afF.; cf, UKZ 105 ff. 

UKZ 105 ff. explains the sign in the same way as he explained 
the preceding one. The origin of the sign is obscure. It resembles 30 
the Kassite cross pictured in SCWA p. 394, which Ward traces to 
an old sun-picture. It may also have been a picture of a four- 
handled storage jar viewed from above, or even of a well with 
drinking troughs radiating from it. The value BURU (No 365) would 
favor the last view, 35 

No 267 ^^ 

1. inbu, GURIN (?)/r?^//, S^ i 66; ^. 42 18 is a (B 5907). ^ ^ 

2. i?hanibu, sprout, fruit, 5 199a (B 5908). 

3. ^^"^kirban eqli, a kind of plant of a field, CT 14 2031b (M 4252). 



Bi&i of a^to^xa^^^ 139 

Perhaps the original picture represented a hanging cluster of 
dates. 



No 268 

1. matu, KALAMA, country y landy S^ iv 47 (B 5914). 
5 2, nisu, \jlL\^, people, S^ iv 46 (B 5915). 

H 479 explained the sign as a compound of No 281, house with 
a representation of scepter which indicated ruler\ BBH 17, as a 
compound of a representation of canals with a symbol for many\ 
UKZ 142 ff., as a compound of three motifs, indicating respectively 

10 great, many, and people', 0GB 75, as a compound of Nos 244 and 94. 
One cannot suggest an origin with any certainty, but I suspect that 
it originally represented a standard carried in battle. The Stele of 
Vultures pictures EANNATUM as holding a conventionalized bird in 
his hand. This was evidently a standard, {cf. Dec. pi. 4^^^). A 

15 comparison of that figure lends support to the theory that this sign, 
when erect, was a similar standard, the lines representing the fingers 
of the hand that grasped it. 



No 269 

1. ana, unto, 4^ 2731b (B S936). 
20 2. ersitu, LIL, land, CT 12 22 36991 7b (M 4257). 

3. A,' of, BE 1 No 87 i 40 (B 5935). 

4. u(?) and, 42 1911a (B 5937)- 

5. zaqu, blow, storm, BC I376, Sm 492 (M 4259). 

6. zaqiqu, LIL, storm wind, AL^ 72212, CT 11 3135b, cf, CT 17 295 
25 7. kitu, GE, end, Sb iv 34 (B 5930). [(B S934, M 4260). 

8. kitu sa qane, GE, end, of reeds, MSW 25 R 2 588 i6b (M 4261). 

9. lilu, LIL, demons, AL^ 72213 (B S931). 

10. silitu(?) LIL, deficit, CT 11 31 3 (B 5932). 

11. siru, LIL, high, CT 12 22 369916b (M 4262). 
3<5 12. saru, LIL, wind, CT 11 3133b (B 5933). 



KID (AL^ 52 iv 9). SAH (AL3 52 iv 7). 

UKZ 166 ff. hesitatingly explains the sign as a variant of No 281, 
the sign for house. Probably the original picture represented a cloud, 
hence the meanings storm, wind, demon. As demons brought things 
35 to an end it attained this meaning also. By the time of GUDEA it 
was in form confused with No 281. Probably land came to be 
represented by the sign because it was wind-swept. The preposi- 
tional meanings were due to syllabic usage in Sumerian. 



140 (gar ton, (gaS^fontan (P5)rtttn5 



No 270 



1. alaktu, SID, roa^dj progress, 2 48 25g (B 5964). 

2. alak tesliti, going of a missive^ CT 18 3924c (B 599I). 

3. alallu, ALAL, zvater-kolder, precious stone, 2 44276 (B S965). 

4. idlu, MES, man, lo7^d, S^ ii 54 (B 5967), . 5 

5. itqu, AG, wool, S^ iv 40 (B 5968). 

6. i?uttu . . ., ? AL3 86 i 18 (M 4268). 

7. dasapu(?) ZAG, ^^ sweet, agreeable, AV I928 (B 5966). 

8. ab^^kunukku, a seal, 2 40 42g (B 5971). 

9. lasu, knead, CT 12 3624a (M 4271). 10 

10. mahasu sa isi, TU, split, of wood, MSW 25 R 258831b (M 4274). 

11. manu, count, 2 832 a (B 5972). 

12. menutu, SITI, UTTU, 7iumber, S^ iv 39, MSW 25 R 2588 38b (B 5973, 

13. i?mesu, a kind of tree, RH 734 (M 4272). [M 4275). 

14. iiMarduk, god Marduk, AV 5135 (B 5974). 15 

15. nikasu, cut off,^ 11 4d (B 5975). 

16. nasabu sa isi, PISAN, a v,essel of wood, 2 33 4c (B S976). 

17. pisannU; PISAN, jar, granary, S^ iv 42 (B. 5978). 

18. paqidu, appointee, overseer, 5 5126b (B 5977). 

19. qirbannu, LAG, offering, S^ iv 41, CT 4 835 a (B 5969, M 4270). 20 

20. qurbannu, LAG, gift, 2 38iie (B 5970). 

21. (?)rubu, MES, great, CT 12 1418a (M 4277). 

22. rittu, KISIB, seal, signet, S^ ii 55 (B 597.9). 

23. sulu sa suri, SUMUG, direct, of thoughts^ CT 12 142324a (M 4279}. 

24. sangu, SANGU, priest, S^ iv 43 (B 5980), 25 



PA (2 2O20e) and TE (5 42 34g). 



H 479 explained the primitive sign as the picture of a backbone; 
BNA 13 375, as a dish on which are things offered; UKZ 169, as a 
compound of No 118, a net plus No 127, fill\ OCS 239 & 258, as some 
article of priestly clothing. The origin is obscure. I still believe 30 
that my former conjecture is more probable than any other. This 
would account for the meanings wool, priest, man, overseer and all 
such meanings. Probably seal and such meanings came in through 
mixture with No 157, while all meanings, which have to do with 
holding water, such as jar, vessel, etc. were attached to the sign 35 
through mixture with No 272. Mixture with these signs was caused 
by the approximation of their respective forms at one stage of the 
development of the writing. 



^i^i of 'S^co^xap^e I4I 

No 271 

1. taritu, EME, UMMEDA, pregnant woman, 2 3256c, CT 12 1427a 

(B 6006, M 4298). 

MSL 100 explains the sign as a compound of No 270, water- 
5 pipe, and No 478; man. The sign is probably a compound, as its 
treatment in Neo-Babylonian shows, and the component parts are 
those which Prince indicated. The meaning, however, which he has 
assigned to those parts is improbable. I am unable to explain how 
the combination came to stand for pregnant woman. 

10 No 271a ^PY 

1. umsatu, SAMAG, want, sorrow, CT 12 1426a (M 4299). 

The sign is apparently composed of No 270 and No 443, but 
why it meant want or sorrow is uncertain. Perhaps it signified a 
rent or hole in the garment. 



15 



No 272 



1. i^elallu, ELAL, water-vessel, 5 2660 a (B 6012). 

2. dupsarru, DUBBISAG, scribe, S^ iv -^^ (B 601 1). 

3. i^Nabu, DUBBISAG, god Nadu, 5 4328c (B 6013). 

4. nasabu sa qane, ALAL, collect[}) of reeds, 2 '^'^^c (B 60I4). 

20 5. ^^pisannu, PIS AN, earthen or wooden jar, granary, 5 2661a (B 6015). 

UKZ 168 ff, which is followed by MSL 29, explains the sign as 
compounded of No 270 and No 519; OCS 238 & 257, as a water-jar. 
The original pictograph shows that the object portrayed was a jar 
of different shape and ornamentation from No 264. This picture 
25 signified water vessel, jar, either of earth or wood. The meaning 
scribe came in from confusion with No 270, and Nabu from an 
extension of the meaning scribe, Nabu being the Mercury of the 
later Babylonian pantheon. 



No 273 ^If^ 

30 1. ahu, KUS, net, bird-trap, 2 4848c (B 6021). 

2. akalu, eat, food, 4^ 1625b (B 6022). 

3. ammatu, cubit, 1 33 — 58 vi 25 (B 6023). 

4. ilu, god, CT 19 1 K 4200 rev 7 (M 4301). 

5. isu, wood, RH ill 9a (M 4302). 
35 6. umu, storm, RH 13 2 (M 4300). 

7. biltu, burden, RH I32/4 (M 4303). 

8. le'u, strength, HAS xiii 26 (B 6024). 



142 (Ration, Q^afigfonian (VOxiixnc^ 

9. makalu, mea/ time, RH 9114 (M 4304). 
10 sibaru(?) a kind of plant, ASKT 7432 (B 6026). 

11. rtta, fodder, 5 40 5 e (B 6025). 

12. sammu, SAM, a plant, S^ ii 7 (B 6027). 



U (S^ iv 51). GUD (5 42 62a). 5 

EM 2 107 explained the sign as a network for measuring; Sayce, 
TSBA 6 483, as a loaf of bread; UKZ 165 n 1, as a net for catching 
birds; HoMMEL, OC as a representation of fodder; OCS 237 & 257, as 
a net. The sign was clearly the picture of a net. This suggested 
food then plants, because they were eaten, then, by extension, wood, 10 . 
and strength. Strength suggested burden. From the sacredness of 
trees it came to stand for god, and, perhaps through this meaning, 
for storm. Probably cubit was attached to the sign through syllabic 
usap-e in Sumerian. 



-^fc>^ 



No 274 q ^LJttt ^5 



1. abukatu, destruction, 5 4027 a (B 6060). 

2. aslukatu, destruction, 5 4028a (B 6061). 

3. eltutu, divinity (f) height if) 5 4025 a (B 6062). 

4. urbatu, destruction, 5 4024a (B 6064). 

5. kililu, devastation^) 5 4027a (B 6063). 

The sign is evidently compounded of No 273 and No 329 doubled. 
The latter represented a wood and the former a net, A net set in 
a wood was, of course, intended to destroy, hence the combination 
naturally represented destruction. 



No 275 ^\ • . '5 

1. alaku maru hantu, go, slowly [or] swiftly, 5 11 4a (B 6108). 

2. arii, go, CT 19 39 K 76979a (M 4343). 

3. etequ, march, CT 19 46 K 4597 2 (M 4344). 

4. babalu, carry, bring, RH 410 (M 4345). 

5. basu, be, 2 l62ie (B 6109). 30 

6. (.?)guristu, '} CT 19 45 20a (M 4346). 

7. kamaru sa makuri, strike down, with a staff, 2 623 8z: 4g (B 61 11). 

8. ki(.?) so, when, 1 3021c (B 6112).. 

9. kissu(.?) dwelling, 4^ 344b (B 61 13). 

10. laqiaqqu, } CT 19 45 21a (M 4347). ^5 

11. qaladu, be favorable, 5 11 i6a (B 6110). 

12. sizbu, milk, 42 430b (B 6114). 

13. (.?)salalu, spoil, BA 5 620 20 (M 4349). 



Biei of 'i^to^xap^^ I43 

14. ^^(?)singallu, ^^C?)gannu, ? 5 3266a cf. HWB 6ys (M 4350). 

15. tebu(?) approach, RH 2728 (M 4351)- 

16. tulu, Z^;;^^/^ ^r^^j/, ASKT 84/8536 (B 6115). 

GA (S^ iii 48). GUR (2 62 3g). TAH (AL^ 65 ii 5). TU (AL3 65 ii 6). 

5 OC explained the sign as the picture of a jar; MSL ill, as a 

gunu of No 227, meaning a guiiated. point, but used as a motif for 
a /^«/; OCS 234 & 249, as the picture of a teat. The sign was the 
picture of a breast or udder and a teat. This easily meant breast^ 
milk, and from the process of milking, the various forms of going 
10 catalogued above. As milk is so important a food, be and be 
favorable were easily suggested by it. The meaning dwelliizg occurs 
in the phrase, dwelling of the heart, — a figurative expression for breast. 

No 276 ^X^ 

1. kasu, GARAS, ? 5 38 32f, 59 i (B 6131). 
15 2. purussu) GARAS; decision, AL^ 65 ii 4 (B 6132). 

'The, sign is clearly composed of Nos 275 and 177. Probably 
they were combined in Sumerian in syllabic spelling. 

No 277 m\M 

1. ahazu, IL, seize, take, ASKT 12627 (B 6144). 
20 2. (.?)alalu(.?) be strongij) CT 21 418a (M 4384), 

3. asu, IL, go out, 5 5126a (B 6145). 

4. elu, IL, be high, 5 21 25a (B 6146). 

5. zabalu, carry, lift up, RH 61 23b (M 4398). 

6. ^;neK?)kinattu, an officer (pi CT 19 2724a; cf 2 3269a (M 4385), , 
25 7. i^:)r£i2.\iT\i, front, first, CT 19 4224a (M 4386). . 

8. malu, GUR, be full, 4^ 928a, RH 743 (B 6147, ^ 43^7)- 

9, i^)u\Bkhq) forget, HN, Taf. XIII rev 5; ^ BA 5 677^ rev 5 (M 4388), 

10. napahu, y7^M^ up, RH 10427 (M 4389). 

11. nasu, ILI, IL, GURU, GUR, GA, lift Up, 4^ 27 48a; 2 26 43— 45c, AL^ 65 ii 10 
30 12.. nissu, IL, lifting up^ 4^ 20 obv 9 (B 6149). [(B 6148). 

13. padu, IL, be relentless, merciless, 2 2638c, CT 19 4239b (B 61 50, 

14. rabu, be great, Surpu vii 11 (M 439I). [M 4390). 

15. sapu(.?^) be heavy, thick, ASKT 128 rev 1 (B 6152). 

16. saqu, IL, be high, 2 303a (B 61 51). 

35 17. tibitu, advancing, threatening,^}! 1 05 22/24 (M 4392). 

GIL (AV 1615). DU (2 6liOg). . DUSSU (5 32 67 d). 

OC explained the sign as a jar on a head, OCS 232 & 242, as 
a king wearing his primitive headdress, standing with one hand out- 



144 Ration, (gaSgfontan (Wxitin^ 

stretched, and the other resting on his hip; ML 23, as a vessel 
balanced on a head. I still think my former explanation the most 
probable, though the man may not have been a king, but a porter. 
All the meanings could easily be suggested by such a picture. 



No 278 

1. galadu, LAH, de afraid, 2 35 loc (B 6166). 

2. misu, LAH, wash, cleanse, S^ ii 9 (B 6167). 

3. sukallu, SUKKAL, LUH, messenger, S^ ii 10 (B 6170). 

4. paXahu, fear, 2 35 9c (B 6168). 

5. pasisu, anointed or anointing, 2 25316 (B 6169). 10 

LIH (3 19 61). LUH (AL^ 97 76 var). SURAL (3 68 64d). 

BE 1 41 n 6 explained the sign as water poured out; UKZ lOO, 
as a doubled gunu sign; OC as water, OCS 237 & 256, as. a snare 
reversed or rendered impotent. My former explanation seems to 
me the right one. The fact that the sign was a snare suggested 15 
fear', as washing and anointing were ceremonies which rendered 
impotent the snares of evil spirits it easily suggested wash, anoint, 
and then a class of priests who attended to such matters. As these 
priests were messengers of the gods, it came to denote messenger. 



No 279 

1. aban suluppi, date stone, CT 12 4741b (M 440I). 

2. qa^aklu, a kind of reed, CT 19 2 isb (M 4402). 

3. aqsu, KALA, strong, hostile, CT 11 3I i6a (B 6188). 
4 aqaru, be costly, precious, ^^ 1336b (M 4403). 

5. aqru, KALA, costly, precious, S^ iii 39 (B 61 87). 25 

6. asaridu, KALA, supreme ruler, CT 11 3118a (B 61 89). 

7. a^tu, KALA, high, proud, steep, CT 11 3I i6a (B 61 90). 

8. emuqu, be strong, 5 40 No 3 8 (B 6195). 

9. i?esu, oak, strong tree, AV 2734 (B 6196). 

10. idlu, GURUS, man, lord, S^ iii 39 (B 6197). 30 

11. izzu, strong, ASKT 71 4 var (B 6198). 

12. ^ipatatii^ clothing, 5 1413c (B 6222). 

13. i?usu, a kind of tree,, 5 26 19a + ZA 9 223 1, 2 45 48b (M4405, B 6208). 

14. ^"^^^Vihxx, a kind of stone, 2 40 25d, HWB 144 ASKT 81 23 (M 4406, 

15. iibel sa naphari, lord of all, 2 S48a (B 6191). [B 6209). 35 

16. gasru, strong, BA 5 642 1 (M 4407). 

17. damaqu, be favorable, TN 313 (M 4408). 

18. dananu, be strong, 2 3657e (B 6193). 

19. dannu, KALA, strong, CT 11 3113a (B 6194). 



Biet of 'iUo^xa^^^ I45 

V 

20. dunanu, Ji£-urej bodily appearance, 4^ 51 31b ^Surpu \\ %% (M 441I). 

21. (?)dunnu, strength, BA 5 7089 (M 4410). 

22. ^«^eikalu(?) lord, ASKT 220, K 5208 (B 6199). 

23. i?Kallu, a vessel, 5 26 5g (B 6200). 

5 24. iiLamassu(?) 3^^// deity, BE 9 68 5fe (M 4433). 

25. i?martu, ESi(?) ? AV 5192 (B 6201, M 4415). 

26. na'baru(?) be strong^) RH 55 rev 9 (M 4434). 

27. (?)nasahU; tear away, remove, CT 17 2644 (M 4416). 

28. i?nappasu, ESI, f 5 2621a (B 6203, M 4417). 

10 29. naqaru(?) destroy, tear down, 2 1532a (B 6202). 

30. papsukal sa Lamassi, messenger, of a Lamassu, 3 6761c (M 44I4). 

31. sa ristan, KALA, leader[}) CT 11 3118a (B 6204). 

32. a"^eisabru(?) an officer i^) 5 3 iis (AL^ No 172) (B 6205). 

33. sabbitu, sceptre, 5 26 7 g (B 6206). 

15 34. saqu, be high, BA 5 70711b (M 4418). 

35. suquru, costly, precious, ^K 5 7079b (M 44I9). 

36. sarapu(?) burn, BA 5 7083 (M 4420). 

37. sutuqu, LIB(?) renowned, glorious, 4^ 2448a (B 6207). 



DAN (S^ iii 43). KAL (S^ iii 44). RIB (AV 5193). 

20 There is no real clue to the origin of the sign. Possibly in the 

early perpendicular writing the sign portrayed an idol or was the 
representation of a demon. Such a figure would suggest strong, 
glorious, costly and the circle of thought from which all these 
meanings spring. 

25 No 280 ^^? 

1. ^Usum, ALAD, a kind of demon, 2 5011c (B 6232). 

2. i^sedu, ALAD, a demon, a bull deity, Sb iii 41 (B 6233). 

Apparently the sign is a late differentiation of No 279. 



No 281 

30 1. bitu, E, house, S^ iv 32 (B 6238). 

2. (?)namu, ruin, decay, CT 16 2627 (M 4437). 

3. qutrutu, ? RT 27 121 is (M 4438). 



BID (3 68 59d). 

EM 2 114 explained the sign as the picture of a house; UKZ 166, 
35 as a reed hut or a house of layers of bricks; OQ as a picture of a 
house; DCS 237 & 255, as lattice work to represent a reed house. 
The sign, no doubt, represented in some way a reed hut 

Beitrage Ass.: Barton II. 10 



146 (§atton, (gaB^fontan (^xitin^ 



No 282 

1. etillu, NIR, ru/er, S^ ii 64 (B 62S2). 

2. belu, NIR, /^r^ 42 2546b (B 6281). 

3. zigguratu(?) a temple tower, 2 501a (B 6289). 

4. maliku, decider, prince, 2 26i5e (B 6284). 5 

5. mitlutu, heroic, RH 697 b (M 4490). 

6. niru sa asli, a yoke, in square measure, 5 1822a (B 6285). 

7. salahu(?) sprinkle, KM 12 7 ^y^. p. 125 (M 449I). 

8. sarru, king, 5 167a (B 6286). 

9. sitalii; ? 5 30 4ig (B 6301). 10 

10. (?)sutemuqu(?) supplication, CT 12 175a (M 4492). 

11. tknihu, lamentation, sighing, 2 62 22 c, CT 17 37 291 4b (B 6287, M 44.93). 

12. tarasu, extend, spread out, 5 31 64e, RH 20 24 (B 6288, M 4494). ' 

UKZ 44 explained the sign as No 94 doubled. Probably the 
sign originated in a rude representation of a tower. Such \s its 15 
meaning in the earliest passage where it occurs. As a prince was a 
kind of tower of strength to his people [cf. the name given to Urka- 
gina in Dec LI, No 4 xii ^6) most of the other meanings would 
naturally arise through this figurative use. The meanings supplication, 
lamentatio7i came from an abbreviation of a-nir, in which the sign 20 
NIR originally meant great or much. The meaning sprinkle is very 
doubtful, resting entirely . upon a conjecture of KuCHLER s, but if 
genuine, it probably originated in a similar way. 

No 283 

1. apalu, Gi, overthrow, sell, ASKT 66 is (B 6308). 25 

2. edepu(.?) overthrow {J) ASKT 8670 (M 4508). 
.3. ekemu, take, capture,- AL^ 82 iii 4 (B 6310). 

4. enu sa qibiti, answer, of a speech, CT 19 42 25b (M 4509). 

5. 'iiru, surroundi^) 5 3930c (B 6333). 

6. dahu, overthrow, oppress, ASKT 90 71 (B 6309). 30 

7. daku, kill, RH 95 27 (M 4520). 

8. huaku, } 2 4475g (B 63II). 

9. kabu(.?) ? 2 35 62g (B 6312). 

10. kalu, hinder, t^'^ 1 28a (B 63I3). 

11. libu, ? 2 4477g (B 6314). 35 

12. Iam6, surround, CT 19 2619b (M 4511). 

13. mahalu, defile, 2 44 76g (B 6315). 

14. maharu, 3e in front, receive, 2 3622 a (B 63 1 6). 

15. malu, QK,fill, 2 321. 2g (B 6317). 

16. (.?)marasu, be difficult, sick, RH 5322 (M 4522). 40 



Biet of 'i^to^xcip^6 147 

17. nakamu, Aeap up, KU 82 iii e (B 63 18). 

18. (?)nakapu, break loose, storm, BC I376 S497 (M 4513). 

19. nakaru(?) be hostile, 4^ 2 25a (B 6320). 

20. nakru sa amati, hostile, of a word, AL^ 83 iii 50 (B 63 19). 
5 21. nasii, lift up, 4^ 366a (B 6321). 

22. saharu; turn, 4^ 21* sob (B 6324). 

23. i?sahiru* ? 5 lliee (B 6338). 

24. pihu", close, bar, PSBA 17 64 ff. PI I i 12 (M 45 14). 

25. paqadu, appoint, 4^ 43b (B 6322). 

10 26. pasahU; reconcile, 4^ 22 54a (B 6323, M 4523). 

27. pitu sa pani, open, of the face, 5 l650e (B 6in\ 

28. (?)qalu(?) insult{?) RH 84 16 (M 4524). 

29. sa*alu(?) aski^) CT 17 21 117 (M 4525). 

30. sabu, oppress, overthrow, 4^ 28*68b (B 6325). 
15 31. sabaru, reap, ASKT 71 19 (B 6326). 

32. sabatu, beat, strike, 4'^ 169b (B 6327). 

II. salamu, be whole, complete, AV 7845 (B 6328). 

34. sananu, be like, equal, 4^ 2653a (B 6329). 

35. saparU; send, ^'^ 1740a (B 6330). 

20 36. tebu(?)** arise, approach, ASKT 8670 (B 6332). 
37. taru, turn, 4^ 18 No 2 r 5 (B 633I). 



GA (2 32l2g). 

UKZ "jZ explained the sign as a gunu of No 92; OC, as a plant; 
OCS 236 & 255, as a picture of a larger variety of reed than No 92. 

25 My former explanation seems to me clearly right. The prevailing 
meaning is overthrow, be hostile, etc. This may have come from 
the cutting of the reeds in large numbers for binding and other 
purposes [cf HLQ pi 16, RTQ Nos 305, 306 and AJSL 27 322 ff.), 
or from their use in making bows and arrows, [cf, Del. IX, Nos 10 

30 and 12). 

No 284 ^^ 

1. prosperity, Dec p XLVII No 6 iv 18. 

2. make bright, BE 1 No %^ ii 45. 

GIG (1 1990). HIL. (3 850). 

35 AL*^ No 39 correctly explained the sign as No 283 doubled. 

No 285 Kl^ 

1. ^^ da'ummatu, darkness, obscurity, CT 16 1929a (M 4528). 

2. simetan, USAN, evening, gloaming, S^ vi 36; AL^ I06367 (B 6347). 



* Var. sakiru. ** M reads edepu; cf, meaning No 2. 

10* 



148 Qgiarfon, (gafigfontan (P^rtttn^ 

3. ^^simetan, evenings gloamings 1 7 6a BA 5 707 6a (B 6348, M 4529). 

4. iisittu(?) sleep, CT 16 2720 n2 (M 4530). 

UKZ 74 explained the sign as a gunu of No 120. No 120 was 
the picture of a jar with a pointed bottom. This picture probably 
represented such a jar colored black. It was used to suggest darkness, 5 
and then, because all creatures sleep at night, sleep. 

No 286 ^1^^ 

1. rahas umi, close of day y 5 3O20e (B 6349). 

2. simeta(?) evening, 5 30 i9e (B 6350). 

Probably a variant development from the same original as the 10 
preceding. 

No 287 ^:|T 

1. ahazU; seize, take, 5 2l50g (B 6353). 

2. ana, unto, 2 3l30g, CT 12 29 '^^266 r 23a (B 6365, M 4532). 

3. anaku, /, HAS xiii 12 d (B 6354). 15 

4. asabu, dwell, 2 3l26e (B 63 5 5). 

5. eli, upon, CT 16 274, 23 (M 4S3l)- 

6. ina, in, CT 12 29 38266 r 24a (M 4533). 

7. daku, kill, CT 12 29 38266 r 21a (M 4534). 

8. la, not, 5 2l45g (B 6356). 20 

9. lu, verily, or, 5 21 32g (B 6358). 

10. lapatu, turn, AV 7339 (B 6357). 

11. mahasu, shatter, fight, 4^ 29 No 3 3 (M 6359). 

12. mahasu sa ameli, fight, of men, 5 1956c, CT 12 29 38266 r 29a 

13. mihsu, wound, CT 19 39 K 9888 r 5 (M 4536). [(B 6360, M 4535). 25 

14. malaku, take counsel, CT 12 29 38266 r 20a (M 4537). 

15. masadu, strike down^. oppress, CT 12 29 38266 r i9a (M 4538). 

16. naru, kill, CT 12 29 38266 r 25a (M 4539). 

17. nirtu, slaughter, CT 19 29 38266 r 26 a (M 4S40). 

18. palaku, divide, separate, CT 19 29 38266 r 27a (M 454I). 30 

19. sabatu, seize, 5 21 33g (B 6363). 

20. rabasu(?) lie down, encamp, CT 19 212a (M 4S42). 

21. rahasu, RA, flood, S^ iii 46, CT 19 29 ^^266 r ua (B 6361, M 4543). 

22. ramu, throw down, 2 3l25e (B 6362). 

23. rasabu, strike, smash, CT 19 29 38266 r 17a (M 4544). 35 

24. rapadu, lie down, encamp, CT 12 29 38266 r i6a (M 4S45). 

25. rapasu, beat, crush, CT 12 29 38266 r i5a (M 4S46). 

26. sa, which, of , B 21 40g, CT 16 28 38 Sl 40 (B 6364). 

27. sakanu, set, place, CT 12 29 38266 r isa (M 4548). 

28. saqatu, watering, flood, CT 12 29 38266 r 28a (M 4549). 40 



Bi$t of 'i'^to^xap^tf 149 

EM 2 110 explained the sign as the representation of a country- 
furrowed with canals; H 475, as channels of irrigation; UKZ 158ff., 
as a compound of No II8, net, and No 12/,^?//, hence the meaning 
canal; Hilprecht, OBI 2 41, as canal plus No 127, ^//; OC, as an 
5 irrigating wheel. Hommel's explanation is probably right. The wheel 
took up the water and poured it down. From this process came 
the meanings throw downy strike dow7tj then kill and all kindred 
significations. The prepositional and pronominal meanings were 
attached to the sign through Sumerian syllabic spelling. 

No 288 ^I^^ 

1. adaru, be large, AL^ 8425 (B 6382). 

2. alpu, ox{^) CT 17 3612 (M 4561). 

3. ^^AnduUu, protection, covering, KS[ 378 (M 4562). 

4. anahu, KUS, be old, ASKT II62 (B 6383). 

15 5. ezezu, SUR, be strong, 4^ 28 No 2iia (B 6384). 

6. \zzM, SUR, strength, MJ 66 iv 25 (B 6385). 

7. uggatu, SUR, anger, 4^ 1050a (B 6391). 

8. kuburu, great, mighty, AV 4468 (B 6386). 

9. nahu, KUS, be fat, 2 485a (B 6387). 

20 10. (?)?"bat(?)patinnu, a kind of garment, CT 18 345b (M 4563). 

11. i^salulu, shade, protection, 5 447c (B 6388). 

12. i^salmu, SALME, SALAM, dark, black, 2 49426 (B 6389). 

13. ^aisigritu, ANDUL, protection, MSW 24 R 2 2610 (M 4565). 

14. samru, ^^Y^^, powerful, 4^ 2433a (B 6390). 



25 SALME (2 4942e). 

UKZ 70 explained the sign as a gunu of No I29; OCS 232 ff. 82:244 
explained it as originating in the picture of a head with a beard; 
0GB, as originating in the picture of a head with a protecting 
covering, such as is pictured on the stele of Vultures and in Meyer's 
30 Sumerier und Semiten in Babylonien, p. 80, 81. Dr. Ogden's re- 
searches have, I believe, established the origin of this sign. The 
protection to the head pictured was, as Meyer noted, worn by 
warriors. This fact, together with the ideas suggested by the 
protection itself, easily produced all the meanings. 

35 No 289 g^ 

1. amelu, mafi, 4^ 69a (B 6399). 

2. anaku, i^ 5 2734 (B 6400). 

3. belu, lord, 5 1347a, RH 4813 (B 6401, M 4568). 

4. mu, name, CT 18 47 R II 4293 (M 4569). 



150 Q^arfon, (0a6gfontan (JOnttn^ 

5. mamman, some one, 5 2436a (B 6402). 

6. maslu, midst, 2 6266c (6-6403). 

7. nakru, enemy, 5 1636 a (B 6404). 

8. nisu, people, PB Z6 (B 6405). 

9. sa, z£/^^, which, 2 31 ug (B 6406). 
10. sarru, king, AV 5122 (B 6407). 



GAL (ZA 1 192193). GULU (2 32 67a). LU (2 32 64a). 

MULU (ZA 1 22 n 1). 

H 462 & 468, OC, UKZ 23, OCS 231 & 241, LBA 311, and LSG 20, 
have all correctly explained the sign as originating in a rude picture 10 
of a man. The origin explains all the meanings except king. This 
came m. from mixture with No 169. 

No 289a K^ 

The form is clearly No 289 plus No 70, i, e. a man in whom is 
a dagger. No syllabic value for it is known, but it seems to be an 15 
ideogram for corpse] cf, SAK 69. 

No 290 K^- 

1. ahu, SES, brother, S^ v 11 (B 6437). 

2. annuti, these, 2 35 4c, CT 23 463; 50 15 (B 6438, M 4578). 

3. i?urinu, ? MSW 27 5743 (M 4579). ' 20 

4. damu, blood, RH I3I7 (B 6439, M 4580). 

5. limnu, s£:s, evil, 4^ 212a, CT 16 11 63 (B 6440, M 4581). 

6. mararu, be bitter, HWB 427 (M 4582). 

7. marru, GIN, bitter, ASKT 84/85 37,' CT 12 30 93066 4 (B 6442, M 4583). 

8. maratu(.?) bitterness, 2 39 3ig (B 6441). 25 

9. nasaru, URU, guard, S^ v 12 (B 6443, M 4587). 

H 468 declared the origin unknown; BNA 12 407 connects the 
sign in some way with No 289; UKZ ll6ff, without fully explaining 
the origin, holds that it belonged to the group which was formed 
with an arrow as one element; OC, as a lance or a lily. It should 30 
be noted that the Assyrian form of the sign differs widely from all 
others. That form has been influenced by the form of No 289. 
Probably the sign originated in a picture of a bow with an arrow 
in close proximity. This would suggest guard, an extension of which 
would give brother. The use of the arrow for defense would giv^ 35 
evil, bitter. Blood might have grown out of either group. 



BM of "i^toc^xap^e 151 

No 291 ^ 

1. adi, ZAG, until, as long <^i", 2 62 se, CT 11 4I 4196 r 15 (B 6464, 

2. ahu, ZAG, i-/^^, ^^^r^, ASKT 31 13 (B 6465), [M 4595). 

3. amutu, a part of the body, 2 6231a (B 6466). 
5 4. 2iSi6xXj fou7zdatlo7tj 5 2958a (B 6467). 

5. asaridu, ZAG, leader, prince, 5 2964a, CT 11 4I 4^9^ ^ le (B 6468, 

6. asirtu, ZAG, safictuary, CT 11 4I 4196 r is (M 4606). [M 4608). 

7. (?)eberu, cross over, CT 12 iSisa (M 4593)- 

8. (?)eli(?) over, Mpo7i, CT 12 1837a (M 4597). 

10 9. (?)ema, in, with, while, CT 12 1838a (M 4600). 

10. emuqu, ZAG, be strong, 5 2963a, CT 11,41 4196 r i9a (B 6473, 

11. emittu, right hand, 2 392c (B 6474). [M 4601). 

12. esretu, shrine, 4^ 930a (B 6475). 

13. idu, ZAG, side, haiid, 4^ 1832a, CT 16 3523 (B 6476, M 4S94). 
15 14. (.?)imittu, right hand, CT 12 l8i7a {M 4602). 

15. inu, ZAG, ^lord, 5 22 69b (B 6477). 

16. i^hM, brood, family, 5 2968a (B 6478). 

17. is6.M, foundation, 5 2959a (B 6479). 

18. (?)itu sa kiri, eqli, side, of a forest or field, CT 12 18 34, 35 (M 4610). 
20 19. ittu, side, 2 IS 39c (B 6480). 

20. itti, with, AV 3964 (B 648 1). 

21. ullanu, ZAG, side, front, HAS 38 K 464812, CT II 4I 4196 r u 

22. bamatu, ZAG, high place, 5 2960a (B 6469). [(B 6494, M 4S98). 

23. (?)beru, deep, CT 12 1820a (M 4611). 
25 24. birku, ZAG, knee, 5 22 73f (B 6470). 

25. dispu, honey, 5 2967a (B 6472). 

26. zangu, } ASKT 12739 (B 6496). 

27. zaqu, blow, storm, 5 2962a (B 6495). 

28. (?)tabu, good, CT 12 1827a (M 4617). 

30 29. labu, surround, ASKT 79 No 103 (B 6482). 

30. m^hrtXxx, justice, CT 16 330 (M 4618). 

31. mustaltu, decision, 5 2969a (B 6483). 

32. pudu, side, 5 2955a" (B 6487). 

33. patu, boundary, limit, 2 388c (B 6485). 

35 34. (?)puquttu(?) appointment^) CT 12 189a (M 462I). 

35. (?)paru, } CT 12 1819a (M 4619). 

36. piristu, decision, oracle, 5 2973a (B 6486). 

37. patu, ZAG, boundary, side, S^ vi 29 (B 6484). 

38. ^uXMy border, front, 5 2956a (B 6488). 
40 39. seru, back, plain, 5 2961a (B 6492). 

40. (?)sirritu, a rival wife, CT 12 1829a (M 4623). 

41. riksu, bond, 5 2965a (B 6491). 



152 (g'adon> (gaBgfoman (^xiiin^ 

42. remU; compassioUy mercy, 5 2971a (B 6489). 

43. resu, heady 5 2970a (B 6490). 

44. (?)sahatu, be angry, rage, CT 12 18 10 a (M 4627). 

45. tamitu, word, 5 2972a (B 6493). 



ZANGU (5 22 69g). KIR (5 2973c). SAG (5 2965c). 5 

UKZ 94 ff. regards the sign as a gunued form of No 6%, The 
origin of the sign is difficult to discover. When we first come upon 
it in Dec. pi. 1 ^is it has passed into an adjectival meaning. Many 
of the above-meanings are also abstract. It is clear that it is a 
very old and a much used sign. Possibly it was a picture of a bit 10 
of brick wall. Such a picture would give us foundation, sanctuary, 
of which high place would become a variant meaning. It would 
give side, limit in all their various ramifications. Be strong, sur- 
round, would also naturally be expressed by it. From the latter 
meaning lord might come. From his conduct, be angry, blow or 15 
storm, might arise. The various ideas of justice, decision, word, would 
arise from sanctuary. Good is an extension oi justice and honey a 
special form oi good. 

No 292 ^ 

1. abbuttu, QAR (gar), bond, fetter, S^ iii 61 (B 6534). 20 

2. i?iskaru, /^//^r, chain, 5 30 23g (B 6535). 

MSL 272 without explaining the form, declares that the meaning 
fetter is inherent in the sign. Sayce in a private letter, suggests 
that it was the badge of servitude. The earliest known form is 
probably considerably removed from the original pictograph, but it 25 
suggests that the sign represented some object with a fetter or chain 
around it. 

No 293^^1 

1. ahu, side, 4^ 1623b, RH No 7911 (B 6546, M 4680). 

2. emuqu, strength, 4^ 1653b (B 6547). 30 

3. idu, hand, 5 20 52g (B 6548). 

4. itati, side, 4^ loeoa (B 6550). 

5. itti, with, AV 3964, CT 17 2925 (B 6551, M 4681). 

6. kappu, wing, AV 3617 (B 6552). 

7. mahru, front, 5 5 29 (B 6554). 35 

8. qarnu, horn, 2 2450c, BC K 5003 (B 6553, M 4682). 



A§ (BPS 39). ID (MSI 408). I (5 12 19a b). 



BM of 3^eo0ta|)?0 153 

EM 2 109 explained the original picture as a vase incline; H 470, 
as a hand; Bertin, (quoted by HiLPRECHT), as an ornamented sleeve; 
BE 12 40, as a tatooed arm; OC, as an arm; UKZ l8off., as an arm, 
though uncertain whether the marks represent tatooing or gunuing. 
5 The original picture represented an extended arm with a sleeve. 
All the more prominent meanings are directly suggested by it. 
Whether the marks near the hand represented ornaments or tatooing 
cannot now be determined. Win^- is an extension of the meaning i^^;^^ 
and korn, which was a symbol of strength, is an extension of the 
10 same meaning, the hand being a symbol of strength. Front is an 
extension of side. 

No 294 ^11 

1. (?)alaku, go, RH 7413b (M 4758). 

2. ana, tOy untOy 4^ 1342a (B 6655). 

15 3. astii, highy proud^ mightyy 4^ 13 26b (B 6646). 

4. idu, DA(?) handy 42 IS* 5b (B 6647, M 4757). 

5. ina, iny 5 5129a (B 6656). 

6. u, andy 4^ 93b; 5 50 21a (M 4755). 

7. tihu, approachy WM 27 i 30 (M 47 59). 
20 8. kima, like, 5 4442 c (B 6649). 

9. kuksusu(?) ? CT 19 37 6a (M 4760). 

10. kissu sa . . ., strength, of, ., CT 19 375a (M 4761). 

11. le'u, wisey prudenty TN 320 (M 4762). 

12. lu, strongy 5 21 45c (B 6650). 

25 13. nasu sa ameli, lift up, of meny 2 2649c (B 6651). 

14. i?pidnu, standy supporty 2 2625c (B 6652). 

15. qibu(?) speaky 4^ 2253a (B 6648). 

16. sahiatu, sidey ASKT 86/8762, CT 16 2626 etc. (B 6653, M 4764). 

17. saqu, highy 5 21 46c (B 6654). 



30 DU (AV 1764). TA (AV 1764). 

BNAI3485 explained the sign as an uplifted arm; UKZ l8off., 
OC, and LBA 31 1, all explain it as an arm; LSG, as the arm and 
fingers of the right hand. Like No 293 the sign was a picture of 
an outstretched arm, but without the ornamentation of tatooing. 

35 The origin of most of the meanings is obvious. Lift upy of which 
high is an extension, is an act often preformed by the hand. Go 
was suggested by the frequent movements of the hand. How speak 
came to be expressed by the sign, I do not know unless, through 
the use of the hand in writing. The prepositional uses arose through 

40 syllabic usage. 



154 (gatton, (ga6)?fontan (^vxtin^ 

No 295 ^H 

1. lillu, LIL, 3/ast, storm-wiitdj S^ vi 26, 4^ 2756a (B 6699, M 4791). 

Like No 269 the sign means storm and storm-demon. No 269 

was probably the picture of a cloud. Perhaps this one at first 

represented a cloud which was thought to terminate at the top in 5 
the head of a demon. 

No 296 ^^f 

1. asaredu, NISAG, leader, prince, CT 12 736a (M 4793). 

2. biru, midst, ASKT 81 21 (B 6707). 

3. biritu, MURU, enclosure, CT 12 730a (M 4794). 10 

4. halaqu, perish, 4^ 12 rev 33 (B 6724). 

5. kabtu, NISAG, heavy, CT 12 735a (M 4795). 

6. nisannu, NiSAG, ? CT 12 731a (M 4796). [B 6710). 

7. nisaqqu, NISAG, a class of priests, CT 12 732 a, S^ ii 23 var. (M 4797, 

8. niqu, NISAG, pour a libation, S^ ii 2-^, CT 12 734a (B 6709, M 4798). 15 

9. qablu, MURU, MURUB, midst, battle, S^ ii 22, CT 12 729a (B 6708, 

10. subtu, UNU, dwelling, S^ iii 56 (B 6712). [M 4799). 

11. sakkanakku, NISAG, governor, CT 12 737a (M 4800). 



UMUN (2 l-^ 56c). 

UKZ 79 and Res No. 50 regard the sign as a gunu of No 50; 20 
0GB, as the picture of a libation bowl. We have not yet sufficient 
information to enable us with any certainty to divine the original 
picture. It clearly had nothing to do with itu (No 50). Dr. Ogden 
may be right in thinking it a libation bowl, if the lines at the top 
may be taken to represent out-flowing liquid. Their perpendicular 25 
• position is not proof that they were not so intended, as water pictured 
on early seals shows. (Compare SCWA p. 99, especially Nos 286 
and 288). A comparison of No 566 below makes it possible that 
the sign originated in the picture of an altar. Either origin would 
give the meanings libation, priest, and by an extension of the last, 30 
leader, governor. Probably midst, and battle came in from No 297 by 
mixture due to similarity of form, while enclosure^ dwelling are due 
to similar mixture with No 199. 

No 297 K^lf ■ • 

1. abalu, bring, RH 121 4 (M 4802). 35 

2. abatu, DE, perish, 5 25 i7a (B 672 1). 

3. alaku, go, 5 4l59e (B 6738). 

4. i^Ea sa nappahi, god Ea, of smiths, 2 5858b (B 6723). 



BM of 'i^o^xap^B 155 

5. ummanu, artisans, AV 2579 (B 6734). 

6. ummatu, UMUN, ^eat, 5 3441a; CT 18 4457a (B 6735, M 4803). 

7. biblu, product, fruity 5 lied (B 6722), 

8. (?)dillatu(?) GIGU..., some part of a ship, RT 27-122 4 (M 4804). 
5 9. mummu, UMUN, unfatho^nable depths, S^ ii 24 (B 6725). 

10. nappahu, SI, SIU, SIMUG, be inflamed, a smith, S^ ii 26, WM 27 ff. 

11. niqu, pour a libation, 2 45 39e (B 6727). [(B 6726, M 4805). 

12. nataku, de(?) pour out, MSW 17, K I3663 rev s (M 4806). 

13. sisitu, DIM, irrigationij) S^ ii 25 van (B 6728). 

10 14. sadu sa ere, DE, shine, of bronze, 2 2449a (B 6729, M 4808). 

15. qibu, speak, PSBA 17 64 ff, PI 2 iii 11 (M 4809). 

16. qablu, midst, RH 10525 (V 6727). 

17. T2h\i, pour out, RH 130 24 26 (M 4810). 

18. sasu, speak, RH 3810 (M 4811). 

15 19. sapaku sa me, pour out, of water, AV 7996 (B 6732). 

20. saqu sa eqli, DE, water, of a field, 2 30i3a (B 6730). 

21. siqitu, DE, irrigation, S^ ii 25 (B 673I). 

22. tabaku, pour out, 4^ 2640b (B 6733). 

. Di (2 20 24c). DIM (S^ ii 25 van). DU (5 3943g). 

20 UKZ 81 — 84, followed by MSL 74, explained the sign as No 296 

plus a motif for entrance, the whole meaning the time beginner i. e. 
the new moon. The original picture represented a furnace, in the 
bottom of which was a fire, and from the top of which a flame 
poured. This accounts for the meanings, heat, shine, be inflamed, 

25 smith and perish. Possibly unfathomable depths and midst, were also 
suggested by it. All the meanings which are connected with pouring 
out such as libation, irrigation, etc., came in through mixture with 
No 296. Possibly the idea of pouring out inheres in the picture 
because of the pouring out of the smoke and flame of the furnace, 

30 but, if so, the applications of the idea were heightened through 
mixture with the preceding sign. 

No 298^ 

1. 30 qa, BE 20 No 29 ii 12 (B 6744). 

2. arratu, AS, curse, CT 11 322b (B 6745). 
35 3. eziru, wish, desire, 5 21 12c (B 6746). 

4. irfitu, curse, 4^ 13 34a (B 6749). 

5. bit rimki(?) AS, house of cleansing, AL^ 73327 (M 4819). 

6. hasahu, AS, desire, wish, 2 749e (B 6747). 

7. hisahtu, AS, a desire, tvish, 2 73g (B 6748), 
40 8. kunasu, ZIZ, ? AL^ 80 ii 28 (B 6750). 

9. sibutu, AS,, wish, will, CT 11 324b, BDA 204 3 ff. (B 6751, M4821). 



156 (§(Xtton, (g>a6gfontan (H)tth'tt5 

10. sabatu, mont/i Shebet^ AL^ 93 1 (B 6752). 

11. samu, DESSU, burn, 2 50260 (B 6753). 

Two signs originally distinct have been merged in the development 
of the writing into one. No 298a clearly represented a jar or measure 
crossed by three lines to indicate that it was divided into three parts; 5 
from this the numerical value came. The other sign, which when 
first found is far from an ideogram, is of different origin. Nearly 
all the meanings of this sign are connected with wishing or cursing. 
The earliest occurrence of it known to me is in tablet tf, where it 
seems to mean curse. In EANNATUM (Dec. p. XLIII, vii, I9), it is a 10 
part of the name of the temple TI-RA-AS — a name which apparently 
means of life the desire. In the incantation texts it is often used in 
one of these meanings; [cf, Shurpu, VI 2, 8, 10, 22, 43, 45, 47, 49, 157). 
In the time of the dynasty of Ur the sign represented the name of 
a plant. Neither meaning seems to grow naturally out of the earliest 15 
form, and we are compelled to leave the origin unexplained. This 
sign came to indicate the month Shebet by the abbreviation of a 
longer ideogram. 

No 299 ^ 

1. aladu, MA, bear, CT 11 2910b (B 6770). 20 

2. essaba(?) dwelling, ASKT 1851 (B 6772). 

3. -ia, my, 5 12 24b (B 67^-^). 

4. banu, build, beget, create, 2 3l8h (B 6771). 

5. bitu, house, RH 9759 (M 4834). 

6. zikru, name, 5 21 esc (B 6782). 25 

7. kalu (erne sal), ? 2 21 37c (B 6830). 

8. ma, and, 5 21 sse (B 6773). 

9. mana, a mana of weight, BE 14 No 67 1, cf, p. 28 (M 4836). 

10. minu, what[}) 5 52 44b (B 677^), 

11. matu, MA, land, CT 11 299 b (B 6774). 30 

12. nabu, call, 5 21 62 c (B 6776), 

13. nibu, naming, numbering, 5 21 67c (B 6777), 

14. nalbasu, covering, garment, 2 47 roe (B 677^), 

15. nasahu(?) remove, 2 31 31 (B 6779). 

16. rahasu, wash, 5 ll25d (B 6831). 35 

17. rakasu, bind, BA V 617 is (M 4868). 

18. ^"^^^sa'iltu, a priest, enchanter, 5 1351c (B 6780). 

19. sakanu, set, place, 5 ll32d (B 6833, M 4869). 

20. sumu, name, 5 21 eic (B 6781). 

21. inittu(?)/^ tree, 2 45 75e; cf, 5 26246 (M 4837). 40 

UKZ 143 incidentally speaks of the sign as a motif for land — 



Bisi of 'il>to^xap^0 I57 

a statement which MSL 228 repeats. OC questions whether it can 
have represented a ship. The pictograph originally represented by 
the sign cannot now be made out with certainty. It is possible that it 
was a picture representing a house. This would give the meaning 6ui/d, 
5 create, beget, and dwelling, which might easily expand to land. A 
building might also suggest covering, which might pass into garment. 
Probably the sign came to express name through phonetic similarity 
to MU. After the meaning name was established, call etc., were 
natural extensions of it. Another extension of the same meaning 
10 led to the signification enchanter. The conjunctional and pronominal 
meanings are due to the influence of the syllabic value m>a. 

No 300 ^^ 

1. alu, GAL, a demon, 4^ 21 obv 24 (B 6840). 

2. butuqtu, inundation, flood, 2 3417 a (B 684I). 

15 3- gallu, GAL, great one, demon, 4^ 18 No 340a, RH 1227 (B 6842, 

4. zaqru, high, 4^ 2637a (M 4881). [M 4880). 

5. i?kussu, throne, AL^ %J i 65 (B 6843). 

6. ^"^^^mu'irru, director, leader, MSW 49a (M 4882). 

7. ii Malik, goddess Malik, 2 5718a (B 6844). 
20 8. rabu, GAL, great, S^ \\ 58 (B. 6845). 

9. rabu, be great, 3 46 No 89 (B 6846), 

10. rubu, prince, 5 4420c (B 6849). 

11. karpatrabitu, name of a pot, 5 42 29e (B 6847). 

12. rubbutu, great, 4^ i isa (B 6848). 

25 13. rapsu, width, breadth, RH 7835 (M 4899). 



SA (2 25 56a). 

Rylands, TSBA 6 462 n, explained the sign as a crown or 
umbrella', UKZ 163, as No 478 plus the gunu marks; OCS 231 f^, 
239, and 258, as the turban or headdress of a chieftain or king. The 
30 hint of Rylands, in which I formerly concurred, still affords the 
most probable explanation. The sign was the turban or headdress 
of a primitive chieftain, indicating his greatness, [cf. No 169). Standing 
for great the other meanings easily followed. Cf. the feathered head- 
dresses in Dec. PI. 1 ^^^ and Banks, Bismya 268. 



35 No 301 

1. asabu, dwell, 2 35540, CT 12 2650a (M 4904): 

2. Mdxx, furniture, 2 361c (B 6882). 

3. basamu, restore, build, 2 362c, CT 12 265052a (B 62>'/6, M 4905). 

4. malku, arbiter, prince, CT 12 3416 a (M 4906). 



158 (§(ixto% (g>a6^foman (^xitinc^ 

5. musabu, seat, dwelling, CT 12 2650a (M 4907)- 

6. nimedU; roomy dwelling, CT 12 2649 a (M 4908). 

7. a^afeNisannu, month Nisan, AV 6274 (B 6%^^\ 

8. parakku, BARA, sanctuary, S^ vi 19 (B 6878). 

9. subtu, dwelling, 5 6247a, CT 12 2650a (B 6881, M 4909). 5 

10. saru, SARA, something set apart, S^. vi 20 (B 6879). 

11. sarru, king, 42 407a (B 6880). 

OC explained the sign as a veil before the holy of holies; 
MSL 55, as a gunation of No 444. The original picture probably 
represented, with a lack of perspective similar to that exhibited on 10 
Shalmeneser's bronze gates of Balawat, a reed hut, or a tent with 
its supporting ropes. This accounts for the meanings, most of 
which are directly suggested by the picture. In time it was used 
especially to represent the dwelling of a god, hence the meanings 
something set apart and king, Nisan is an abbreviation of a longer 15 
ideogram. 

No 302 ^ 

1. Sidsivn, fear, be terrified, AL^ 8429 (B 69I4). 

2. bullulu, ? 42 22 51b (B 6918). 

3. dalahu, LU, disturb, trouble, AL^ 65 iii 8 (B 6915). ' 20 

4. dulhu, trouble, RH 546b (V 6915). 

5. kukku, GUG, } AL^ 65 iii 7 (B 6916). 

6. marasu, mix, 4^ I359 (B 69I7). 

(nihabbu sa mursi, LULU, hiding place i^) of disease, 2 62 5ic (B 6922). 
Iniqilpu sa mursi, LULU, pealing, of disease, 2 6251c (M 4921). 25 
8. rahasu(?) sa mati, fiood, of a country, MVAG I905 250 29 (M 4922). 

UKZ § 10 regarded it as a gunu formation. The above meanings 
do not greatly help us. The earliest occurrence of the sign known 
to me (RTC, No 13) stands in a list of objects, in which there are 
bowls, quantities of wool, and a garment. Its occurrence in GUDEA 30 
(Cyl. A, xxviii, 6) is in a context of doubtful signification. In RU 
No 128 iv 20 the sign stands as a part of the name of a reed-stalk. 
The close resemblance of the form to some of the forms of No 484 
suggests that, like that sign, it was the picture of a rug or garment. 
Perhaps the stripes were intended to suggest variations in color, 35 
and hence the meaning mix, the metaphorical applications of 
which may have given the meanings trouble, fear etc. This does 
not, however, seem very natural, and it is possible that, like No 269, 
it was the picture of a cloud the suggestion of which was terror, 
fear, etc. 40 



^M of 'i^to^tapi^e 159 

No 303 gf< 

1. aru, PES, a blossom^) CT 11 2932b, 5 3940c (M 4923, B 6929). 

2. (?)araku(?) be long, BA 5 62I 24; RH II218 (M 4924). 

3. ukkudu, ?, ZA 9 161 32 (M 4938). 

5 4. huzabu, PES, /<2r/ of the date palm, CT 11 29 34b (B 6930). 

5. kabattu, heavy, 2 36536 (B 693I). 

6. libbu, Y^h, female flower of date palm, CT 11 2931b (B 6932). 

7. mikdu, power, strength, ZA 9 169 31 (M 4926). 

8. mamlu, PES, monster, CT 11 2933b (B 6933). 
10 9. maru, be fat, 4^ 93b (B 6934). 

10. napasu sa . . ., pes, be broad, of , . . ., CT 11 3931b (B 6935). 

11. rapasu, PES, be wide, CT 11 2932b (B 6936). 

12. sahu, GIR, KIR, } CT 11 27 oh 20b (M 4930). 

13. salasu, PES, be triple, 2 1420a (B 6937). 
15 14. salalti, PES, three, CT 11 2935b (B 6938). 

15. suquru, PES, be valuable, costly, ZA 9 161 34 (M 4932). 

16. suslusu, three fold, CT 12 3312a (M 4931). 

EM 2 112 explained the primitive picture as a kind of fish; 
UKZ 71, as a gunu of No 523; OC, as a picture of a fish; MSL 269, 

20 follows UKZ; OCS 235, 253, as a fish; 0GB, as the picture of a fish. 
This sign was undoubtedly the picture of a large, terrible-looking 
fish. The meanings heavy, wide, long, threefold etc., were suggested 
by its size. The fecundity of the palm tree and that of the fish 
perhaps brought the portion of the palm tree and blossom into con- 

25 nection with this sign. 

No 304 ^M 

1. agu, AGA, crown, AL^ 65 ii 15 (B 6949). 

2. agagu, GIR, MER, be angry, BL 29I n 1 (B 6950). 

3. izzu, GTR, MER, strong, 4^ 1322b, HN Taf V 1 (B 6952, M 4939). 
30 4. iltanu, GIR, north, CT 11 2921a (B 6951). 

5. uzzu, GIR, MER, power, MJ 65 ii 15 (B 6955). 

6. zuqaqipu, MER, scorpion, 5 32 7 d, HWB 723 t> (B 6956, M 4940). 

7. mehu, GIR, MER, storm, rain, CT 11 2920a (B 6953). 

8. mahahu, pour out, ASKT 12735 (M 494I). 

35 9. nagiru, NIMGIR, steward^ overseer, WM 2yK i S (M 4942). 
10. sibbu, GIR, MER, girdle, CT 11 2919 a (B 6954). 

UKU (2 2458 a). 

UKZ 63, followed by MSL 158, explained the sign as a gunu 

of No 528. OC explained it as a plumed crown. HOMMEL is un- 

40 doubtedly right as to the origin. The sign was a headdress indicating 



l6o (§ avion, Qga6gfontan (SOtiiin^ 

an officer. Strength was an idea suggested by the rank of the officer, 
angeVy storm and scorpion being applications of strength made in 
various ways. Pour out came from stormy while north was the storm 
quarter. Girdle was a strong belt. 

No 305 ^nM 5 

1. (?)depu, DUN, }, WM BE 13667 i 9 (M 4949). 

2. nagiru, LAGIR, LABIR, a high officer, 4^ 15 157 ff., cfi BPS 60 (B 6966), 

3. nariru(?) helper i>) CT 16 2864 (M 4950). 

Res No 91 has correctly explained the sign as a variant of No 304, 

No 306 ^ 

1. abnu, BUR, stone, CT 11 2930b (B' 6973). 

2. abrutu, totality, RH 10979 (M 4952). 

3. burn, BUR, a stone vessel, AL^ 70 119 (B 6974). 

4. naptanu, that which is eaten, RH 20 30 etc. (M 4953). 

5. sal^tu sa . . ., libation bowl, of , . CT 11 2912b (B 6975). 15 

6. karpat abanp^ru, BUR, a vessel, CT 16 1134 (M 49SS). 

UKZ 72 ff. explained the sign as a gunu of No 530, an opinion 
which MSL 6'^ follows; OC, as a vessel; 0GB, as a vessel containing 
something. Clearly the sign pictured a stone vessel either with an 
ornamented edge or containing something. It differed from the vessel 20 
pictured by No 530 solely in the lines which indicated this orna- 
mentation or its contents. The bowl itself directly suggested nearly 
all the meanings. Totality was suggested by its containing power. 

No 307 ^ 

1. ahzetu, \^(:^'\3^\i, possessions, 5 3734a (B 6988). 25 

2. i^Istar, goddess Ishtar, RH 20 22 (M 4974). 

3. istaritu, GASAN, goddess, 5 3733a (B 699I). 

4. belu, GASAN, lord, 5 3728a (B 6989). 

5. beltu, GASAN, UGUNU, lady, 5 3727a (B 6990). 

6. na-amb^iT(^tu, lordsMp, RH 92 a 14 (M 4975). 30 

7. namhibissu, UGUNU, } 5 3738a (B 6993). 

8. qaridtu, Ghkhl^, power, might, 5 3731a (B 6992). 

9. saqu, GASAN, be high, 5 3729a (B 6994). 

10. saqutu, GASAN, high, 5 3730a (B 6995). 

11. sarratu, GASAN, queen, 5 3782a (B 6996). 35 

12. tekitu, UGUNU, weakness i^) 5 3736a (B 6997). . 

13. ID bur, BUR-U, a land measure, CT 12 3 38a (M 4976). 

GUN (BPS 19). PURU(.?*) (2 2963c). 



[^i&i of "i^to^tap^^ 161 

UKZ 78 explained the sign as a gunu of No 365. The earliest 
pictures probably represented a well from which irrigating ditches 
radiated. Early peoples thought such wells the residences of deities 
who possessed the land {cf. RS^, Lect II); hence the meanings lord, 
5 /ady. The meanings M^-Zi, etc., were developed out of the attributes 
of the deity. Perhaps ''lo Bur" of a field was as much as could be 
irrigated from one well. If so, the use of the sign to denote this 
unit of land measure would be explained. 



No 308 

10 1. a"badudilu(?) an insect, 5 27 eg (M 5022). 

2. aharriqanu, disease, ASKT 8847 (B 7016). 

3. amurriqanu, diseased, KM Taf. XVIII 4, 6, 7 (M 5023). 

4. ara, SIG, flower, blossom, AL^ Z^^ iii ^^ (B 7009). 

5. araqu, SIG, be green, CT 12 17 i4b (M 5007). 

15 6. arqu, SIG, green, AL2 83 iii 68, CT 12 1713b (B 7010, M 5008). 

7. asabu(?) sa ma'duti, green {^) of a mass, CT 12 177 b (B 5009). 

8. i^egu, storm, flood, 5 27ioe (M 5021). 

9. banu, SIG, be green, yellow, 4^ S sa (B 7011). 

10. banu sa ramani, be yellow or bright, of ones self, CT 12 175b 
20 11. banu sa kidati, be yellow, of a jug, CT12 17 6b (M 50I0). [(M 5010). 

12. huppu sa duppi, broken, of a tablet, CT 12 1711a (M SOU). 

13. tibutu(?) sa . . ., sunken, ^ <«...., CT 12 1712b (M 5012). 

14. la banu, not yellow, CT 12 174b (M 50I3). 

15. la natimu, not dark-colored, CT 12 173b (M S0I4). 
25 16. mahiasu, SIG(?) shatter, CT 12 1715b (M S015). 

17. gi^-^a-^^murranu, a staff, 5 26 3g (M 5026, B 7017). 

18. sibii sa . . ., SIG, ? 2 26i8e (B 7012). . 

19. sipu sa issuri, yellowishi^) of a bird, CT 12 179b (M 5016). 

20. sipti sa sarti, tawny {>) of hair, CT 12 1710b (M 5016). 
30 21. sarapu sa abni, glow of a stone, 2 3462a (B 7013). 

22. qasaru sa suripi, bind of} CT 12 178b (M 5017). 



IGI (AL3 52 No 69b). SI (5 27 6g). 

BNA 13 ^7 explained the sign as composed of No 307, an herb, 
plus No 406, an eye\ UKZ 63, 72, as a gunu of No 406; OC regards 
35 it as the picture of a plant; 0GB, as a by-form of No 175, and so 
originating in a picture of heads of wheat The variant forms, -^oZ b, 
308 d, Z^%^, are probably all artificial ways of writing the large 
numeral*. 308 c strongly resembles forms of Proto-Elamitic writing; 

* Several similar forms were artificially constructed to express large numerals; 
40 cf, HLC part 2 pp. 16. 17. 

Beitrage Ass.: Barton II. II 



l62 (§axto% (g><i6gfontan (^xitin^ 

see Del. 6 p. 109 ff Nos 836—848. The fact that CT 5 7 iii 7 identifies 
all these with our sign is, when we take into account the forms 
published in BE 20 No 29 and CT 12 24, and discussed in HLC 2 
pp. 16. 17, a proof that IGI-GUNU stood for a large numeral, probably 
3600 Bur* and all the forms which we have put together in the 5 
table really belong to this sign. This is confirmed by the similarity 
of the forms of Nos 307 and 308 in the Ur and Kassite periods, by 
the similarity of the variants of these two signs, Nos 320, 321, and by 
the fact that the identity of the meanings of 308 with meanings of 
307 indicates a common origin for the two. No ^o^ stood for lo Bur, 10 
and 308, for 3600 Bur {Res No 5 13). If No 307 originated in the 
picture of a well. No 308 may well have originated in a picture of 
a larger well or a well with a curb from which irrigating channels 
radiated. This picture would suggest green because of the fertility 
which irrigation produces. From this meaning the other significations 15 
of colors were derived. This would account for all the meanings 
except those connected with breaking and binciing. These may have 
been introduced by mixture, through syllabic identity, with No 175. 



No 309 

1. iiEa sa kalia, god Ea, of the Kalu-p^^iests, 2 S8 6ic (B 7027). 20 

2. itpusu, } 2 4843c (B 7037). 

3. balaggu, cry, howl, BA 5 641 7 (M 5031). 

4. balangu, balag, cry, howl, S^ iii 22 (B 7026). 

5. kalmat samas, appearance of the sun, CT 14 240 a (M 5037). 

6. kamaru, strike down, BA 5 61716 (M 5038). 25 

7. nahu, rest, 4-2 20 No 1 17 (B 7028). 

8. napasu, DUB, break, kill, slay, S^ iii 21 (B 7029). 

9. pasahu, DUB, calm, sooth, AV 7488 (B 7030). 

10. sirhu, cry, howling, RH 12821 (M 5032). 

11. rabu, disappear, RH 616; 987 (B 703 1, M 5033). 3c> 

12. tamahu(.?) seize, HN Taf. XII 6a (M 5034). 

13. taraku sa qinnazi, DUB, strike, of a whip, 5 192.7c (B 7032). 

MSL Zj compares the sign with No 146, which originated in the 
picture of a spear or dagger. SAK p. 68 nf rightly explains the sign 
as a musical instrument. This origin makes all the meanings clear, ss 
except kill, slay, and these were developed out of strike. No 595 
is a variant of this sign. 



* It is probable that 308 b consists of the periphery and six inserted wedges,, 
though they are accidentally so joined as to look like four. 



Mi&t of 'iUo^xap^ff 163 

No 310 CT 

1. lu, SA, verify, S^ i 63 (B 7047). 

2. pidnu, NA, ? S^ i 62 (B 7048). 

UKZ 133 ff. explained it as the gunu of an unidentified sign 

5 which occurs in the inscription of LUGALZAGGISI, OBI No S7 iii 17; 

OQ as a basket, or vessel. HOMMEL is probably right. The sign 

is apparently a variant picture of No 306. The variant consists in 

the portrayal of a bit of ground on which the vessel rested. 

No 311 ^i' 
10 1. elii, 3e high, 5 3967e (B 706^), 
2. elis, lofty, RH 179 (M 5059). 
3.^a^elpitu, name of a plant, RH IQ127 (M 5060), 

4. emuqu, be stro7zg, ^^ 8i9b, RH 10522 (B 7069, M 5061). 

5. (?)idu side, hand, CT 11 33 82981 (M 5058), 
15 6. (?)ittu with, CT 11 33 82983 (M 5062). 

7, (?)ubanu, /;2^^r, CT 16 8282 (M 5057). 

8, biltu, tribute, sway, RH 736 etc. (M 5063). 

9, gimillu, mercy, preservation, 2 3940 c (B 7070). 

10. ^^^^du'uzu, month Tammuz, Str Nab No 3 15 (B JoGj), 
20 11. (?)milu kassuP) great flood, RH 775 (M 5064). 

12. qatu, hand, 4^ 926a (B 7071). 

13. rubu(?) GE, prince, MSW 25 R 2 58811b (M 5065). 

14. (?)rittu, hand, CT 11 33 82982 (M 5066). 

SU (MSI 393 ff.). • KAT (MS2 232). 

25 EM 2 110 explained the sign as the picture of a hand; UKZ 179, 

OQ LB A 311, and Barton, JAOS 22 124 n 11, all concur in this. 
As Barton points out, the picture of a wing was merged with the 
picture of a hand. The picture of a hand was a very common 
sign in Egyptian; see EAG p. 208, No ']6, Hand, and strong 

30 were directly suggested by it. Prince and great flood are special 
applications of the idea of strong as was also tribute. Be high may 
have been suggested by the picture of a wing. Protection may have 
been suggested by either picture. The sign came to stand for the 
month Tammuz in late writing through the abbreviation of a longer 

35 ideogram [cf AL^ P 113 No 3- 4)- 

No 312 ^^ 

1. i^Ea, god Ea, 2 5860b (B 7270). 

2. dannu, strong, 2 4754c (B 7269). 



164 (§axtont Q0a6gfontan (^xitin^ 

3. kuru, oppression, 4^ 73a (B 7271). 

4. ma*du, muck, 2 4754c (B 7272). 

5. a^einaru, NAR, a singer, ZK 2 30012, RH I0971 (B 7274 M 5259). 

6. sararu, LUL, ^^ discontented, rebellious, RH 852 (M 5260). 

7. sarru, LUL, rebellion, ASKT 12755 (B 7275). 5 

8. sartu, rebellion, RH 7821 (M 5261). 

9. sattammu, SATTAM, ^;2 officer, MSW 21 R 38814 (M 5262).. 



LIB (MS2 149). LUB (MS2 150). PAH (MS^ 203). 

No one has, so far as I know, attempted an explanation of this 
sign. Perhaps the original picture represented an arm bent bearing 10 
a shield attached to the elbow, [cf, Dec. pi. 3 ^^^j^ This would suggest 
warrior^ officer, strong, oppression, discontent, rebellion by a gradual 
evolution of the meanings. Much might grow out of strong as might 
also Ea, Why it came to mean singer is not so clear. Perhaps on 
account of the victorious songs of warriors. 15 

No 313 mW{ 

1. bunnu, SAG, pure, clear, 4^ 325b (B 7288). 

2. i?gisimmaru, GISIMMAR, palm tree, AL^ 65 iii 23, CT 16 10 v 1 (B 7289, 

3. ^?gisimmaru zikru, male palm tree, 2 4629a (B 7293). [MS272). 

4. ^? gisimmaru zinnistu, female palm tree, 2 4630 a (B 7294). 20 

5. damaqu, SA, SAG, be favorable, AL^ 65 iii 23 (B 7290). 

6. damqu, SKG, fqvor, 5 52 21a (B 729I). 

7. dumqu, hKG, favor, 5 62 65a, BA 5 7108b (B 7292, M 5273). 

8. dannu(.^) strong, powerful, RH 13641 (M 5274). 

9. tabu, good, HWB 300 (M 5275). 25 
10. namaru, be bright, 42 12 rev 11 (M I0986), 



SANGA (AV 7981). 

Ball, PSBA16 193, explained the sign as a picture of the ferti- 
lization of the date palm; UKZ I44, I45, as a compound of three 
motifs which meant respectively, favor, people, and open\ "HOMMEL 30 
and OGS 236 &'25S, as a date palm whose branches are blowing in 
the wind, and whose roots are encircled with an irrigating ditch. 
The picture which survived was a palm tree, the top of which was 
blown in the wind, and the roots of which were encircled by an 
irrigating ditch. In one early inscription the sign consists simply of 35 
the top of the tree, [cf Pt 1 p VII iii 3). When we remember the 
many vital necessities which were supplied by the palm tree, (see 
SO, T7^), all the meanings are easily suggested by the picture. 



Biet of 'ibeo^tap^if I65 

No 314 ^|g^ 

1. i^samas, KASSEBI, ^-od Shamash, 2 4849a (B 7296). 

There is no real clue to the origin of this sign. Possibly it is 
a variant of No 315. 

5 . .No 315 ^IC^^ 

1. lanu, image, 4^ 229a; CT 18 381a (B 7299, M 5326). 

2. salmu, SALAM, image, S^ vi 43 (B 7300). 



KASSEBA (3 6967g). 

BBH 20 296 ff. explained the sign as the picture of a pair of 
10 knees plus the picture of a couch. The sign clearly originated ixi a 
representation of an image. The early writing offered more than 
one form of it. These varied from a pair of massebas to rude repre- 
sentations of the human figure. 

No 316 ^V 

15 1. Akkadu^ UR, URI, Akkad, 5 2947e (B 7308). [(M 5328). 

2. Amurru, ARI, Amor, A7norite, WM 27 ff. 13667, ii 7; CT 11 15 ii 5 

3. i?appatanH URI, palm tree landy 5 2622a + ZA 9 2234 (M 5331). 

4. i?urtu, TILLA, a plant or tree, 2 4813c (B 7306, M S329). 

5. ^?sinnitan^i, URI, palm tree land, 5 2624a + ZA 9 2235 (M 5332). 
20 6. i^sirratanH GISURI, palm tree land, 5 2623 + ZA 9 2234 (M 5333). 

Barton, JAOS 23 24 ff., explained the sign as the picture of 
some plant which grew abundantly in Akkad; MSL, 332 ff., as No 306 
doubled. It seems clear from the meanings that the sign originally 
pictured the leaf of a palm tree. This was the characteristic tree 

25 of the land of Uru or Uri, which was probably situated, in North 
Arabia, see review oiCi^KY'sAmurru m Bibliotkeca Sacraj^XXK, 173ff. 
Its inhabitants migrated in part to Akkad and in part to the land 
of the Amorites, carrying the name Uru with them. When they 
began to write, they took the palm leaf to represent their land. 

30 This satisfactorily accounts for all the meanings. 

No 317 \ 

1. isten, GE, one, MSW 25 R 2 58814b (M 5334). 

2. ^36 g^^; ^^ S^ sars in land measure, RU p 165. 

Pinches, PSBA 4 111 and ZA 1 8, explained the sign as a variant 
35 of No 439; MSL 139, as a variant of No 365. Probably originally the 



166 (§ax(o% (g<i6gfotttan (SOtitin^ 

sign was an oblique wedge employed as part of a numerical notation 
in land measure. Afterward it was confused with No 365 and thus 
acquired the syllabic value GE. After this confusion it acquired the 
value one because No 365 denoted 1 Bur of a field. 

No 317a ^ 5 

1. isten, GE, one, MSW 25 R 2 588 sb (M 5335). 

It seems probable that the sign is a variant of No 365 and that 
it came to signify one in the same way that No 317 did. 

No 318 \ 

1. dillatu, QKM.y pouring out, 2 45 65e (B 7316). 10 

2. galasu; QV-^, pour forth, ASKT 81 29 (B 7319). 

3. hassu, weak, 4^ 1939a (M S337). 

4. harasu, dig, ascertain, define, CT 17 2913 (M 5336). 

5. kamasu, bow, prostrate, 4^ 24 No 3 10 (M 5338). 

6. kananu sa . . ., crouch, cower, of , . . ., 2 36i3g (B 7320). 15 

7. kananu sa sipri, submit, of a messenger, CT 12 4329a (M S339). 

8. kanasu, submit, AL^ 80 ii 19 (B 7322). 

9. kapapu(?) depress, subdue, BD 84 iff. (M 5340). 

10. kupusu, } AL^ 80 ii 5 (B 7324). 

11. kapasu, bend^ draw together, 2 3942e (B 7323). 20 

12. i?kippatu, GAM, part of a bird-trap, 4^ 22 9b; ZA 9 222 S 80 1 (B 7321, 

13. kassatu, GAM, ? AL^ 80 ii 27 (B 7325). [M S341). 

14. lanu, GAM, weak{^) 2 45 64e (B 7326). 

15. lu, GAM, verily, 2 45 ese (B 7327). 

16. matu, die, BA 5 6177 (M 5342). 25 

17. mutu(.?) dead, VA Samas 14 57 (M 10997). 

18. nsLzkzu, stand, RH I3I35 (M 5343). 

19. qadadu, GAM, bow down, hU %o \\ 7 (B 73 17). 

20. qiddatii, GAM, low parts, coasts, 4^ 20 No 1 7 (B 73 1 8). 

21. salalu, plunder, spoil, PSBA 17 64ff. i 7 (M 5344). 30 

MSL 121 regards the sign as without doubt a variant of No 365. 
We have no form of the sign which approaches a pictograph, but 
the oldest known form, taken in connection with the meanings, 
suggests that in the perpendicular writing it represented a pair of 
bent human knees [cf No 347). This would suggest bow down, 35 
submit — an idea which is found in most of the meanings. Die, and 
spoil arose from developments of this idea; verily, came by syllabic 
mixture with No 1 60. 



Mi&t of 'i^toc^tap^e 167 

No 319 \ 

1. Tiltu, numeral nine, Orient Stu, of Or. Club of Phila. p. 138. 

2. Tisit, numeral nine, AL^ '>i%. 

Res No 514 has correctly explained the origin as a shortening 
5 of the old method of writing 10 minus one. 

No 320 4 

1. beltu, lady, 5 5212b (B 7337). 

NIN(?) (AV Syl. 469). 

Res No 475 has correctly explained the sign as a variant of 
10 No 307. 

No 321 4^" 

1. arqu, green, AV^ 7245 (B 7377). 

2. banu, deget, create, 4^ 239c (B 7378). 

3. dummuqu(?) favorable^) AV 6010 (B 7380). 

15 NAMMU (2 5928a). SIG(?) (BPS z'^), SIGI(?) (AL^ 51 No 5 i 10). 

Res No 101 has correctly explained this sign as a variant of 
No 308. 

No 322 ■% 

1. ekallu(?) palace, HWB 48a (M 5353). 
20 2. ersitu, KUR, earth, land, 4^ 1566b (B 7392). 

3. dadmu, KUR, dwelling, ASKT 1216 (B 7390). 

4. dannu, KUR, strong, 5 3O50e5ie (B 7391). 

5. kasadu, KUR, capture^ 5 2131 (B 7393). 

6. matu, KUR, country, S^ v 34 (B 7394). 

25 7. napahu, kindle, enflame, BA 5 6492 (M 5357). 

8. niphu, brilliant, TA I03 r 9 (M 5358). 

9. sisu, horse, HL 61 11 (M 5359). 

10. rabiu, great, PSBA 18 256 ff., PI I ii 12 (M 5360). 

11. sa ukni elli, GIN, of bright lapis lazuli, 5 3743a (B 7397). 
30 12. sadu, KUR, mountain, S^ v 35 (B 7396). 

13. tibu, rise, rise against, MSW 7 K 41663b (M 5361). 



LAD (S^ V 22). MAD (S^ V 23), NAD (S^ V 24; cf, AL^ 48). 

SAD (S^ V 21). SA (5 31 56c). 

EM 2 112 explained the sign as the picture of an open hand; 
35 UKZ 28, as a series of mountain peaks — an explanation in which 



l68 (§axton, (§<iB^tonian(^xUin^ 

OC, LBA 311, and. LSG, 20, concur. The sign was clearly a series 
of mountain peaks. Signs of similar origin are found in Egyptian 
and Chinese, {cf. EAG 216, No 40 and ECW PI VII, No 93). Moun- 
tains naturally suggested all meanings having to do with land, strong 
and great. Owing to the hostile relations of early times the picture 5 
naturally suggested capture^ rise against. From country came, by 
extension, dwelling and palace. From the touch of sunsets on the 
mountains came brilliant^ enflame. Horse is a late meaning derived 
from an abbreviation of mountain-ass, the name by which the horse 
was called, because it came from the mountains or beyond. 10 

No 323 ^ 

1. a^a^Adaru, month Adar, Str Nab 2156 (B 7422). 

2. (?)dimmatu, wailing, RH No 16 3 (M 5387). 

3. ziru, seed, ASKT 72 34 (B 7438). 

^4. kababu, quiver^) 5 3826a yar. (B 7423). 15 

5. kapapu, bend, ^ 3826a (B 7424). 

6. kippatu, bending, 5 3825a (B 7425). 

7. liqu, SUG, take, 5 38.80a (B 7426). 

8. liqutu, SUG, taking, 5 3831a (B 7427). 

9. mu, SE, water [}) CT 11 2438 b (M 5388). 20 

10. magaru, be favorable, 2 728g (B 7428). 

11. ^^^maxxx, fat pig, 2 637c (B 7429). 

12. a^^e^maru, -nytkr, fat man, 2 3266a (B 7430). 

13. rabu, SUG, g7^eat, 5 3827a (B 7431). 

14. rubbu, torrenti^) flood} 5 3828a (B 7432). 25 

15. se, a measure, BA 3 31721 26 (M S39o)- 

16. se, a denomination of money, SBAW 1896 714f5f. (M 5391). 

17. sui, he, him, that, 5 2059a (B 743S). 

18. se'u, SE(?) grain, 2 3973a (B 7433). 

19. htx^h, price, 2 77a (B 7434). 30 

20. tappinnu, seed, 5 5057 b (B 7436). 

21. tarbutu, SUG, increase, 5 3829a (B 7437). 

H 475 explained the sign as a picture of corn-grains; UKZ I25, 
as a motif for the idea of plant; OC, an ear of wheat. HOMMEL's 
explanation is right; the sign was a picture of ahead of wheat. This 35 
readily suggested grain, seed, increase, fat, be favorable, take. Bend 
and quiver wtYQ readily suggested by the growing grain ;/r/^^, because 
wages were paid in grain. Its use as a measure came from the use 
of a kernel of grain as the smallest weight. If it meant water probably 
it was because irrigation was neceissary for the growth of grain. 40 
Wailing may have come either from the quaver of the voice, or from 



BM of 'i^HQC^xapi^si 169 

the shedding of tears — a specialization of water, Adar is a late 
meaning arising from the abbreviation of the Sumerian SE-GUR-KUD. 

No 324 ^^^ 

1. iiNisaba, god Nisaba, ^^ 1627a, CT 17 35 27 29 (B 7454, M 5432). 

5 OC explained the sign as originally a picture of ears of grain 

lying down. Nisaba was a grain deity and probably the sign pictured 
a heap of severed ears. 

No 325 ^^ 

1. ana, unto, CT 12' 20 38276 rev 12 (M 5519). 
10 2. (?)i?alalu, GIDI, ? HWB 73 b (M 5521). 

3. araku, GID, be long, 2 ll55g (B 7511). 

4. i?ariktu, GID, lengthy 2 195b; RH I2829 (B 75 12, M 5524). 

5. eberu, GlDj produce fruit, 5 2l44g (B 7517). 

6. iiEllil, god Ellil, CT 24 4552 (M 11025). 
15 7. enesu(?) be weak, RH 80 15 (M 5522). 

8. ina, in, CT 12 20 38276 rev 12 (M 5520). 

9. ameiispu, harvester]^) CT 18 50 22b (M 5523). 

10. baqamu, BU, cut off, tear, AV I036 (B 7513). 

11. gasasu, SIR, cut off, tear, AV 1597 (B 7514). 

20 12. gitmalu, SIR(?) complete, perfect, MSW 27 57412 (B 75 15). 

13. i^Damkina, BUZ, goddess Damkina, 2 47206 (B 75 16). 

14. zarahn, press, RH 872 (M 5550). 

15. hababu, crj/, howl, 2 4963g (B 7569). 

16. kakasiga, .? 5 3838a (B 7519). 

25 17. ma, SIR(?) thus, so, 5 3837a (B 7521). 

18. qa^malilu, /^/^, ASKT 12210 (M 5529). 

19. maru, son, child, 2 47i9e (B 7522). 

20. markas, GUZ, a rope, 2 472ie (B 7523). 

21. maslu, SIR, middle, 2 62 65 c (B 7524). 

30 22. mutasu(?) } CT 18 47 I00834 (M 5530). 

23. namaru, SER, be bright, 5 3842a (B 7525). 

24. nummuru, SER, brightness, 5 3834a (B 7526). 

25. nasahu, GID, BUR, wrench away, 5 3837a (B 7528). 

26. napahu, BU, glow, bm^n, 2 ll56g (B 7527). 
35 27. nuru, SER, light, 5 3832a (B 7530). 

28. nasahu, SIR, bitei^) 4-2 2710a (B 7529). 

29. nasarbutu, } CT 17 295 (M 5551). 

30. nussu, ? 5 l647e (B 7571). 

31. sadadu, } 2 ll54g (B 7534). 

40 32. i^Sin, god Sin, TN xii & 272 (M 5531). 



170 (Ration, (gaBgfcntan (^xiixnc^ 

33. sanabu, ? 2 34i3a (B 7535). 

34. sanaqu, GlD, j^ress, afflicty^ 4147a (B 7536). 

35. i^pirhu, sprout, AV 3803 (B 7531). 

36. sabatu, GID, seize, 4^ 10 58a (B 7533). 

37. siriptu sa . . ., ? 2 3453a (B 7537). 5 

38. qatapu, pluck up, break off, AV 7362 (B 7520). 

39. rabatu, f 4^ 2 4a van (B 7572). 

40. ruqu, be distant, Schrader, HoUenfart JJ (B 7532). 

41. sadadu, drag, AV 4418 (M 5532). 

42. siddu, side, RH 92b 22 (M 5 $33). 10 

43. sahu, GID, wild boar, 2 644c (B 7540). 

44. salapu sa . . ., SIR, draw, pull, of , AV 1593 (B 7573). . 

45. h2S£ikt}i, pluck, cut off, 2 2928 c (B 7574)- 

46. sapu, SIR, dense, thick, A'^ 533a (B 754 1). 

47. sapu sa urpiti, dense, of clouds, 3 6411a (M 5534). 15 

48. (?)sapaku sa urpiti, to pour out, of clouds, 3 644 (M 1102 7). 

49. sipiru(?) ■? CT 18 47 K 100833 (M 5535). 

50. supsuhu, SIr(?) hard, steep, 5 3836a (B 7 543). 

51. seru, SIR, ? AV 8314 (B 7542). 

52. sarapu, burn, CT 18 47 K 100835 (M 5536).. 20 

53. surr^, ? AV 83I4 (B 7576). 

54. sitadudu, GID-GID, ? 5 428c (B 7575). 



PI (5 3839a). SUS (2 25 33e). 

EM 2 109 explained the sign as the picture of a knot; BNA 
12 396, as a sprouting plant with its root; UKZ 6j, as a serpent (?), 25 
OC, as braided work or a serpent (?); 0GB llff., as an early linear 
representation (?) of a thunderbolt. Dr. Ggden has made out a good 
case for the. theory, though a picture of a serpent-post has, I believe, 
been blended with the picture of a lightning flash; cf Below No 327 
and SCWA Nos 438 & 439. These would easily suggest all the above 30 
meanings. 

No- 326 ^>M 

1. usu, UZ, a kind of bird, KU 674b (B 7588). 

2. busu, ravager, 2 3733a (B 7589). 

3. issur harri, a kind of bird, 2 3733a (B 7589). 35 

UKZ 136 explained the sign as belonging to the grain series, 
but considered the meanings too few to determine its origin; MSL 359 
explained the sign as No 323, grain, plus No 83, bird. The earliest 
form known, though not primitive, justifies Prince's view. Probably 
it pictured a bird eating from a head of grain. 40 



Biei of 'ihto^xap^e: 171 

No 327 ^^ 

1. i?alalu, GIDI, ALALA, water pipe or bog, ZA 9 22I e & s (M 5566). 

2. amaru, see, 2 3624g (B 7596). 

3. aru, ^^, 2 48 22g (B 7598). 

5 4. araku, be long, 2 ll57g (B 7597). 

5. arku(?) long, 2 448a (B 7599). 

6. arrakatu, length, 4^ 2436 a (M 5603). 

7. elitu, SUg(?) ^^2^^/, 2 30 16c (B 7601). 

8. eresu, SUG(?) spread, 4^ 278a (B 7602). 
10 9. isikru, ? ZA 9 220 17 (M 5565). 

10. itkulu, ? CT 12 30 381799 (M 5571). 

11. itquru, } CT 12 30 3817910 (M 5572). 

12. uddupu, [better adabu*], darken, 4^ 29*40 24=a (M 5601), 

13. uUuhu, skarpenedt^) BA 5 684 16 (M 5602). 
15 14. uru, beam, rafter, 2 30220 (B 7622). 

15. ^^gazizu, GAZIN, some shearing instrument i^) ZA 9 22I4 (M 55 73). 

16. i?gasisu, Gizi(?) post, stake, 2 22 11 a, ZA 9 22615 (B 7600, M 5604). 

17. divnmxi, post, stake, 2 22 11 a (B 7600). 

18. zaqnu, beard, 4^ 919a (B 7623). 

20 19. zarabu(?) sa..., be pressed, of .,, CT 12 30 3817913 (M 5574). 

20. zaraqu, SU, sprinkle, Surpu XV 25, 2 4822a (B 7608, M 5605). 

21. hanabu sa se*i, sprout, of grain, CT 12 30 381795 (M 5575). 

22. tebu, approach, come, RH 735 etc. (M 5576, M 5606), 

23. tebitu, sunk, AL^ 88 v 8 (B 7607). 

25 24. i?nia'du(?) GIZI(?) a plant or treei^) ZA 9 22I 1 (M 5577). 

25. (?)malu, be full, CT 15 12 rev 11 (M 11053). 

26. i?mallu, MALLALA, a plant or tree, ZA 9 22017 (M 5578). 

27. i?malallu, MALALA, a plant or tree, ZA 9 220 18 (M 5579). 

28. i?massu, GIZl(?) a plant or tree, ZA 9 22020 (M 5581). 
30 29. nihabbu(?) } 2 6250c (B 7616). 

30. nussusu sa zibbati, ?, of a tail, AV 6844 (B 7617), 

31. niqUpu** } 2 62 50c (M 5607). 

32. sahalu, pierce, CT 16 32 135 (M 5608). 

33. salahu, sprinkle, 4^ 22 ub, CT 16 246 (B 7604, M 5609). 
35 34. suUumu, reconciliation, CT 12 30 381794 (M 5585). 

35. sapanu, cover, overpower, 4^ 2456a (B 7605, M 5586). 

36. senu, ///, load, CT 16 2410, CT 16 49294f£ (M 5587, 5611). 

37. rahahu, } CT 12 30 3817912 (M 5591). 

38. i?rikku(.?) RIKKi(?), a kind of plant, ZA 9 22I 5 (M 5590). 
40 39. requ, be wide, distant, CT 17 2927 (M 5612). 



Cf. HWB, 21 a. ** A different reading of B 7616. 



1/2 (§avion, (§a^^ionidn (Wtiiino^ 

40.'ruqu, SUD, wide, distanty 4^ 928a (B 7603). 

41. resu(?) rejoice, BA 5 6343 (M 5589). 

42. rasuhu(?) ? CT 12 30 3817911 (M 5S92). 

43. sadahu, walk, march, 4^ 917a; CT 12 30 381796 (B 7619, M 5593), 

44. salu(?) wade^) 4^ 30 No 2iib (B 7620). 5 

45. saqu, SUG(?) be high, 2 3010 a (B ^6o^). 

46. satahu, ? CT 12 30 381797 (M 5594). 

Ezu (3 69 7ie). su (S^ 1 24). SIR (AL5 No 215). SUD (MS^ 276). 

UKZ ^j explained the sign as a gunu of No 325; 0GB 11 ff., as 
a picture of the caduceus or serpent emblem, the lines originating 10 
in an attempt to. represent the curves of the serpent A comparison 
of the meanings with those of No 325 makes a kindred origin probable. 
The most significant meanings, arising from the ideas of length, over- 
power, etc., are identical m the two signs. For the way serpents 
were portrayed as curving in early Babylonian art, see Ward, SCWA 15 
p. 127, Nos 362—365, p. 138, No 388 and p.. 405. 



No 328 

1. ^^"^lisan kalbi, dog's tongue plant, 2 4267c (B 7640). 

2. ^^Sahan, the god Sahan, CT 24 8iia (M II038). 

3. i^Sir, the god Sir, BE 14 II05 (B 7641). 20 

4. siru, a serpent, 4^ 1 32a (B 7639). 

Mus (MS2 171). SIR (MS2 223). 

UKZ 6j explained the sign as a form of the motif for long; 
OC, as the picture of a serpent. It seems clear that the sign was 
the picture of a serpent, the lines as in the case of No 327 representing 25 
the curves of the snake. 

NO 6L^^ ^4t^ 

The sign is clearly 328 doubled. 

No 329 

1. admanu, dwelling, abode, 2 347 a (B 7659). 30 

2. idlu, bar, bolt, RH 13613 (M 5634). 

3. ismanu(?) dwelling, CT 18 348a (M 5634), 

4. kistu, T-^.^, forest, 2 S7c (B 7661). 

5. (?)i?kiru, orchard, CT 13 ijh (M 5635). 

6. subtu, dwelling, 2 348 a (B 7662). 35 

7. sulpu h2inkr\, overflow^) of a river, 2 2630c (B 7663). 



&i0i of 'S^to^vap^e 173 

UKZ 136 explained the sign as a compound of No 282 and a 
motif for plant. The original picture represented two trees with tops 
joined. It is easy to see how all the meanings arose from this picture. 



No 330 

5 1. adarU; oppress^ trouble, 5 20i5e (B 7686). 

2. alaku, go, RH 8439 (M 5652). 

3. eburu, splendid, precious, 5 4015 c (B 769I). 

4. emedu, TE, stand, 5 4010c, CT 12 11 loa (B 7692, M 5653). 

5. ipu, TE, ? CT 12 lliia (M 5654). 

10 6. bullu, TE, destroy, ruin, 5 4014c, CT 12 Una (M 5655, B 'J&'^j). 

7. banu, TE, build, CT 12 llisa (M 5656). 

8. dahU; press down, oppress, S^ v 44 (B J&^Z). 

9. dihU; oppression, 4^ 2743b (B 7689). 
10. dukumu, ? CT 19 3 9b (M 5697). 

15 11. dukusu, } CT 19 311b (M 5698). 

12. duppuru, TE, ? CT 12 11 sa, 5 406c (M 5657, B 7690). 

13. duru, } CT 19 38b (M 5699). 

14.^ zuku, TE, clean, pure, CT 12 11 15 a (M 5658). 
15. zurrubu, oppressio7i, CT 19 312b (M 5700). 
20 16. hunnatu, TE, ? CT 12 lli3a (M 5659). 

17. kannu, T^, fetter, bond, CT 12 lli4a (M 5660). 

18. kasu, TE, bind, tie, CT 12 llisa (M 5661). 

19. la'bu, oppress, 2 45 22g (B 7693). 

20. lebu(?) oppressio7t, 5 409 c (B 7694). 

25 21. liqu, take, receive, ASKT 115 iia (B 7695). 

22. letu, TE, intelligence, word, CT 12 11 9a (M 5662). 

23. maharu, receive, 2 4810c, RH 117 27 (B 7696, M 5663). 

24. minu, what, why, 4^ losib, RH 11 19b (B 7697, M 5664). 

25. nahiu, TEN, rest, 5 4012c, CT 12 11 i6a (B 7698, M 5665). 
30 26. nisu, tear away, 5 405c (B 7699). 

27. nisu, TE, lift up, bear, CT 12 11 7a (M 5667). 

28. natu(.?) nuttu(.?) crushi^)\crushedij) CT 19 3 i5b (M 570I). 

29. sahalu, bore through, 5 4011c (B 7703). 

30. sahulu(.?) a boringi^) CT 19 37b (M 5702). 
35 31. suhumu, .? CT 19 310b (M 5703). 

32." salahu(?) TE, sprinkle i^) CT 12 11 10 a (M 5668). 

33. simtu, TY., fitting, suitable, 5 403c, CT 12 Ilea (B 7705, M 5669). 

34. summatu, dove, ASKT 115 rev 9 (B 7713). 

35. ^Qnkqn, press, 5 407c, CT 12 11 9a (B 7704, M 5670). 
40 36. pu'hu, } RT 27 121 20 (M*567l). 

37. palahu, fear, ZA 1 180 n, PSBA 17 41 ff. ii 13 (B 7700, M 5672). 



1/4 (gddott, (g>a6g6otttan (^viimc^ 

38. puUuhu, terror, CT 19 3 isb (M 5704). 

39. panu(?)/^^^, RH S46b (M 5673). 

40. pasahu, TEN, pacify, 5 4013c, CT 12 lli7a (B 7701, M 5674). . 

41. surusu(?) ? CT 19 3 ub (M 5706). 

42. qapu(?) riiin, ZA 9 16029 (M 5705). 5 

43. rahasu, TE, inundate^ CT 12 lli4a (M 5675). 

44. ruppu(r) weaken, 5 4016 c (B 7702). 

45. russu, TE, ? CT 12 11 12a, ZA 9 15923 (M 5676, M 5707). 

46. sabattu, TE, some special day, CT 12 11 sa (M 5677). 

47. sakanu, set, place, ASKT 907 a (B 7706). 10 

48. silimtu* TE, womb^) CT 12 11 12a (M 5678). 

49. supu, TE, besieging implement, 5 404c, CT 12 11 7a (B 7708, M 5679). 

50. sisitu* wombi^) 2 4734:c (B 7707). 

51. tehu, approach, 2 4849g, RH 10635 (B 7709, M 5680). 

52. temenu, TEMEN, dimmenna, a temple platform, S^ V43, CT 12 11 is a 15 

(B 7710, M 5681). 

H 478 explained the sign as quarries or half-quarries of bricks 
or tiles viewed diagonally; UKZ 172 ff., as a motif for direction; 
OC, as a foundation. Probably the original sign represented a brick, 
such as was used in temple-platforms with a line drawn diagonally 20 
across it Banks found such at Bismya, as well as others with more 
than one line (AJSL 20 266). Before the invention of writing these 
lines were used to distinguish the bricks of different builders. In 
writing, the picture of such a brick would suggest build, temple plat- 
form. The building itself or the foundation suggested press down 25 
and all the variations of it such as oppress, etc., of which set, inun- 
date, ruin are extensions. Pacify came to be indicated by the sign 
because of the sacrificial rites of the temple\ pure and splendid, " 
because of the nature of the temple itself; intelligence, because the 
temple was the place of oracles; and dove, because of its sacredness 30 
in certain temples. The pictograph represented not an abstract 
motif, but a common object, a brick. 

No 331 ^TV 

The sign consists of Nos 330 and 478 accidentally written in 
conjunction. They never formed an ideogram. 35 

•No332^TIf 

1. arbu, KAR, entrance, CT 12 11 22 (M S7I3). 

2. eteru, KARA, KAR, cover, protect, S^ v 45, CT 12 1 1 i9a (B 7739, M 571 1). 



These are different readings of the same signs. 



Bi&i of '^b^o^tap^e I75 

3. ekemu, kar, tak^, capture, S^ v 46, CT 12 11 i9a (B 7740, M S712). 

4. irribu, kar, income, increase, CT 12 11 21a (M S714). 

5. basamu, KAR, make, form, CT 12 1122a (M 5715). 

6. habalu, KAR, harm, ruin, CT 12 11 24a (M 57 16). 
5 7. kabasu(?) tread, CT 20 279b (M 5718). 

8. karu, KAR, ^^ dam, ASKT 5810, CT 12 11 23 a (B 7741, M 5717). 

9. lasamu, KAR, stretch out, CT 12 11 23a (M 5720). 
10. masa'u, ILKR, plunder, CT 12 11 24a (M S721). 

. 11. na'rubu, KAR, entrance, CT 12 11 21a (M S722). 
10 12. napsuru, KAR, ? CT 12 11 20a (M 5723). 

13. siizubu, KAR, save, S^ v 47, CT 12 11 20a (B 7742, M S724). 

UKZ 173 correctly explained the sign as a compound of Nos 330 
and 519. The combination of a brick and water suggested dyke. 
This formed the protection of Babylonian fields and the entrance of 
15 water irrigating into them. The breaking of the dyke ruined the 
field. It is easy therefore to see how the various meanings came to 
be expressed by the sign. 



No 333 

1. masa*u, plunder, hold back, 2 4860c (B 7746). 

20 The meaning, since it is identical with one of the meanings of 

No 332, indicates that the sign is a variant form of that sign. 



ym,^, 



No 334 <^iV'HTy ay 



1. sursu, root, CT 17 I941 (M 5631). 

2. i?(?)sinbiltu, a kind of tree, AV 8279 (M 5633). 

25 Apparently a compound of No 328 doubled, plus Nos 521 and 71. 

We have no early form, however, and this appearance may be deceitful. 



No 335 

1. ^^^abukatu, a kind of plant, 5 4027 a (M 5640). 

2. ^^"^aslu, NINNI, a kind of plant, CT 11 45 10 a (M 5643). 
30 3. ^a^aslukatu, a kind of plant, 5 4028a (M 5644). 

4. ^amelpitu, a kind of plant, 5 4025a (M 564I). 

5. ^a°^urbatu, a kind of plant, 5 4024a (M 5642).- 

6. ^^"^kililu, a kind of plant, 5 4026a (M 5645). 

The meanings confirm the suggestion made by the form of the 
35 sign (though this form is late), that the sign is simply No 329 doubled. 



176 (§atton, ®a6^fontan (^tiiin^ 

No 336 ^T 
1-. itquru* cuttm^-, AL^ S^ iii 4I (M 5731). 
2. itqurtu, DEL, a cutting instrument^ S^ v 27 (B 7750, M S732). 

.LI§, S (MS2 150). 

UKZ 103, 168 pronounced the origin uncertain; MSL 74 explains 5 
it as a motif for cutting. Probably the original sign pictured some 
sort of a cutting instrument. . 

No 337 ^T 

1. ababu, bright, purey clean, 4^ 1352a (B 7925). 

2. abnu, ZALAG, stone, CT 12 6 eoa (M 5 742). 10 

3. iiAdad, U, god Adad, 2 446a, CT 12 6iia (B 779I, M 5802). 

4. i§alalu(?) ALALA, a water pipe, ZA 9 221 9 (M 5748). 

5. asu, BABBAR, go out, 2 39 ue (B 7779). 

6. ebbu, DAG, ZALAG, HAD, RA, drigkt, CT 12 639a 43a 57a 21b (M 5741). 

7. elelu, be bright, CT 12 641a (M 5746). 15 

8. ellu, DAG, HAD, HUD, RA,^ bright, CT 12 625a 20b 26b 29b (M 5747). 

9. "^^ellitu, canal Ellitu, 2 SOiec (B 7928). 

10. enuma, U, at that time, once, CT 12 65a (M 57 5 3). 

11. ersitu, U, earth, land, CT 12 69a (M 5754). 

12. ibbu, bright, 5 51 35b (B 7926). 20 

13. ikkillu, U; lamentation, CT 12 6i7a (M 5745). 

14. immu, U, UG, daylight, day, CT 12 62a 23a (M 5749). 

15. inu, eye, 4^ 249b (B 7781). 

16. iilstar, u, goddess Ishtar, CT 12 6i3a (M 5755). 

17. u*a, woe, RH 15I26 (M 5739). 25 

18. umu, U, UG, day, S^ ii 14, CT 12 6ia 22a (B 7797, M 5740). 

19. ummedu, U, ? CT 12 64a (M 5750). 

20. umsu, want, CT 12 632a (M 5751). 

21. umsu, U, daily, CT 12 6 6a (M 5752). 

22. urru, UD, light, 2 47 60e (B 7798). 30 

23. iiBel, U, god Bel, CT 12 6ioa (M 5756). 

24. biltu, something brought, RH I3 1/3 (M 5757). 

25. birratu, BIR, brightness, CT 12 6i6b (M S758). ' 

26. gugu, U, } CT 12 6 15a (M 5759). 

27. ganasu, BIR, > CT 12 613b (M 5760). 35 

28. hanabu(?) BIR, sprout, CT 12 648b (M 5761). 

29. huppuru (?) sa isari, BIR, } of justice, CT 12 6 ub (M 5762). 

30. has(?) HAS, ? CT 12 652b (M 5763). 

31. hes(.?) HES, .? CT 12 6 51b (M 5764). 

* M supplies the determinative i? before this, but, as it seems to me, on insuffi- 40 
cient grounds. 



Biei of 'it>to^t<i^^0 177 

32. hutpu sa sippari, HAD, HUD, ? of copper, CT 12 627a (M 5765). 

33. tabu, be good, CT Xl 655a (M 5766). 

34. kibu, ? CT 12 645a (M 5768). 

35. kakku, weapon, BBR No 27 rev 20 (M S771). 
5 36. kakasiga, HUD, par, ? CT 12 629a (M 5772). 

37. kalasu, BIR, ? CT 12 612b (M 5773). 

38. kiam, tkus, so, CT 12 649a (M 5767). 

39. kinu, be firm, CT 12 646a (M 5769). 

40. kaianu, continuous, lasting, CT 12 648 a (M S77o)- 
10 41. kassu, cold, 2 45 le (B 7782). 

42. kussu, cold, 2 45 2e (B 7783). 

43. kaparu sa qemi, BABBAR, ruin, of grain, CT 12 6iib (M 5774). 

44. i?lahu, LAH, ? ZA 9 22011 (M 5775). 

45. ^^Marduk sa \L\vikM\, god Marduk, of servants, CT24 50 9b (M 11055). 
15 46. ii Malik, god Malik, 2 5727a (B 7929). 

47. ii Malik (?) sa same, UTU, /rm^^(?) of heaven, 2 57 15 a (B 7784). 

48. muslalu, roof, CT 12 635a (M 5777). 

, 49. masit(?) MASIT, exit, CT 12 654b (M 5778). 

50. muiu, night, CT 12 637a (M 5779). [(M 5780). 

20 51. masadu sa . . ., LAH, oppress, of , ...,42 29 No 33, CT 12 635b 

52. nabatu, nubbutu, UL, had, HUD, shine, splendor, CT 12 6 24b 54b 

53. nabaiu(?) ^/^ze;,* HWB 444b (M 5922). [(B J^m, M 5782). 

54. nagagu, speak, CT 12 633a (M 5783). 

55. namaru sa umi, BABBAR, ZALAG, be bright, of day, CT 12 657a 9b, 
25 AL3 82 iv 5 (M 5784, B 7785). 

56. namru, BABBAR, DAG, HAD, PAR, PIRIG, RA, bright, CT 12 640a 2b 

57. nunsu, U, ? CT 12 67a (M 5786). [4b isb 19 b 22b 28b sib (M 5785). 

58. nipirdu, BABBAR, ZALAG, brilliant, CT 12 658a 5b (M 5787). 

59. nuru, light, K\J 82 iv 12 (B 7932). 

30 60, iiSin, U, god Sin, CT 12 612a (M 5788). 

61. sippiru, ? 5 26266 (B 7792, M 5789). 

62. puhpuhhu, U, roar, noise, CT 12 6 is a (M 5790). 

63. puhiru, BABBAR, assemblage, totality, CT 12 6 8b (M 5791). 

64. parzillu, iron, 5 3052a (B 7787). 

35 65. pisu, BABBAR, gin(?) white, clear, 2 39 ue, CT 12 6 sb* (B jjZZ, M 5792). 

66. pussu sa qan duppi, BABBAR, whiten, of a tablet reed, AL^ %l so 

67. ^ipatpis^tu, zvhite garment, 5 1420a (B 7789). [(B 7790). 
6%, pisit, PISIT, white, CT 12 653b (M 5793). 

69. suhu, BIR, desire, CT 12 6i5b (M 5794). 
40 70. salaqu(?) zalag, ? CT 12 6 60a (M 5796). 
71. sinnabu, LAH, ? CT 12 639b (M 5797). 



* ^ CT 12 30 930665. 

Beitrage Ass.: Barton II. 



178 (§cixton, (gaBgfontan (^xitin^ 

72. sarpu, silver, 5 3053a (B 7793). 

73. setu, U, SETU, £-oino- otit, exit, CT 12 63a 55b (M 5795). 

74. sit samsi, BABBAR, sunrise, 2 39i6e, CT 12 66b (B 7794, M 5795). 

75. qadadu, U, bow down, CT 12 621a (M 5798). 

']6, qadasu, U, cleanse, dedicate, CT 12 621a (M 5799)- 5 

T]. isqilutu(?) GISLAH, burning, ZA 9 220 12 (M 5800). 
^%. rigmu, U, word, CT 12 6i4a (M 5801). 

79. sabattu, U, some special day, CT 12 624a (M 5803). 

80. samu sa . . ., U, LAH, burn, of . . ., CT 12 68a 36b (M 5805). 

81. summa, U, when, if, CT 12 6i9a (M 5806). 10 

82. i^Samas, BABBAR, amna, the sun god, 2 545a, CT 12 657b (B 7795, 

83. sisitu, U, call, cry, CT 12 6i6a (M 5808). [M 5807). 

84. sattammU; an official name, CT 12 647 a (M 5^09). 

85. taUmu(?) companion, CT 12 650a, ZA 3 4IO10 (M 5810, M 11056). 



BAB (2 55 14a). HIS (AL3 50 No 2 lo). TAM (AL^ 50 No 2 12). 15 

TU (AL^ so No 2 15). UTA (AL^ 50 No 2 11). UTU (2 57 i5a). 

ZAL (AL3 so No 2 13). ZALA (AL^ so No 2 16). 

EM 2 109, H 469, BNA 13 %i, UKZ -^j, OC, MSL 48 and LB A 311 
have all explained the sign as originating in a picture of the sun or 
of the rising sun. LSG 20, as a picture of the sun. No doubt the 20 
sign originated m a picture of the rising sun. Thus it stood for the 
rising of the sun, the sun god, and for brightness, day, heat, white, etc. 
From signifying Shamash, it was extended in time to stand for other 
gods also. By the psychological law of contrast it came in time to 
stand for night, cold, etc. Lamentation, woe, oppression, may well 25 
have been an extension of the meaning darkness. Stone, iron, if, etc. 
are shortened from longer ideograms, of which this sign was the 
first element; compare the meanings of No 338. Numerous as the 
meanings are they are practically all accounted for by this origin. 

.No 338 ^T>^>f ' 30 

1. ebbu; ZABAR, bright, 5 23 lef, CT 12 711a (B 7812, M 5818). 

2. ellu, ZABAR, bright, 5 23 i5f, CT 12 710a (B 7811, M S819). 

3. hutpu, ZABAR, ? 5 23 20f, CT 12 7i5a (M 5820, B 7813). 

4. kakku, ZABAR, weapon, CT 12 710a (M S82I): 

5. kemassu, ? ASKT 9854 (B 7814). 35 

6. musalu, ZABAR, mirrori^) 5 23 i9f, CT 12 716a (B 7816, M S823). 

7. namru, zabar, bright, 2 2448a (B 7817, M S824). 

8. sabbu, zabar, } CT 12 79a (M S82S). 

9. siparru, zabar, copper, S^ ii 47, CT 12 77a (B 7819, M 5826). 

10. qu, zabar, bronze, 5 23i2f, CT 12 78a (B 78IS, M S827). 40 



Bt0t of "itfto^tap^e 179 

11. sabru(?) ZK^k."^, fragments, 5 23i3f (B 7820). * 

12. suhtu, ZABAR, anger, wrath, CT 12 7 ua (M 5829). 

13. sinnu, ZABAR, tooth, 5 23 isf, CT 12 7 isa (B 782I, M 5830). 

MSL 360 explained the sign as a compound of Nos 337, 15^ 
5 and J J, No 15, being confounded in the combination with No 129. 
The sign is composed of the three signs which Prince designated. 
They expressed something like brightness in the mouths of its side. 
The combination was at first descriptive of copper, then of things 
made of copper, hence mirror, weapon, then because of the use of 
10 the latter, anger. Finally it was applied figuratively to tooth. 

No 339 ^T^ 

1. ^a"^arantu(?) cedar, CT 14 35 K 271 u (M S964). 

2. uznu, ear, 2 5649 c (B 7969). 

3. s^"iurnu(?) a kind of plant, CT 14 195a (M 5963). 
15 4. ^a^sunus(?) a kind of plant, CT 14 196a (M 5966). 

5. rapasu, be wide, large, ASKT 81 17 (B 7968). 



A (2 3914b). GELTAN (S^ iii 56). ME (S^ iii 53). 

PE (S^ iii 52). TAL (SA^ iii 55). TAM (AL^ No 223). 

TU (AL4 No 223). WA (JAOS 31 43 ff). we (JAOS 31 43 ff.). 

20 EM 2 109, UKZ 28, OC, and LBA 31 1, have all recognized that 

the sign was the picture of a pair of ears. This is correct. 

Na 340 ^TTT 

1. simatu{}) word, RH 2521!?. (M 5975). 

2. irru, a part of the heart, CT 17 25 34, 2 20 8cff. (B 7986, M 5976). 
25 3. isdn, foundation, , horizon, BC I426, Sm 690 1 (M 5977). 

4. ameihablu, destroyer, 2 489a (B 7985). 

5. libbu, SA, SAB, SAG, heart, S^ i 56 (B 7988). 

6. labasu, clothe, 5 51 46b (B 7989). 

7. milu, high water, flood, 2 2655 c (B 7990). 
30 8, puhru, totality, 5 21 esg (B 799I). 

9. qirbu, SA, SAG, midst^ 2 4713 c (B 7987). 

10. qirbitu, what is within, RH 870 (M 5978). 

11. saplu, deep, 2 6265 (B 7992). 

12. amei^aqsu(.?) an officer, ZA 19 368 (M 5979). 

35 LIB (MS 2 148). 

EM 2115 explained the sign as the picture of a heart; H 476, 
as a representation of something placed in the middle; BNAI24II, 
as the heart in an enclosure; UKZ 189 ff. and OC, as the picture of 



l8o (§axto% (^aB^fontan (lS>xxtinc^ 

a heart. The original picture represented the two lobes of the heart 
Certain of the meanings are clearly derivable from the picture. 
Flood and deep were probably suggested by the flowing blood; word 
because it expressed the meaning of the heart; totality, because the 
heart seemed to contain the whole life; destroyer because heart 5 
represented courage. 

No 341 4I^ffT 
1. kinu, ^K^KK, firm, faithful, S^ i 61, CT 11 15 61 (M 6062, B 8092). 
MSL 353 explains the sign as composed of No 340, heart and 
No 185, fire, and that the compound originated in a Semitic pun. 10 
This may be correct; we have no means of testing it. 

No 341a fWT 
1. eru; conceive, 2 1648a (B 8093). 

The existence of this sign in Assyrian is doubtful. In the 
published text of the one passage containing it (2 1658a) we have in 15 
reality No 344. The sign appears to be a compound ofNos 340 and 337. 

No 342 ^TMT 

1. nakasu(?) cut, 5 4246 a (M 6063). 

2. saratu, BIR, rend, tear, S^ i 60 (B 8095). 

The sign probably pictured a heart with some weapon in it. 20 

No 343 ^TTlT 
1. kinatu, GUDU, servants, menials, S^ i 57 (M 6064, B 8097). 

The sign, from the late form which has survived, seems to be a 
compound of No 340, heart, and No 490, dark or angry. The origin 
is, however, uncertain. 25 

No 344 ^T^T 

1. aladu, PES, bear, beget, S^ i 59, RH II413 (B 8100, M 6065). 

2. abaneri, testicle, 2 40ioe (B 8102). 

3. eru, PES, conceive, be pregnant, S^* i 58, SurpuIV24 (B 8loi,M6o66). 

4. bissuru, pudenda, CT 14 3 i7b (M 6067). 30 

5. ^banhandammu, } AV 3188 (B 8107). 

6. liplipi, offspring, LTP 173 n 2 (B 8104). 

7. lipu ruqu, remote descendant, LTP I73 n 2 (B 8105). 

8. aban^iqitu, a precious stone, 2 4010c (B 8108). 

SUR (AL^ 82 iii 22). '' 35 

MSL 269 rightly explains the sign as a compound of No 340, 
midst, and No 521, the generating seed. 



Bi0i of 'i^to^xapi^e i8l 



No 345 ' 

1. ^^^^ (?) algamesu, a conjuring stone, HN 3018,28 (M 6068). 

2. i?kutu, some kind of vessel, AL^ Z^ iv 6 (B 8110). 

There is no clue to the origin. 

5 No 346 

1. illatu, strength, 5 23 6f, ^/ ZA 1 68 (B 8128). 

2. imtu, poison, 5 23 7f (B 8129). 

3. iHssur sari, wind-bird, MJ^ Z6 i I3 (B 8130). 

4. uhliu, spittle, 5 23 sf (B 8135). 

10 5. upe^i(?) the city Opis, BD 2 33 5 (M 6069). 

6. hahhu, a kind of vermin ^^ 5 23 9 f (B 81 26). 

7. hurhummatu, a kind of vermin {J) 5 23 lof (B 8127). 

8. kesu^i, city of Kesh{^) CT 16 363 (M 6070). 

9. kusti, ? ASKT 81 27, RH 15 1 (B 8131, M 6071). 
15 10. ru'utu, UHU, spittle, S^ n 18 (B 8132). 

11. rupustu, spittle, 5 23 5 f (B 81 34, M 6072). 

UH (AL3 50 No 24). ~ 

UKZ 55 n explained the sign as No 70, <?/^;/, inserted in No 4I9, 
earth. The oldest forms prove the above explanation wrong. It 
20 represents an arm holding a stretched bow aiming an arrow at a 
mark; cf the scene pictured in DE Clercq, Catalogue, It 369, pi. 33. 
This might easily suggest strength and poison. Spittle and vermin 
are developments of the m^diVimg poison. How it came to designate 
the city Opis is not clear. 

25 No 347 ^ 

1. ummanu, 7nen, 1 12 10 (B 8170). 

2. i?gisrinu, } 5 2615c, 5 268c (B 8143, M 6075). 

3. nabatu, shi7ze, 4^ 440 b (B 8144). 

4. namaru, LAH, be bright, ASKT II723 (B 8145). 

30 5. namru, LAH, bright, 5 3024c, BA 5 6496 (B 8146, M 6076). 

6. nuru, \.K\\,fire, 4^ 14 No 212b (B 8147). 

7. paharu, assemble, JD 3 II2 (M 6077). 

8. sabu, ERIM, laborer, soldier, S^ v 28 (B 8148). 

PIR (MS2 34). SAB (AL^ 50 No 29). ZAB (AL^ 50 No 29). 

35 H 469 explained the sign as a variant of No 337; UKZ I02ff., 

142 ff, as a development from a motif for people; 'LSG 20, as a 
double yoke of oxen. The original sign represented in some way 
a servant or slave. This is its usual meaning in the archives from 
Telloh. Perhaps it was the outline of two knees in a kneeling position, 



l82 (gaxto% Qgfafigfontan (^xitin^ 

indicating submission; or slavery {cf. No 318). Soldiers were servants 
of the king. In the middle period of Babylonian writing the form of 
the sign resembled closely that of No 337, the picture of the sun. The 
nieanings Jire, sMne, be bright came in at that time through mixture. 

No 348 ^?A ■ 5 

1. ^b^^erimmatu, NUNUZ, necklace, 2 37 56^, CT 12 I9 9b + CT 11 33 7772 7 

2. lipu, sprout, offspring, LTP 173 n 2 (B 8177). [(B 8176, M 6090). 

3. sinnistu (.?) NUNUZ, woman, K 8276 12 (CT 11 28) + K 7772 e (CT 12 33) 

4. pilu, NUNUZ, red color(^) S^ v 30 (B 8178). [(M 6093). 

5. pilu sa issuri, NUNUZ, red color, of a bird, CT 18 348b (M 6094). 10 

6. pir'u, NUNUZ, shoot, offspring, S^ v 30 (B 8179). 

UKZ 103 explained the sign as a compound of No 347 and No 353. 
The earlier occurrences of the sign show that it was a picture of 
two beads connected by a string. This suggested necklace, and because 
these were worn by women, woman. The beads thus connected 15 
suggested the connection between mother and child, hence, offspring. 
Red was, perhaps, suggested on account of the color of many of 
the beads of early time. 

No 349 t?A<^ 

1. luhtanu, a vessel, S^ v 32 (B 81 86). [M 6109). 20 

2. k^^P^nuhtanu, luhtan, a vessel, 2 2223d, JRAS 1905 82939 (B 8187, 

Probably originally the sign pictured some kind of a jar or jug 
with two handles; cf. No 35 1. 

No 350 ^f4<^ 
1. qinnazu, USAN, scourge, S^ vi 31 (B 8190, M 6110). 25 

Perhaps originally the sign pictured a man stretched upon his 
face with hands outspread each side of ready for scourging. 

No350at^A<^^ 
The syllabic and ideographic values of the sign are unknown. 
The essential parts of it were No 350, a scourge, and No 60, buluk- 30 
grain. Before the sign for this grain No '^2'^, grain, was sometimes 
written, and sometimes. No 481 c, meal or flour, but so far as we 
can tell these variations did not affect its value. 

No 351 tH<S! 

1. ^^^P^*huburu, MUD, a kind of vessel or jug, S^ v 33, JRAS 1905 35 

^29 38 (B 8192, M 6111). 

2. ka^patpihtu, PiHU, a kindof vessel or jug, JRAS 1905 82931 (M 61 12). 

Probably originally the picture of a two-handled jar or jug. 



BM of 35eo$ra^^«f 183 

No 352 ^ 

1. simtan, twilight^ 2 728a (B 819S). 

2. simtu, Zl^.fate, CT 11 2437b (M 61 14). 

This sign is evidently a late development or adaptation of some 
5 other sign. It may have arisen through an abbreviated writing of 
No 191, which meant fate, or a variant writing of No 432, which 
stood for the moon-god^ and might easily stand for twilight Xhis 
meaning might have suggested fate. Of these alternatives the first 
is rendered the more probable by the fact that both No I9I and 
10 the present sign have the syllabic value ZIB. 

No 353 A 

1. abalu, bring, 5 3936a (B 8210). 

2. iiAnu, god Anu, 2 S437e (B 8213). 

3. asaru, be upright, AV Syl 458; AL^ No 228 (B 82II). 
15 4. i^Assur, god Asshur, 5 1 66 (B 8212). 

5. iiEa, god Ea,l SS44c (B 8272). 

6. ^lEridu, city Eridu, 4^ 423b, CT 17 22134 (B 8219). 

7. i^lani rabuti(?) great gods, PSiBA II I74ff., PI II 3 (M 6159). 

8. bullulu, mixture, 4^ 1657b (B 82I4, M 6160). 

20 9. birku, DUG, kueei^) 2 1630b, 4^ 12 rev 4I (B 8215, M 6117). 

10. baraqu, fash, cf CAT 43 9 with 5.ff. (M 6161). 

11. gitmalu, SAR, complete, perfect, CT 11 3033a (B 8216). 

12. duhhudu, SAR, abundance, CT 11 3028a (B 8217). 

13. dussu, SAR, luxuriance, fat, CT 11 3031a (B 8218). 
25 14. liurrusu, name of a plant, CT 12 4327b (M 6162). 

15. habasu, ? CT 18 38 4201 10 (M 6120). 

16. tabu, DU, DUG, GIN(?) good, CT 11 2933a, CT 12 30 930663 (B 8239, 

17. tubu, goodness, 5 51 51b (B 8241). [(M 6121). 

18. kissatu, SAR, totality, CT 11 3024a (B 8221). 
30 19. kullatu, totality, LTP 77 (B 8222). 

20. i?kuppudtu, DU, some ki?id of a vessel, 5 3922c (B 8223). 

21. m, verily, CT 16 2429 (M 6122). 

22. madu, SAR, be much, CT 11 3025a (B 8226). 

23. nahasu sa nuhsi, SAR, abouitd, of abundance, CT 11 3035a (B 8227). 
35 24. nu^isu, abundance, CT 11 3032a (B 8228). 

25. namqu, DUG, wisei^) 5 llisb (B 8229). 

26. (?)namusisatu, } CT 19 456a (M 6124). 

27. q^^passu, a kind of reed, CT 14 49 3648 1 7 (M 6125). 

28. puridu, some organ of the body, BN 3240 (M 6126). 
40 29. rabu, SAR, be great, large, CT 11 3027a (B 823I). 

30. rihu, DUG, overflow, CT 11 2924a (B 8232). 



184 (§axton, (gaS^fontan (]Odvitinc^ 

31. raku sa . ., ?, ^/ . . ., 2 36726 (B 8230). 

32. rakaku, ? RH IIO26 (M 6163). 

33. samu, DU, heaven, 2 50320 (B 8233). 

34. sumdul(?) SAR, large y extensive , CT 11 3026a (B 8236). 

35. sar, SAR, 3600, CT 11 3035a (B 8234). 5 

36. saru, SAR, wind, 2 1945b (B 8235). 

37. sutabulu, SAR, Mng CT 11 3029a (B 8237, M 6128). 

38. sutemuqu(?) SAR, praj/, CT 11 3030a (B 8238). 

GURU (5 20 41c). DAB (AL^ 52 No 6 lib). Di (S^ ii 11). DUB (HAS xxx). 
HA (2 3670e). HI (AL3 52 No 6iob). SUR (ZA 1 4). 10 

EM 2 108 explained the sign as a picture of the open mouth; 
UKZ Sgff., as a variant picture of the sun; OC, as a picture of the 
knee-pan; LSG 20^ as a geometrical figure. Delitzsch has correctly 
explained the sign. As a heavenly body it, like No 13, easily stood 
for heaven, and, like the other picture of the sun, No 3^37, for various 15 
gods. As the giver of vegetation it easily suggested abundance, then 
stood for 3600, totality, etc. Go and bring were suggested by the 
sun's movements. 

No 354 A»T- 
1. irru . . ., ? 2 31 9h (B 8286). 20 

'A, A' (MSI 298 ff). \ I' (MSI 298, AL3 52 No 6 8a). 

'u, u' (MS 298 ff). UMUN (AL3 52 No 69a). 

H 480 explained the sign as the picture of a star (which indicated 
brightness) placed within a circle, the whole signifying glow woj'm. 
The form of the sign in HAMMURAPI is identical with No 355; the 25 
names of the two signs are also identical. It is probable that this 
sign is accordingly simply a variant of No 355. 



No 355 

1. (.^)abalu, mourn, CT 12 21 93040 10 (M 6170). 

2. (.?)ublu, UHU, mourning, louse, CT12 21 93040 s, CT 11 2910a (M6171, 30 

3. (.^jubbulu, mourning, louse, CT 12 21 93040 9 (M 6170). [B 8300). 

4. zermandu, Bl . . , swarm, CT 12 21 93040 20, CT 18 33-31 5 (M 6173). 

5. hahhu, spittle, CT 12 21 9304014, CT 18 33, 3I 3 (M 6174). 

6. kakasiga, > CT 12 21 93040 22 (M 6175). 

7. kalmatu, UHU, worm, vermin, 2 S 24 c, CT 12 21 93040 19 (B 8292, 35 

8. ma'dutu, multitude, CT 12 21 93040 21 (M 6177). [M 6176). 

9. munu, UHU, some small animal, CT 11 2914 (B 8293). 

10. nabu, LAMMUBI, a louse or flea, CT 11 2911a, CT 12 21 93040 is 

11. sasu, UHU, moth, CT 11 2913a (B 8298)., [(B 8294, M 6178). 



Biet of Jbeo^ra^^^ 



185 



15 



12. parsu'u, UHU, ajlea, CT 11 2912a (B 8295). 

13. pur^u'u, ajlea, 2 5 25 c (B 8296). 

14. senu, small cattle, CT 12 21 93040 u (M 6181). 

15. 4ulu, ? CT 12 21 93040 16 (M 6182). 

16. selibbu, a kind of worm, CT 11 2913a, CT 12 21 9304015 (B 8299, 

17. tamsahu, f CT 12 21 93040 12 (M 6184). [M 6183). 

18. tanpahu, ? CT 12 21 93040 17 (M 6185). 

19. (?)sabulu, mourn, CT 12 21 93040 11 (M 6170). 

UH (S^ i 7). AH (MS^ 297). IH (MSI 297). 

H 480 regarded the sign as the picture of a worm; UKZ 55 ff., 
as a compound of No 353 and No 94; MSL 343, as a compound of 
No 419 and No 7o;.LSG 20, as a spider or eight-legged insect. The 
original picture represented some kind of a worm or caterpillar, but 
not the curving worm imagined by Houghton. The caterpillar form 
may be seen by comparing some of the pictures of caterpillars taken 
from modern works, such as COMSTOCK s Manual of Insects, Ithaca, 
New York, I904, and V. L. Kellogg's American Insects, New York, 
1905, passim. Illustrations are given below*. My colleague. Professor 



An idea of the resemblance to caterpillars may be seen from the following 



20 figures. 




25 



Fig. I is the larva of the royal walnut moth, (Kellogg, p. 

Fig. 2, pupa of house fly (enlarged), (ibid. p. 304). 

Fig. 3, larva of brionid, (ibid. p. 289). 

Fig. 4, larva of carrion beetle, (ibid. p. 252). 

Fig. 5, pupa of water beetle, (ibid. p. 258). 

Fig. 6, larva of cecindela, (CoMSTOCK, p. 517). 

Fig. 7, larva of slug-caterpillar moth, (ibic^. 223). 

Fig. 8, liguria mazarti, (ibid. p. 537). 



355)' 



l86 (j^axton, ®a6^fontan (^titin^ 

Tennant tells me, however, that it is hardly probable that any 
species of moth now existing is identical with those known to the 
ancient Babylonians. The earliest form of our sign resembles never- 
theless the picture of some such creature as much as a child's drawing 
resembles an original object. The meanings confirm such an origin. 5 
Wornij moth, flea, louse, multitude, swarm are all directly explained 
by such an origin. From swarm by extension came small cattle or 
flock (senu); mourning was probably suggested by the work of 
caterpillars. Both form and meaning agree in confirming this view 
of the origin. 10 

No 356 ^>Wr 
1. pasisu, a class of priests who had charge of anointing, 2 25, soe 

(B 8327). 

The form suggests that the sign is a compound of Nos 355 and 
478, but it is not easy on that view to account for the meaning. 15 

No 357 A^ 

1. eresu, plant, build, TN p 307 (B 8340, M 6207). 

2. ummaru, a bowl, drinking vessel, AL^ %% iv 16, ZA 4 1576 

(B 8341, M 6206). 

3. ^^^P^Miqaru, a vessel or jar, 5 42, 37e (B 8339, M 6206). 20 

DU (S^ ii 15). HAM (MS2 91). KAM (S^ ii 16). 

So conventionalized is the earliest occurrence of the sign that 
it is difficult to detect the original picture. Probably it represented 
a jar and the arrow its contents, or a jug, and the arrow ornamen- 
tation on it. Plant was suggested, perhaps, from the frequent neces- 25 
sity of setting down such a vessel. 

No 358 4^ 

1. i^Addu, Adad, god Addu or Adad, cf. TTF 741 with 80 1 (B. ^2,6^), 

2. ahu, IMI, side, CT 11 3129a (B 8356). 

3. emuqu, NI, be strong, CT 11 3126a (B 8362). 30 

4. ersitu, IMI, earth, CT 11 31 28 (B 8363). 

5. idu(?), NI, side, 5 42 5ig (M 6228). 

6. iillumir(?) god Ilumir, JRAS I905 I4430 (M 6229). 

7. i^Iskur, god Ishkur, PSBA 11 I74ff., K 2100 1 34 (M 6230). 

8. belutu, IM, rule, government 4^ 226b (B 8358), 35 

9. didu, IMI, clay{^) CT 11 3129a (B 8359). 

10. duppu, IMI, tablet, CT 11 3131a (B '^z6o), 

11. zumru, NI, body, CT 11 3127a (B 8373). 



Met of 'ibto^tap^ei 187 

.12. zunnu, IMI, rain, CT 11 3130a (B 8374). 

13. titu, c/ay, ASKT 121 4 (M 6232). 
^ 14. kiskattu(?) ?, CT 19 2, K 55 3 (M 6233). 

15. i^Mur, ^od Mmt, CT 24 32119 (M III25). 
5 16. iiMarduk sa zunni, god Marduk, of rain CT 24 5010b (M 11 126). 

17. palahu,/^^r, 5 62 64a (B 8365). 

18. puluhtu, m, fear, CT 11 3125a (B 8366). 

19. pataqu, /r^/^r^, biiild, 4^ 1037b (B 8364). 

20. radu, thunderstorm, RH 397 (M 6234). 

10 21. ramanu, NI, thunder, CT 11 3126a (B 8367). 

22. samu, IMI, heaven, CT 11 3128a (B 8371). 

23. samutu, rain, RH 397 (M 6235). 

24. saru, IMI, wind, CT 11 3130a (B 8369). 

25. sari, TU, wind, 5 21 i5g (B "^no), 
15 26. tinuru, oven, BPS II4 (B 8372). 



MER (5 ll46d). 

UKZ 175 ff. explained the sign as No 330, a 'directions motif with 
additions; OC, as the picture of a sail. HOMMEL is right in regard- 
ing the sign as the picture of a sail; compare EAG 219, P, Nos I4, 16, 

20 where it appears that the Egyptians had as a hieroglyph a boat with 
a sail, and as another, a sail alone, the sail being the ideogram for 
wind. It is natural to suppose that the minds of the Babylonians 
worked similarly. Wind would naturally suggest all other phenom- 
ena of the weather, also fear, and be strong. Rain makes mud, 

25 so that it easily came to denote clay, of which meaning earth and 
tablet are extensions. Oveii was denoted by the sign because of the 
abbreviation of a longer ideogram. 

No 359 ^^ 

1. iiAdad, god Adad, 3 6745c (B 8502, M 6377). 

30 2. iiMermer, god Mermer, CT 24 32120 (M III43). 

3. radu, thunderstorm, CT 11 469b (M 6379). 

4. samu, ZIGARA, heaven, CT 18 3410b, 5 1922a (B 1224I, M 6378), 

The sign is clearly No 358 doubled. 

No 360 A^ 

35 1. kalitu, a kind of plant, CRT 2 lis (M 6382). 

2. mihsu, wound, bruise, ASKT 8226 (B 8506). 

3. sapahu(?) BIR, break, destroy, RH I2332 (M 6390, M 6384). 

4. sapahu, scatter, ASKT 81 25 (B 8508). 



188 (gavtcn, (gaH^foman (^tiiinc^ 

5. saqasu, destroy ^ ruin 2 364a (B 8507). 

6. °iaskutukkannu; leather bag, pouch, DW 233, K 4602 9 (M 6385). 

GiRiS (5 2749c). 

MSL 60 explained the sign as a compound of No 353, plenty, 
and No 160, power. The origin is unknown. Prince's theory is im- 5 
probable. 

No 361 A^ 

1. amamu, wide, capacious, or a large jug, CT 12 21 93040 r 39 a 

2. amiru sa uznu, be deaf, of ears. Ibid 47b (M 6396). [(M 6394). 

3. amtu, maid. Ibid 32 b (M 6397). 10 

4. edu(?) oneij) Ibid 7b (M 6393). 

5. esenu, collect gather. Ibid 44b, AV 5544 (B 8524, M 6398). 

6. abaneru, box, receptacle, CT 12- 30 93065 10; 5 3947c (M 6399, B 8584). 

7. isdu, foundation, CT 12 21 93040, r 33 a (M 6400). 

8. isten, one, CT 12 30 93065 7, r 25a (M 6401). 15 

9. istenis, alone, once, CT 12 21 93040 r 25a (M 6401). 

10. ummatu sa eri, hot, warm, of a receptacle, Ibid 33b (M 6395). 

11. ussuru, ? PSBA 10 41B PI 2 6 (M 6497). 

12. i?usurtu, curse, 4^ 153b (B 8545). 

13. uturtu(?) some wooden object, CT 12 21 93040 r 38b (M 6402). 20 

14. banu, btdld, beget, CT 12 30 930653 (M 6404). 

15. iiBunene, goddess Bunene, TN p 241 (M 6405). 

16. gamaru, be full, complete, CT 12 21 93040 r i7a (M 6406). 

17. gisi^, ? Ibid 15 b (M 6407). 

18. disu, luxurious, growing, Ibid leb (M 6408). 25 

19. hubtlu, interest, ASKT 5556 (B 8530), 

20. hubullu, iitterest, CT 12 21 93040 r i3b (M 6410). 

21. hubuttatu, ? Ibid ub (M 641 1). 

22. samhaldappanu, a kind of plant. Ibid ub, 2 4259c; TM 5 35 (B 8585, 

23. i?liarharu, a ladle, CT 14 476b (M 6500). [M 6499). 30 

24. halasu, pluck out, destroy AV 5544 (B 8527). 

25. hapiiJ, break, ruin^) CT 12 21 93040 r 12b (M 6412). 

26. haru, behold, inspect, 2 3613 a (B 8526). 

27. harru, HAR, ring, 5 392 (B 8528). 

28. hurruhu(?) ? CT 12 21 93040 r 5a (M 6414). 35 

29. hasiii, UR(?) entrails {^) 2 2746 c (B 8529). 

30. kabattu, liver, RH 9116 (M 6421). 

31. kabidu, heavy, AV 5544 (B 853 1). 

32. kadadu, bow down, AV 5544 (B 8532). 

33. kiam, thus, so, CT 12 21 93040 r 24a (M 6419). 40 

34. kima, like, 5 2l57g (B 8534). 

35. kamkammatu, a ring, CT 12 21 93040 r 9a (M 6422). 



Mi0t of 3&eo0ra|?90 iSg 

36. kapru, GUR, asphalt, bitumen i^) AV 5544 (B 8533). 
ZT^ kirbu, IR, midst, 5 2l42g (B 8535). 

38. ^^"^karan selibi, ^ kind of vine, CT 14 22 viii 52 (M 6501). 

39. i?kiskam, ^ ^r^^ or tent-pole, 2 4S52e (B 8536). 
5 40. i?kiskanu, a tree, CT 16 47200 (M 6424). 

41. katu, be at an endi^) CT 12 21 93040 r 29a (M 6425). 

42. libbu, heart, midst, 5 21 5ig (B 8537). 

43. mesreti, ? CT 12 21 93040 r 31b (M 6426). 

44. mitharu, agreeing. Ibid 10 b (M 6427). 

10 45. mitharis, harmoniously. Ibid 10 b (M 6427), 

46. nahallu(?) ravine, piti^) Ibid 10 a (M 6428). 

47. nasaru, guard. Ibid 34 a (M 6430). 

48. nisiktu(?) overthrow, Ibid 22b (M 643 1). 

49. nusurtu(?) ? Ibid 23b (M 6432). 
15 50. samadu(?) ? Ibid 11 a (M 6434). 

51. padu sa pit.., } Ibid 46b (M 6435). 

52. pesu, be white. Ibid 20b (M 6436). 

53. parasu(?) HUR, break, AV 5544 (M 8538). 

54. suhhuru, miserable, RH 77 is (M 6502). 

20 55. samadu, bind, harness, CT 12 21 93040 r 17b (M 6437). 

56. qiddatu, sinkingi^) Ibid 35a (M 6438). 

57. qiddatu umi, close of day ^^ Ibid 36a (M 6438). 

58. rabasu, lie down, Ibid 33a (M 6439). 

59. rigmu, cry. Ibid 30 a (M 6440). 
25 60. ramimu, cry, 2 4954g (B 8539). 

61. rimmu, cry, CT 12 2I 93040 r sia (M 6442). 

62. rimmatu, cry, Ibid 31a (M 6443). 

63. sa, she. Ibid 26a (M 6444). 

64. su, si, his, hers, Ibid 27a (M 6445). 
30 65. suati, that one, Ibid 28 a (M 64.4.6), 

66, sabattu(.^) so7ne special day. Ibid 6 b (M 6447). 
6^, semiru, ring, bracelet, 4^ 31 57 a, cf 40b (M 6448). 

68. sananup) be like, equal, CT 12 21 93040 r 4ib (M 6449). 

69. saqasu, te^^riblei^) CT 12 21 9304021b (M 6450). 
35 70. saqsu(?) destroyer, slayer. Ibid, sa (M 645 1). 

71. sariuru, brightness. Ibid 19 b (M 6452). 

72. nam^attu, year, RH 88 r 11 (M 6454). 

73. tertu, com^nand, law,^CY 12 21 93040 r 20a, AV 5544 (M 6455, 

74. tulimu, ? AV 5544 (B 8542). [B 8541). 
40 75. tultu, worm, AV SS44- (B 8543). 

76. tenu, ARA, grind, CT 17 22132, 5 1945c (B 8587, M 6503). 



KIKKIN (S^ i 6). KIN (MS 2 11 6). MUR (S^ i 4). 



190 Qg^atton, (g^a6)^fontan (]S)xiiin^ 

EM 2 112 explained the sign as the picture of a bent bow; 
UKZ 157; ^s a compound of No 353 and No 298. Oppert's expla- 
nation is now rendered impossible by the earlier forms of the sign. 
The numerous and varied meanings of the sign bear witness to 
its early origin. At such an early time sign-formation from ab- 5 
stract motifs, such as Delitzsch supposes, was impossible. The 
earliest surviving form is much conventionalized, but I suspect that 
the sign pictured a large storage jar with pointed bottom and almost 
pointed top such as one still sees in the East. The marks on the 
side may either have been ornamentation or representations of the 10 
contents of the jar. Such a jar would easily suggest most of the 
fundamental meanings from the development of which the others 
could easily be derived. Thus the hollow of the jar might suggest 
ravine, pit, which in its turn would suggest, overthrow, curse, and 
cry. Worm arose from mixture with No 355/ 15 

No 362 A<^ 

1. ezezu, be strong, 3 5954b (B 8599). 

2. izzu, strong, 2 1917b (B 8600). 

3. hussu, shining, brilliant, splendid, 2 630c (B 860 1). 

4. kattillu, exalted, majestic, CT 14 1 isa (M 65 13). 20 

5. russu, shining, brilliant, 2 631c (B 8603). 

Hus (5 285b; cf, 5 1446b). Rus (AV Syl. 466). 

UKZ 150 explained the sign as a compound of No 400 and 
No 425, the compound signifying/?^// of life \ OG, as the picture of 
a sandal. The older forms of the sign disprove Delitzsch's theory. 25 
The early forms are strikingly similar to some of the forms of 
No 211 and 377. The latter was probably the picture of a sandal, 
the former of a donkey's bridled head. Our sign might be a variant 
of either one, but the meanings point rather to a picture of a sandal 
having thongs, such as were worn by the great. This would suggest 30 
the meanings strong, majestic, brilliant etc. 

No' 363 A<^4, 

1. bu . . >, a kind of fish, CT 14 I2 930743 (M 6533). 

2. kimmatu, SUHUR, covering, S^ vi 24, CT 19 2 K 9961 12 (B 8617, 

3. subbu, SUH, } Zk. 9 1623 (M 6523). ' [M 6517). 35 

SUH (MS2 191). 

OC explained the sign as originating in the picture of a goat-, 
fish. In the earliest occurrences of the sign, such as RTC, Nos 30, 
31, ;i; Nos 265, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274, 276, and TSA Nos 48, 50, 



jSt0t of 'ibto^vaip^e 191 

the sign designates a kind of fish. Probably, therefore, the picture 
represented some kind of a fish or its skin. If it represented the 
skin this would explain the meaning covering. 



No 364 

5 1. ma*du, muchy manyj 5 4 76 (B 8623). 

UKZ 185 n has correctly explained the sign as a compound of 
Nos 353 and 519. 

No 364a E^ 

1. akilu sa eqli(.?) MUL, ZIZ, vermin,, grasshoppers^) of the fields 
10 2. hirru(.?) SUR, } Ibid 15b (M 6535). [CT 12 20 381735b (M 6534). 

3. hurru sa . . . , SUR, hole, ravine of ... , Ibid ub (M 6536). 

4. kuzazu, MUS, insect, fly, Ibid sb (M 6537). 

5. kazazakku, MUL, KAZAZA, } Ibid eb, 7b (M 6538). 

6. qasasu, KAZ, cut, tear, Ibid sb (M 6540). 
15 7. subtu, SUR, dwelling, Ibid isb (M 654I). 

8. sihittu, SUR, } Ibid iib (M 6542). 

9. sisitu(.^) SUR, call, cry, Ibid 12b (M 6543). 
10. tanpahu, ZINANUTU, } Ibid lob (M 6546). 

This sign probably is a conventionalized form derived from the 
20 picture of a grasshopper such as appears on tablet ti. This accounts 
for several of the meanings. Hole and dwelling probably came in 
through mixture with another sign. 



No ZU)k 

KAM, {cf Ham. Laws viii 17 with BE 6^ 30 21 and BE 14 1 29). 

25 The sign is apparently a variant of No 357. It was employed 

as a determinative after numerals and by the kassite period was 
confused with No 160. 

No 364b r|> 

1. kis , SARGADU, > CT 12 2419b (M 6547). 

30 2 , sargad(?) SAK 265 (B 12221). 

Apparently a compound of No 353 and No loi, but the origin 
is really unknown. 

No 364c ^ 



1 , SAR-GAL-DIS, 2l6, 000, HLC 2 pp I3 ff.* (M 6548). 

35 2 , SAR-DIS-GAL (gan), J, 600 Bur of land, BE 20 29 r 7. 

* For this and the numbers up to 364J cf, CT 12 241 — 8b. 



192 (Ration, (gafi^fontan (pS)nttng 

HLC 2 pp 13 — 17 has shown that this sign originated first in a 
combination of No 353, Sar and No 300, £-reat, the great Sar, being 
216, 000, or 60 times the Sar, which was 3600. Later the sign DIS 
(No 439), which designated 60, was also added to make the expres- 
sion of the numerical value more definite. 5 

No364d^ 

1 , SARGALMIN, ^J2, 000, HLC 2 pp l6fF. (M 6549). 

2 , SARGALMIN (gan), /, 200 Bur of land, BE 20 29 rev iv 8; 

cf, HLC loc. cit. 

HLC 2 l6ff. has shown that this sign was originally No 364c 10 
with su-nu-sum = its double, written after it. In the Neo-Babylonian 
time the doubling was indicated by writing No 5 11, (the numeral 
two) within the larger sign. 

No 364e ^ 

1 , SARU, 36, 000, Res No 490 (M 6551). 15 

2 , SARU (gan), 600 Bur, of a field, RU p 155. 

A well with a curb was represented by the original picture. 

No 364f ^ 

1 , sARNis, y2, 000, HLC 2 pp i6flf. (M 6553). 

2 , [SARNIS] (gan), 1200 Bur of land, BE 20 29 rev iv 3. 20 

A compound of No 353 and 43 1. 

No 364g ^ 

1 , SARUSU, 108000, HLC 2 i6ff. (M 6554). 

2 , [SARUSU] (gan), 1800 Bur of land, BE 20 29 rev iv 4, 

A compound of Nos 353 and 432. 25 

No 364 h ^ 

1 , SARNIMIN, 144000, HLC 2 l6ff. (M 6555). 

2 , SARNIMIN (gan), 2400 Bur of land, BE 20 29 rev iv 5. 

A compound of Nos 353 and 433. 



No 364 i J^ 30 

1 , SARNINU, 180000, HLC 2 i6ff. (M 6556). 

2 , SARNINU (gan), 3000 Bur . of land, BE 20 29 rev iv 6. 

A compound of Nos 353 and 434. 



Bx0t of 'i^toQxap^e 193 

No 364j Xt> 

1 ., SARDIS, 2idooo, HLC 2 17 (M 6557). 

A simplified form of writing No 364 c: therefore a variant of 
that sign. 

5 No 364k X^ 

1. Da , TIKKIN, ? CT 12 2420b (M 6558). 

Apparently a compound of Nos 353 and 483, but the evidence 
is inconclusive. 

No 365 < 

10 1. abaku(.?) SU, ^urn, CT 12 2 4a (M 6559). 

2. abalu, SU, drm^-, 5 3646 a (B 8649). 

3. abatu, SU, perisk, destroy, 5 3661a (B 8650). 

4. "Adad, U, god Adad, 5 368a (B 2>7^'^), 

5. ahazU; SU, seise^ 5 3655a (B 8651). 

15 6. ahzu, SU, holding, contents, 5 3654a (B 8652). 

7. ali, U, where} 5 3633a (B 8653). 

8. iiAnu, U, god Ann, 5 363a (B 8654). 

9. iiAntu, U, goddess Antit, 5 364a (B 8655). 
10. edlu, U, hero, 5 11 46a (B ^^Z^j). 

20 11. iiEllil, u, god Ellil, 5 365a (B 8658). 

12. erebu sa samsi, SU, SUS, setting, of the sun, 5 364b (B 8675). 

13. erebu sa umi, SU, close, of day, 5 365b (B ^676). 

14. ersitu, BURU, land, earth, 5 3646 b (B 8689). 

15. eserit, A, HA, HU, U,UKU(?) ten, 53636a, CT11 2431b (B 8677, M 6560). 
25 16. ibratu, U, side, enclosure, 5 3626 a (B 8686). 

I7.'ilu, U, god, 5 3616a (B m^"^). 

18. issakku, VU^J^, priest- king, 5 3615b (B 8690). 

19. i^Istar, U, goddess Ishtar, 5 369a (B 869I). 

20. iilstar kakkabe, U, Ishtar of the stars, 5 3610a (B 8692). 
30 21. u, SA, and, ASKT 28629 (B 8770). 

22. ubanu, U, h^J, finger, 5 362a (B 8771). 

23. upu, UMUN, cloudi^) h 3622b (B 8772). 

24. uznu, U, GE; BURU, ear, 5 3612 a (B 8773). 

25. uznu rapastu, BURU, intelligence, 5 3634b (B 8774). 
35 26. biblu, U, produce of la^id, CT 12 l23a (M 6561). 

27. bibba, u, ? 5 3623a (B 8662). 

28. belu, U, UMUN, UN, lord, 5 3618a (B 8659). 

29. beltu, U, UMUN, lady, 5 3619a (B 8660). 

30. banu, U, create, build, 5 3620a (B 8656). 

Beitrage Ass.: Barton II. 13 



194 (§axion, (gafi^fontan (St>xitiix^ 

31. busru, BUZUR, M£-k, inaccessible, 5 37 i7b (B Z^^'S). 

32. bur, BURU, a unit of square measure, 5 3657b (B 8663). 

33. baru sa . . ., BURU, ? 5 3710b (B 8657). 

34. buru, BURU, a pit, 5 3629 b (B 8664). 

35. buru sa eqli, BURU, Bur, of a field, 5 3711b (B 8665). 5 
16, burtu, BURU, a well or cistern, 5 3647 b (B Z666). 

n, burutta sa. ., BURU, ? 5 3712b (B Z66^), 
^i'^, bitu, U, house, 5 3632a (B8661). 

39. gabru, U, copy, answer, 5 3631a (B 8669). 

40. giguru, GIGURU, be open, 5 3713b (B 8671), 10 

41. gatu, U, hand, 5 3629a (B Z6jd). 

42. dihu (?) /r^i-^ down, CT 20 32 64, 65 (M 6563). 

43. damu, UMUN, blood, 2 4754e (B 8672). 

44. duru(?) wall, JD 324 rev 3; c^. obv. 3 & vol 3 245 (M 6562). 

45. dupsarrutu, SU, tablet writing, 5 3652 a (B ^6t^. 15 

46. dupsarrutu ahazu, SU, receive a writing, 5 3653a (B 8674). 

47. zi, U, ? 5 3631a (B 877s). 

48. habaru, BURU, ? 5 3655b (B Z^'jZ). 

49. hubtu, BURU, spoil, plunder, 5 3628b (B '^6'^'^. 

50. hasisu, U, wise, intelligent, 5 3614a (B 8681). 20 

51. hipu, BURU, break, ruin, 5 3639b, CT 12 1 39b (B 8682, M 6573). 

52. hardatu, BURU, bashfulness^) 5 3640 b (B 8680). 

53. hurliummatu, BURU, some insect which lived in holes, 5 3632b 

54. hararu, BURU, ? 5 3654b (B 8679). [(B 8684). 

55. hurru, BURU, hole, ravine, 5 3648b (B 8685). 25 

56. kabtu, UMUN, weighty, 5 3618b (B 8693). 

57. kiddatu, BURU, sinking^?) lowering^) 5 3635b (B 8701). 

58. kakasiga, U, SU, .? 5 3635 a (B 8694). 

59. kalakku, BURU, hole, 5 3630b (B 8696). 

60. kinnatu, BURU, } 5 3636b (B 8702). * 3c 

61. kapadu, SU, reflect, plan, 5 3656a (B 8697). 

62. kapasu, } 2 3948e (B 8698). 

63. kippatu, BURU, depression, hole, 5 3631b (B 8703). 

64. kirtu, U, i 5 3625 a (B 8704). 

65. kissatu, U, SU, host, multitude, 5 3611a (B 8705). 35 

66. kistu, V, forest, 5 3624a (B 8706). 

67. katamu, SU, cover, 5 3643 a (B 8700). 
6%. le'u, U, strength, 5 3613 a (M 8708). 

69. lemu, hv, period, circuit, 5 361b (B 8709). 

70. mu, water Q) 5 2830a (B 8714). 40 

71. ma'dutu, HA, mass, multitude, 5 3638 a (B 87 lo). 

72. mihiltu, Gt, face, countenance, 5 3641a (B 8712). 

73. mihsatu, 0% face, countenance, 5 3640a (B 8713). 



MM of 'i^toQtap^^ 195 

74. manu, u, count, reckon, 5 3622 a (B 87 11). 

75. iiNegi, god Negi CT 25 50 le (B 8716). 
^6, nihlu, BURU, excavation, 5 3641b (B 8720). 
JT, nuhhulu, BURU, oppression, 5 3642 b (B 8721). 

5 JZ. nihsu, BURU, } 5 3643 b (B 8722). 

79. nuhhusu, BURU, demandi^) 5 3644b (B 8723). 

80. nihatbutu, BURU, ? 5 3656b (B 87 19). 

81. iiNusku, god Nusku, CT 25 50 16 (B 8725). 

82. nisirtu, SU, guard, 5 3650 a (B 8724). 

10 ^'^^ naqabu, BURU, bore, pierce, 5 3637b (B 87 1 8). 

84. ner, 600, BE 20 2621 (B 8717). 

85. nasu, SU, lift up, 5 3658a (B 8715). 

Z6. sahapu, SU, SUS, UMUN, overthrow, 5 3649a (B "^jn), 
%T. sulu, U, } 5 3627a (B 8742). 
15 Z"^. i^Sin, u, god Sin, 5 366a (B 8740). 

89. sanqu, UMUN, narrow, obedient, 5 3620b (B 8738). 

90. saru, UMUN, } 2 47 54e (B 8739). 

91. sutu, U, a small vessel, 5 3628 a (B 8741). 

92. puzru, PUZUR, concealment, CT 12 2 rev 17 b (M 6566). 
20 93. pihi^, SU, close, locki}) 5 3645a (B 8731). 

94. palasu, BURU, bore, dig through, 5 3623b (B 8726). 

95. pilsu, BURU, excavation, 5 3624b (B 8727). 

96. piristu, SU, decision, 5 3651a (B 8732). 

97. patu, GIGURU, be open, 5 3713b (B 8730). 

25 98. patahu, BURU, dig, bore, 5 3650 b (B 8728). - 

99. pithu, BURU, hole, 5 3649b (B 8729). 

100. seru, U, back, plain, CT 12 48 32b (M 6568). 

101. saramu, SU, succeed, 5 3657a (B 8743). 

102. qulu, U, speech, cry^ 5 3629a (B ^707). 
30 103. qaqqaru, U, ground, 5 3630a (B 8695). 

104. qarradu, UMUN, warrior, 5 3621b (B 8699). 

105. rubu, UMUN, prince, 5 3617b (B 8736). 

106. rigmu, word, CAT 27 r 21 (M 6569). 

107. i^Ramman sa birqi, the thunder god of lightning, 867 47 c (M6S70). 
35 108. rapasu, SU, enlarge, 5 3659a (B 8734). 

109. rasu sa uznu, BURU, be abundant, of understanding, 5 37 9 b (B 8735). 

110. SU, SU, he, 5 3646a (B 8764). 

111. SU, SU, that one, 5 3648a (B 8765). 

112. sataru, GE, write, 5 3642a (B 8756). 

40 113. sakanu, set, place, 5 ll3id var. (B 8744)., 
. 114. silu, U, ruler, king, 5 3615a (B 8758). 

115. silu sa issuri, BURU, king of birds, 5 378b (B 8759). 

116. sil^ sa siri, BURU, ruler of flesh, 5 377 b (B 8760). 

13* 



196 (gaxion, (g>a6gfon{an (H)rtttn5 

117. silu sa takalti, BURU, decider of omen tablets ^ 5 376b (B 8761). 

118. silu sa . . ./ SIL, ruler i^) of , , . , 5 37 i9b (^ 8762). 

119. silu, ruler, AV 8225 (B 8763). 

120. samu, BURU, heaven, 5 364=5b (B 8748). 

121. iiSamas, U, BUZUR, god Skamask, 5 367a (B 8747). 5 

122. sapalu, BURU, de low, 5 3626 b (B 8749). 

123. supalu, BURU, the lower, 5 3626b (B 8750). 

124. suplu, BURU, BURU, GIBURU, the lower part, 5 3625b (B 875 1). 

125. suppulu, BURU, humbled, 5 3627b (B 8752). 

126. sapatu, hv, judge, 5 3660 a (B 8753). lo 

127. saqu, U, UMUN, be high, 5 3621a (B 8745). 

128. saqu sa lubsi, SUS, lofty, of clothing, 5 3610 b (B 8746). 

129. seru, BURU, separate, 5 3638b, CT 12 1 39b (B 8757, M. 6573). 

130. sarru, U, UMUN, king, 5 3617 b (B 8754). 

131. sarratu, UMUN, royalty, 5 3614a (B 87^5). 15 

132. sussu, SUS, sixty {>) 5 368b (B %j66). 

133. suttu, BURU, hole trap, 5 3653b (B,8769). 

134. sutuqu, BURU, glorious, 5 3651b (B 8767), 

135. sutetuqu, BURU, glorious, 5 3652b (B ZjG^), 

BUR (2 2968a). UN (5 445c). 20 

EM 2 107 explained the sign as the picture of a crescent; 
UKZ 54, 152, as a motif for depression, depth\ OC, as a variant of 
No 525, a representation of the setting sun. A study of the forms 
and meanings of this sign make clear the fact that four originally 
separate signs have been blended into one. There was 1, a 25 
picture of the sun disc, identical with No 353 a. 2. A picture of the 
crescent moon. 3. The picture of the mouth of a well or cistern, 
which was from the first indistinguishable in form from the picture 
of the sun disc. And 4. a circle which represented ten or a complete 
circuit of what could be counted on the fingers, as naturally as 30 
No 439 (the perpendicular wedge) was chosen to represent one. 

1. From the sun-picture all the meanings connected with the sun 
were derived, the sun god, the setting sun, etc. 

2. From 2 came the meaning moon god {Sin). Then from 1 and 

2 as they blended, came the meanings god Adad, star, heaven, high, 35 
Ishtar of the stars, etc. 

3. From the picture of the well came all the meanings which 
have to do with hole, depression, dig, pierce, be low, create, produce 
of land, goddess Ishtar, Bur, a unit of land measure, was probably 
what one well would irrigate. Oppress, overthrow were extensions 40 
of the meaning be low. From either 1, 2, or 3 the meanings lord, 
warrior, decider, intelligent, wise, king, etc. may have come. The 



Bifft of 'ib^o^tap^a igy 

blending of the forms made these meanings obviously necessary to 
the resulting sign. 

4. From 4 the numerical values of the sign arose, as did the 

meaning repeat^ copy, writej tablet-writing. The pronominal meanings 

5 were, of course, attached to the sign through syllabic usage. The 

forms and the meanings thus afford evidence which makes the history 

of the sign as here sketched practically certain. 

No 366 <^^ 

1. alidu, begetter, father y 4^ 932a (B 8839). 
10 2. alidtu, alittu, mother, 4^ 2756a (B 8840). 

3. alittu, mother, RH 112 29 (M 6599). 

4. eli, UGU, upon, over, 4^ 73a, CT 11 2512a (B 8841, M 6597). 

5. umamu, UGU, some animal, CAT 2724 b (M 6600). - 

6. muhhu, top, upper part, 1 18 76 (B 8842). 

15 MUH (MS2 157). 

UKZ 154n explained the sign as a compound of Nos 365 and 15. 

The original picture probably represented a head surmounted by a 

turban. The head brought the sign into close resemblance to Nos 129 

and 15. This naturally suggested dipper part, over, ^^n, father and 

20 mother. 

No 367 iSlY 

1. i?urinuP) sceptre, AL^ 89 vi 73b (B 8850). 

2. i?sirritu, staff, 2 28 62f (B 8848, M 6605). 

3. i^sibirru, SIBIR, staff, 2 4449a (B 8849). 

25 GANU CT 19 38 140744. SIBIR 2 28 62f. 

MSL 315 has explained the sign as a compound of No 387, 

high and No II9, bring. The Assyrian scribes apparently regarded 

the sign, as a compound of Nos 365 and 53. In the absence of 

old forms, however, all speculations as to its origin are pure guesses 

30 without adequate foundation. 

No 368 

1. atunu, oven, CT 19 1, K 554 (M 6614). 

2. utunu, UDUN, oven, K\J> 5595, CT 17 3830 (B 8854, M 6615). 

3. tinuru, oven, CT 19 1 K 55 5 (M 6616). 

35 MSL 341 explains the sign as a compound of Nos 365 and 62. 

The meanings suggest that the sign was originally the picture of an 
oven, but in the absence of early forms of it nothing can be posi- 
tively asserted as to. the origin. 



198 (§axion, Q0a6gfontan (^xUinc^ 



No 369 <^ 

1. inu sa sikari, tke eyes, of strong drink, AL^ 8515 (M 6632). 

2. kakkullu, GAKKUL, some kind of a vessel, S^ iii 33 (B 8856). 

3. kakkultU; some kind of a vessel, CT 17 3575 (M 6634). 

4. katimtu(?) covered, RH Z^d<^^ (M III62), 5 

5. namzitu, GAKKUL, a wine jar, S^ iii 34 (B 8857). 

MSL 115 explains the sign as a compound of Nos 365, depres- 
sion. No 108, binding and No 322, mountain. The meanings indicate 
that the sign originated in the picture of a wine jar. The supposi- 
tion of a composite origin has nothing to commend it, though, in 10 
the absence of early forms, the pictorial origin cannot be proved. 

No 370 CJT 

\, (?)haiatu(?) destroyer, 3 6770c (M 6635). 

2. namsaru, UGUR, sword, S^ iv lo (B 8859). 

3. i^Nergal, god Nergal, 5 4618b (B 8860). 15 

UKZ 123, 153 explained the sign as a compound of Nos 365 
and 126. Probably the sign is a late variant of No 388. That sign 
may, as HOMMEL thinks, have represented a ploughshare or coulter. 
If so, it might in time designate sword, another kind of cutting in- 
strument. At all events the forms of the two signs in the Kassite 20 
period closely resemble one another, and siD-LAM was an old name 
for Nergal (cf. CT 5 2ia, CT 9 36a; also SO, II6). It may well 
have been that the writing of the name of the god was shortened 
to LAM. As he was the destroying god, sword and destroyer may 
have developed out of his character. 25 

No 371 

1. ihzetu, UGUN, contour, features, CT 12 5 17 a (M 6636). 

2. iiishtar, goddess Ishtar, CT 12 5 26a; CT 25 5013 (B ZZ62, M 66^). 

3. banu, beget, CT 12 5 i9a (M 6639). 

4. bunnu, child, CT 12 5 20a (M 6639). 30 

5. burrumu, dark blue, CT 12 5 21a (M 6640). 

6. samu, dark colored, CT 12 S22a (M 6642). 

7. sukkutu, } CT 12 5 18 a (M 6643). ^ 

The general form of the sign resembles that of No II6, though 
in its earliest form it has more lines at the right of it. Some of the 35 
meanings are identical with the meanings of No I16, I suspect that 
it originated in an early variant of that sign. If that sign originated, as 
seems probable, in the symbol for Ishtar, this variant may well have 



Mitft of 'i^coc^xap^0 199 

grown out of a distortion of the star at the top and a slight increase 
of the number of the lines at the bottom. The additional lines sug- 
gested, dark colored, blue. The form of the symbol varies a good 
deal on different seals; cf. the references on this point given under 
5 No 116. 



No 372 

1. kubsu, SAQQAD, head gear, AL^ 66 iv 24 (B 8864). 

UKZ 156 explained the sign as a compound of Nos 365 and 
129. The sign is probably a variant of No 366^ the picture of a 
10 turbaned head. 

No 373 C 

1. apsasu(.?) some kind of animal, DAG 210 (M 6647). 

2. arhu, AB, ox, S^ iv 54 (B 8869, M 6648). 

3. baniu sa aladi, beget, of children, CT 12 3316a (M 6649). 
15 4. littu, cow, 42 2658b (B 8870). 

5. miru, child, AV I24I (B 8871). 

LID (MS'^ 153). RIMI, RIM (SFG 61 n 4). ZIM (BPS 28 n l). 

The original picture probably portrayed the vulva of a cow. 

It naturally suggested cow, bear [or beget), then by an extension of 

20 these meanings, the thing borne or child. By a confusion of thought, 

frequently exhibited in ideographs, having stood for cow it was used 

to designate ox also. 



No 374 <^W- 

1. iiEllil, ELIM, god Ellil, CT 11 3210a (B 8883). 
25 2. ditanu, ELIM, he-goat, CT 11 32 12a (B 8884). 

3. kabtu, ELIM, heavy, CT 12 3211a (B 8885). 

4. kabtutu, great ones, RH I3215 (M 666%), 

5. kusariqqu, ram, RH 10823, CT 11 3213a (M 6669, B '^^m), 

6. sarru, ELIM, king, CT 11 3213a (B 8887). 

30 UKZ 150 explains the sign as a compound of Nos 150, 406, 

and 400. The sign no doubt pictured the head of a ram, showing 
the ear and curving horns; cf No 496, which pictured the head of a 
goat. Probably the meaning goat came from a confusion of the two 
pictures. Figurative usage enabled it to stand for king, great ones, 

35 and the god Ellil. 



No 375 



1. lilisu, LILIZ, an object made of leather and copper, S^ iv 60 

[(B 8889). 



200 (gatrton, ®a6^fontan (P^tittn^ 

MSL 225 explained the sign as a compound of Nos 373 and 
309. To reason from the late Assyrian form as Prince does is pre- 
carious, and if we are right in our explanation of the origin of 
No 373, Prince's explanation is impossible. If No 309 originally 
pictured a musical instrument, this sign, perhaps, pictured a musical 5 
instrument under a protecting covering.. 

No 376 <^ 

1. uppu, UB, enclosure, S^ iv 56 (B 8899). 

2. halhallatu, SEM, enclosure of metal, i. e. a vessel, ring, or fiute, 

3. kimu, instead, RH II214 (M 66^^, [S^ iv 58 (B 8894). 10 

4. kiru, KIR, a kind of vessel, S^ iv 57 (B 8895). 

5. libbu, LIKIR, heart, S^ iv 55 (B 8897). . 

6. surru, heart, midst, RH 105 27 (B 8898). 

7. qirbu, midst, 5 6244a (B 8896). 

MSL 207 explains the sign as simply a heart enclosed. The 15 
early forms show that the sign was compounded of Nos 373 and 
340 — not heart and enclosure — but an animal vulva conjoined 
to a heart. Both signs suggested the idea of within and all the 
meanings are connected with this idea. 

No 377 

1. Kis^^ city of Kish, 2 5012 b (B 8904). 

2. kissatu, host, totality, 4'^ S 62 a (B 8903). 

Kis (MS2 127). Qis (MS2 127). 

H 472 explained the sign as a bound foot', UKZ I46, 147, as 
a compound of No 353, mass and No 481, great', OC, as a sandal 25 
with toes. The picture, a variant of No 400, represented a sandal 
(No 400 added a thong). For some reason now unktiown to us it 
was the emblem of the city of Kish. Possibly it was for phonetic 
reasons that it came to stand for host, though that meaning may 
have been developed out of the idea of strength — since a host is 30 
strong. Be strong is one of the meanings of No 400. 



No 378 



1. manzia, MESI, some part of the body, possibly the foot, S'^ iv 59 

[(B 8907). 

In the absence of early forms of the sign the origin is uncertain, 35 
but one is tempted on the analogy of Nos 377 and 400 to regard 
it as a variant picture of a sandal. 



BM of 'iUoQvay^0 201 



No 379 



Both early forms and ideographic meanings are wanting, so 
that we have no clue to the origin. It may have been a variant of 
No 377 or 400, but we cannot prove it. 

5 No 380 4^ 

1. ardatu, slave girl, RH 95 19 (M 6690). 

2. ?ip^<^atu, cover y clothing, 5 1412 c (B 8918). 

3. iiatalii, eclipse, 3 58 No 83 (B 8917). 

4. etutu, darkness, 5 2316 a (B 8944). 

10 5. ekelu, be dark, CT 17 35 so (M 6714). 

6. erebu, GIG, enter, set, be dark, 2 39i5e (B 89 1 9). 

7. iklitu, darkness, 5 23 17a (B 8945). 

8. uttu, ? CT 16 42 8 (M 6713). 

9. da'amu, dark, obscure, 5 23 19 a (B 894I). 
15 10. du'umu, darkness, 5 2320a (B 8943). 

11. da'ummatu, darkness, 4^ I4 No 228a (B 8942). 

12. musu, GE, GIG, night, S^ iii 16 (B 8920). 

13. pitu, open, 4^ 1932a (B 8921). 

14. i?sillu, shade, 5 12 25e (B 8925). 

20 15. salmu, GIG, dark, 3 59 26b (B 8922). 
16. tarabu, > 5 23 isa (B 8946). 

GA (2 32i3g). MI (MSI 329). 

H475 explained the sign as a picture of the heavens with falling 
rain; UKZ 154, as a compound of No 365, suppression and No 536, 

25 the suns rays] OC, as the heavens with falling rain or rays of dark- 
ness; LB A 311, as the heavens with falling rain. Houghton, Hommel, 
and Weber have correctly explained the sign, which is quite ana- 
logous to an Egyptian sign which pictured the same thing (EAG 
p. 216, No 4), and also a' Chinese sign, (ECW No 89). This was a 

30 natural motif for the ideas of darkness and night. 

No 381 <^ 

1. abatu, GUL, destroy, S^ vi 3 (B 8954). 

2. habatu, GlJl., plunder, rob, 5 4248b (B 8955), 

3. hipu, destroyer, 2 3886 (B 8956). 
35 4. kalu, cease, RH 6615 (M 672 1). 

5. kalu sa ameli, cease, of men, 2 21 54c (B 8957). 

6. karamu, throw down, RH 31 10 (M 6722), 

7. masu, be wide, large, 5 29 65e (B 8958). 



202 ®arfon, (gaSgfontan (^xitin^ 

8. murattibu, moistened, wet, RA 6 13011a (M 6726). 

9. naqaru, destroy, RH 31 10 (M III77). 

10. naqaru sa eri(?) destroy, of a boxi^) CT 18 3432b (M 6723). 

11. nartabu, SUN, irrigating machine, S^ vi 4 (B 8959). 

12. saharu(?) turn, RH No 77 a rev 3 (M 6724). 

13. panu, countenance, face, 2 4414a (B 8960). 

14. rimtu, dwelling, RH 107 13 15 17 (M 6725). 

15. subtu, dwellhtg, RT 27 12I 1 (M 6727). 

16. {t)hxt2;}Qr\x, filled, RH II738 (M 6720). 



ISI (5 42 59 a). 10 

UKZ 154 explained the sign as a compound of Nos 365 and 157. 
We have no very early picture, a fact which leaves the origin in 
uncertainty. The most probable guess is that the sign originated in 
the picture of an irrigating machine. This would suggest throw down 
and dwelling. Destroy came from throw down used in the sense of 15 
overturn, and cease was an extension of destroy. 

No 382 <^ 

1. sappatu, SAMAN, basin, dish, CT 12 10 6a (M 6734). 

2. siqqatu, SAKAN, a kind of vessel, CT 12 losa (M 6735). 

MSL 306 explained the sign as an emphatic form of No 160. 20 
Like No 160 the sign was the picture of a jar standing on a stand. 
It differs from No 160 only in having a cover over its nozzle. 

No 383 <^ 

1. kiru, GIR, outside, outer wall, S^ ii 2Z, CT 17 4 ii 4 (B 8977, M 6^^"^). 

MSL 151 explains the sign as a compound of Nos 365 and 162. 25 
The sign is clearly a variant picture of No 162, representing an 
uncircumcised phallus. 

No 384 CX 
1. birku, DUG, knee, CT 11 2922a (B 8981). 

B 8979 has correctly explained the sign as a variant of No 353. 30 



No 385 

1. hirru, } ASKT 71 26 (B 8983). 

Early forms and meanings are both wanting, so we have no 
clue to the origin. 



BM of 'i^to^x<x^^0 203 

No 386 <C5^ 

1. adaru, i^e wide, KL^ 8427 (B 8989). 

2. (?)iiAnu, ^^^ :^;^^, CT 12 1923a (M 6742). 

3. (?)iiAntu, goddess Antu, CT 12 I92ia (M 6743). 
5 4. (?)^^Ea, god Ea, CT 12 197a (M 6741). 

5. i^rsu, NAD, a bed, ASKT 90 56 (B 8990). 

6. utulu, NA, lie down, S^* vi 40 (B 900I). 

7. (?)dilbat, //^/^^^ Venus, CT 12 1927 a (M 6746). 

8. maialu, bed, couch, CT 12 199 a (M 6747). 
10 9. maialtu, bed, couch, CT 12 1910a (M 6748). 

10. (?)martu(?) gall, bitterness, CT 12 195 a (M 6749). 

11. (?)mus^u(?) ? CT 12,194a (M 6750). 

12. na'alu, lie down, 4^ 1751a (B 899I). 

13. nadu, raise, lift up, 2 25 73g (B 8992). 
15 14. nadu, cast down, RH 1.30 22 (M 6753). 

15. nazazu, sta^id, ASKT II916 (B 8995). 

16. naku, drawer of water, 2 1651a (B 8993). • 

17. nakadu, ? 2 25 73g (B 8994). 

18. naru, kill, RH 39 is (M 6752). 

20 19. narbasu, camp, dwelling, CT 12 1913a (M 6754). 

20. pasahu, be soothed, appeased, 4^ 2330b (B 8996). 

21. salalu, be darkened, CT 12 1916a (M 6755). 

22. (?)sirtu, height, CT 12 193a (M 6756). 

23. rabasu, lie down, 2 42 23f (B 8997). 

25 24. rubsu, resting place, AV 7633 (B 8998). 

25. subtu, dwelling, CT 12 1911a (M 6758). 

26. (.?)iiSamas, god Shamash, CT 12 1925a (M 6759), 

27. i?tenihu, bed, couch, ZK 2 39 (B 9000). 

28. tarbasu, /^/^, stable yard, CT 12 1914a (M 6760). 
30 29. (.?)turahiu, ibex, CT 12 196a (M 6762). 

30. (.?)tisara, } CT 12 1926a (M 6761). 

NA (S^ vi 40). NU (2 48 62e). 

HOMMEL, PSBA 20 291 ff. and OC explained the sign as the 

picture of a bed or couch. HOMMEL's explanation is correct. The 

35 meanings are nearly all derived from the picture of a bed. From 

lift, raise it came to mean height and then passed on to designate 

various deities. 

No 387 <C5 

1. amrummu, part of a door, CT 19 1122b (M 6773). 
40 2. elu, be high, 4^ 33a (B 9013). 



204 (§axion, (g>a6gfontan (S^xiiin^ 

3. Elamu, E/am, 5 l6i6a (B 9014). 

4. i^baltu, abundance, CT 16 2974 (M 6774). 

5. zumbu, a fly, 5 27 i5g (B 9030). 

6. harpatu, ? JRAS I907 213 (M 6775). 

7. namsabu, NUM, ? CT 19 1121b (^_6^^6). 

8. naqaru sa semiri, costly, of bracelets, '5 1912 c (B 9015). 

9. (?)samu(?) ENIM, heaven, RH 152 No 3415, 2 50290 (M 6jJT, B 9017). 
10. saqu; NIM, high, S^ vi 21 (B 9016). 



ELAMU (S^ vi 13). TUM (S^ vi ll). 

BBH 20 11 thought the sign might have originated in a picture 10 
of a man holding up his hands; UKZ 93 regarded it as probably a 
variant of No 214; OC explained it as the picture of a penis; LSG 21, 
as a two winged insect. Langdon is right as to origin. The power 
of the insect to rise in flight suggested most of the meanings. 

No 388 C^ 15 

1. esebu, bear fruit, AV 489I (B 9043). 

2. ussubu, LAM, sprout, CT 11 25 isb (M 6806). 

3. ninsubu, } NSf 4891 (B 9047). 

OC explained the sign as the picture of a plough. Neither the 
forms nor the meanings make the origin clear. The sign may have 20 
pictured a ploughshare or coulter as HOMMEL thinks. 

No 389 C^^T 

.KUR(.?) (AV Syl. 397). 

No simple ideogram has been found; in those known the sign 
occurs in combination with Nos 69 and 4I9. The forms, however, 25 
which go back to the Sargonic period indicate that the sign is a 
compound of Nos 388 and 322. 

No 390 <(^I 



1. abalu, TUM, carry, bring, 5 2057c (B 9058). 

2'. arusa tan ..., go, of ., ,, CT 18 z6^h (M 6815). 30 

3. babalu, TUM, carry, bring, S^ vi 22 (B 9059). 

4. dibu, > AV SI79 (B 9060). 

5. nipistu, TUM, life, ZA 9 162 22 (M 6816), 

6. susuru, overthrowing, 2 4474g (B 9063). 

7. sitpuru, } AV 8361 (B 9061). 35 

8. tabalu, ta^e away, rob, 4^ I0 4ib (B 9062). 



Bict of ']^toc^tap^0 205 

UKZ 183 explained the sign as a compound of Nos 387 and 119. 
The sign is evidently a variant of No 387. This picture represented 
more of the insect's body. 

No 391 <^^T 
5 KIR (LTP 183). 

We have neither early forms nor ideographic meanings for this 
sign; hence, no clue as to its origin. 

No 392 <I^ 

1. isittu, festival, RH 20 44 (M 6818). 

10 2. buru, AMAR, ckild, young animal^ S^ iii 23 (B 9068). 

3. dabu(?) swine, AV 31 54 (B 9069). 

4. daku(?) kill, CT 18 41 46b (M 6835). 

5. dakaku(?) ? CT 18 4147b (M 6%^% 

6. hamatu, burn, flame, AV 3154 (B 9070), 

15 7. hamasu, crusk, beat, CT 18 41 45b (M 6837). 

8. hupp^(?) ? CT 18 41 48 b (M 6838). 

9. hussusu(?) broken, CT 18 4150b (M 6839). 

10. huyuiu(?) crushed, CT 18 4149b (M 6840). 

11. kunnu, Z\JR, firmness, fidelity , 5 29306, CT12 1021a (B9071, M6820). 
20 12. kutenu, z\JR, firmness, fidelity, CT 12 1021a (M 6820). 

13. maru, MAR, son, CT 12 1026 a (M 6821). 

14. nuhhu, ZUR, ? CT 12 1024a (M 6822). 

15. nuhhutu, ZUR, ? CT 12 1023a (M 6823). 

16. naharmutu, ZUR, destruction, CT 12 10 24a (M 6824). 
25 17. nupuqu, ? ASKT 21529 (B 9072). 

18. sullu, ZUR, a way of prayer i^) CT 12 1022a (M 6825). 

19. suppu, z\JR, prayer, CT 12 1022a (M 6826). 

20. pagru(?) corpse, RH 10827 (M 6827). 

21. suhhu, ZUR, desire, CT 12 1022a (M 6828). 

30 22. sabattu, ZUR, a special day. Sabbath Q) CT 12 1025 a (M 6829). 

UKZ y^ explained the sign as a motif for strike, butcher] OC, 
as a threshing flail- without a handle. What the original picture 
represented is exceedingly puzzling. It may have been a represen- 
tation of an altar. Such a picture would readily suggest all the 
35 meanings. 



No 393 

1. aballu, } 42 20 No 1 9 (B 909S). 

2. iqribu, SIGISSE(?) prayer, CT 12 1029 a (B 9090, M 6841). 

3. balu, pray, 4^ 20 No I9 (M 685 1). 



2o6 (§axton, (gaB^fontan (^xiiin^ 

4. hipu, dreak, 4^ 1631a (6*9089). 

5. karabu, SIGISSE(?) dless, CT 12 1029a (M 684.2). 

6. karibu, SIGISSE(?) blessing, CT 12 10 30a (M 6843). 

7. markas, mati, binding, death, RH 497 (M 6852). 

8. naq{i, SIGISSE(?) sacrifice, CT 12 1028a (M 6844). 5 

9. niqu, SIGISSE, a sacrifice, S^ iii 24 (B 9092). 

10. suUij, SIGISSE (.?) a way of prayer, CT 12 1032a (M 6845). 

11. suppu, SIGISSeQ) petition, prayer, CT 12 lOsia (M 6846). 

12. qitrubu, offe^dng, 4^ 20 No 1 23 (B 9091). 

13. temiqu, SIGISSE (?) /^r^'^^^^f entreaty, CT 12 1030a (M 6847). 10 

14. teninu, SIGISSE(.?) grace, favor, CT 12 1031a (M 6848). 

15. teslitu, SIGISSE (?) supplication, CT 12 1032a (M^ 6849). 

OC explained the sign as the picture of a flail without a handle; 
MSL 290, as an enclosure containing grain. The meanings all indicate 
that it is a variant picture of the preceding sign. The additional 15 
wedges indicated ornamentation. 

No 394 

1. amru hiassu, ? ? HAS ix 22 (B 9099). 

2. i?midpanu, bow, 4^ 2246a (B 9101). 

3. pitpanu(?) a long bow, HWB 598 a (M .6854). 

4. i?qa^tu, bow, 2 197b (B 9100). 



PAN (BAN) (2 3931e). 

UKZ 185 explained the sign as a compound of No 419 with a 
motif for curse] HOMMEL, in a private note, as the picture of a bow. 
Both forms and meanings show that HOMMEL has correctly explained 25 
the sign. Cf the similar Chinese picture of a bow. ECW, No 211. 

No 395 

1. ana, unto, SMT xxiv 12 (M 11 191). 

2. alaku, KIM, DIM, go, ASKT I2939 (B 91 11). 

3. iiEa, god Ea, 2 5859b, BDA 20914 (B 9117, M 6860). 30 

4. ^"^^lidinnu, an officer, cf Str Dar 37613 & 45014 (M III90). 

5. ina, in, PSBA 17 64 ff II ii 23 (M IU96) 

6. epesu, KIM, make, do, CT II 3119a (B 91 18). 

7. banu, KIM, build, create, CT 11 3119a (B 9112). 

8. bunnanu, KIM, creation, offspring, AV 8575 (B 9I15). 35 

9. binutu, KIM, creation, product, 4^ 1 12a (B 91 14). 

10. basu, KIM, be, CT 11 31?6a (B 91 16), 

11. ki, thus, like, 5 40 64a (B 9120). 

12. kiam, thus, AV 4257 (B 9121). 



;8i0t of 'St>too^xap^0 207 

13. kima, like, 5 l629e (B 9I22). 

14. kimu, GE, instead of, MSW R 2 58828b (B 6863). 

15. masu, KIM, find, obtain, CT 11 3122a (B 9123). 

16. salatu(?) DIM, rule, CT 12 27 47935 8 (M 6864). 

5 17. samatu, KIM, pluck, cut off, CT 11 3121a (B 9I24). 

18. summa, if, 2 78a (B 9125). 

19. summu, if, when, 5 3925e (B 9126). 

20. sarasu(?) ? CT 19 46 45977b; cf. MVAG 1905 256 (M 6865). 



KIMME (ASKT 754). 

10 BNA 13 494 explained the sign as the representation of a bust 

or the profile of a face; OC, as a mould for casting. Probably Ball 
is right in regarding the sign as a rude representation of a face. 
All the meanings except rule would be directly suggested by such 
a picture, and rule would arise from an extension of some of the 

15 other meanings. 

No 396 <^^ 

1. asamu, DU, be appropriate, becoming, S^ ii 34 (B 9134). 

2. asita isadad, he drew export taxes, 2 6248 a (B 9I3S). 

3. elipu sa isi, RU, be long, of wood, 2 36 67g (B 9I37). 
20 4. elsu, UL, glad, joyful, ^^ 1715a (B 9138). 

5. enbu(.?)/r^/^^(?) or lovei^) CT 19 167b (M 6873). 

6. ullu(.?^) ULU, shoutingi^) CT 19 49 79-7-8 2853 (B 9147, M 6871). 

7. ulsu, ULU, rejoicing, S^ ii 33 (B 9I48, M 6872). 

8. galadu(?)/^^r, 5 11 leb (B 914I). 

25 9. dalu(?) pursue, slander, CT 16 2844 (M 6900), 

10. habasu(.?) UL, overflow, HWB 76 b (M 6876). 

11. kakkabu, star, CT 18 492 b (M 6%yj\ 

12. kalalu, be complete, MVAG 1905 245 & 6j (B 9142). 
, 13. (?)kiritu,/^^j/, banquet, RH I419 (M 6878). 

30 14. malalu(?) ? RH 60 rev lo (M 6901). 

15. minu, } 5 21 7c (B 9I43). 

16. ne'u, turn, repulse, CT 19 11 24b (M 6880). 

17. nakabu, DU, RU, break loose, storm, 4^ l^ub (B 9I44, M 6881). 
18.' nakapu* break loose, storm, RH 10711 (M 6902). 

35 19. nasu, lift up, 2 32 23e (B 9145). 

20. puhhuru(?) assemblage, 5 6239a (B 9161). 

21. satu(?) beginning, remote past, CT 19 16 rev sb (M 6883). 

22. qasaru, bind, CRT 18 7 (M 6903). 

23. ramu, throw down, prostrate, CT 19 11 25b (M 6885). 



40 * Variant transliteration of the preceding. 



2o8 (§ation, (gaSgfontan (^xitin^ 

24. risatu, rejoicings, -RH I2I rev 5 (M 6884). 

25. saru, wander, roam, 4^ 5 69a (B 9146). 

26. sitbu, ? AV 7661 (B 9162). 

H 468 explained the sign as a bull's head with horns and the 
vault of heaven above it; UKZ 154 as a compound of Nos 365 and 5 
259; OCS 239 & 258, as a covered, and, probably, steaming pot. 
The explanation given in OCS is undoubtedly right. The picture 
suggested feast, rejoicing, bejitting, etc. Lift up, exalt were suggested 
by rejoice', then high, by lift up and star, by high. Break loose, 
storm, and fear were suggested by the scalding steam of the pot. 10 

No 397 <OT 

1. ii Malik, god Melek, 2 5/ 20a (B 9168). 

2. riksu, SITA, bond, S^ iv 35 (B 91 66). 

3. suklulu, SITA, completeness, S^ iv 36 (B 9167). 

UKZ 167 explained the sign as a compound of Nos 365 and 269. 15 
A comparison of No 278 makes it probable that the sign was a 
variant picture of the sort of net which produced that sign. Our 
present picture represented a cord running along the end of the net 
by which it could be held or fastened. 

No 398 <^TT^ 

1. diktu, UTU, dead soldiers, AL^ 65 ii 5 (B 9172). 

2. samu, UTAH, hear, AL-^ 65 ii 4 (B 9173). 

3. tiktu, U, dead soldiers, 5 3862b (B 9I74). 

UKZ 123 n explained the sign as a compound of Nos 365 and 
275. The meanings of the sign are opposed to Delitzsch's explanation 25 
of its origin, but in connection with the forms throw no light upon 
the problem. 

No 399 <'^T{\A 
1. zahannu, zahan, ? AL^ 65 ii 7 (B 9176). 

We have no clue as to the origin of the sign. 30 

No 400 <^ 

1. aggu, UG, angry, CT 12 89b (M 6909). 

2. aharru, TIDNU, west, KU 67 No 215 (B 9221). 

3. emuqu, NE, be strong, CT 12 8 6b (M 69I3). 

4. (?)idu(?) hand, CT 19 27 K 20374 (M 691 1). 35 

5. uggu, UG, angry, CT 12 8 8b (M 6910). 



Miet of 35eogtra|)?^ 209 

6. umu, UG, lion, CT 12 8 7b (M 6908). 

7. umamu, UG, animal, beast, CT 12 8 iib (M 69I2). 

8. urhu, path, road, CT 16 47 213 (M 6914). 

9. gasru, GIR, powerful, strong, 4^ 936a (B 9183). 
5 10. dannu, UG, strong, CT 12 8 isb (M 6916). 

11. daqqiqu, UG, small, tender, CT 12 8 ub (M 6917). 

12. kibsu, GIR, step, 4^ 20 No 2i3a (B 9185). 

13. i?kur2:u, .? ASKT 60 10 (B 9186). 

14. labbu, UG, lion, CT 12 812b (M 6918). 
10 15. namru, bright, AV 6042 (B 9187). 

16. nimru, bright, 4^ 517a (B 9I88). 

17. nissatu, UG, grief, iveeping, CT 12 8i5b (M 6923). 

18. nuru, UG, light, CT 12 87b (M 6920). 

19. neru, PIRIQ, yoke, AL^ 6711 (B 9189). 

15 20. i^Nergal sa birqi, god Nergal, of lightning, 3 16 obv 21a rev 14b; 

21. nesu, PIRIG, people, CT 11 25 iib (M 6921). {cf RH 139 135 (B 9I90). 

22. padanu, way, isSNY^ 60 19 (M 6925). 

21. i^Sama^, UG, god Shamash, CT 12 8iob (M 6927). 
24. sepu, GIR, foot, 42 27 31b (B 9I92). 
20 25. sarahu, be powerful, CT 11 28 K 8503 ob 4 (M 6928). 
26. tallaktu(?) going, 5 1624a (B 9I93). 

H 471 explained the sign as the picture of a human foot with 

a sandal, and the variant (No 400 b) as a representation of fetters ; 

UKZ 146 ff, as a compound of No 353, enclosure and No 481, great, 
25 plus a gunu; BARTON, JAOS 23 27 n 16, ^and MSL 149, as the picture 

of a foot; OC, as a sandal with toes; and LB A 3 11, as a sandal; 

0GB 62 — 65, as the blending of the picture of a sandal with that 

of a lion's head. Two original pictures are clearly blended. One 

represented a sandal, either with or without thongs. (The forms a, 
30 b, c were probably Elamite forms which were noted and explained 

by Babylonian scribes). The sandal suggested foot, going and way. 

As the sun travels a course it came to designate the sun, light, etc. 
. Perhaps the idea of yoke came from the thong of the sandal in 

form b. From the picture of a lion the animal meanings were 
35 developed as was strong, angry. As Sup. 224 noted, there was 

much mixture with Nos 211 and 327. 

No 401 <^^ 

1. kabatu, be heavy, BDA 7814; 805 (M 6969). 

2. kabtu, DUGUD, heavy, S^ ii 17 (B 9228). 
40 3. kamu(?) > RH 5013 (M 6970). 

4. miqtu, precipice, abyss, CT 17 45 (M 697 1). 

Beitrage Ass.: Barton" II, 14 



210 (§(Xvton, Qg^aBgfcntan (^xitin^ 

UKZ 154 explained the sign as a variant of No 380; MSL 89, 
as an extension of No 380. Probably the sign is a variant of No 380, 
the sky suggesting adj/ss, and the rain or the darkness, hea'Dy, 

No 402 <^f^ 

1. kibtu, heaviness, KU 81 ii 51 (B 9232). 5 

2. ^^kanaktu(?) some kind of incense, KM Taf xi 68; cf. MSW 2'^, . 

3. marasu, GIG, be sick, 2 l6i3c (B 9234). [Rm 3679 (M 6974). 

4. marsu, GIG, inaccessible, difficult, S^ iii 18 (B 9235). 

5. mursu, sickness, ASKT 82 23 (B 9236). 

6. marsu, disaster, sickness, RH 75 10 (M 6976). 10 

7. marustu, disaster, sichtess, 5 5246b (B 9237). 

8. qissu, cutting, ASKT 82.23 (B 9233). 

9. simmu, sickness, blindness, ASKT 203 19 (B 9238). 

UKZ 155 explained the sign as connected with No 2>^6] MSL I44, 
as a variant of No 380; OC, as a variant picture of the sky and 15 
falling rain. All the meanings may be traced to the idea of dark- 
ness, and the origin suggested by HoMMEL is most probable. 

No 403 <^T 

1. erib ^^samsi, USU, setting- sun, S^ iii IS (B 9250). 

2. kupu, cagei>) CT 12 723a (M 6987). 20 

UKZ 153 explained the sign as a compound of Nos 365 and 337. 
The original picture represented the sun entering the underground 
passage by which it was supposed to travel from west to east. 
See tablet 16 col. i. 

No 404 <^T^ . 25 

1. kummu, NIGIN, place, habitation, S^ ii 16 (B 9252). 

2. kupu, NIGIN, cageC^) CT 12 724a (M 6988). 

3. sidanu, l^lGm, fever, fever-heat, CT 12 72,7a (M 6990). 

4. sit i^samsi, NIGIN, sunrise, CT 12 726 a (M 6991). 

UKZ 167 explained the sign as a compound of Nos 281, place, 30 
365, removed from, and 337, the sun. Probably the sign is a compound 
of No 403 and No 269, the last mentioned representing originally the 
sign of the genitive. Later it was confused with No 281, house and 
•gave rise to the meaning, place, habitation. 

No 405 «^ 35 

1. bulu, KUSU, quadrupeds, animals, AL^ 67 le (B 9255). 

UKZ 154 followed by MSL 155, regards the sign as connected 
with or a variant of. No 400. Probably this sign is a variant of 



&i0t of 'ibto^xa^^^ 211 

No 211, which, as noted above, was at one period of the writing 
confused with No 400. 

No 406 4>~ 

1. amaru, see, HAS xiii 17 (B 9267). 
5 2. ekisu, ? 2 62 29 c (B 9269). 

3. ersitn,' ear^A, 42 15* 58b (B 9274). 

4. idu, Mnd, side, 4^ 29* No 4 rev ii 16 (B 9272). 

5. ilu sa nap^ari, ^-od of all, KU 7813 (B 9271). 

6. inu, enu, IGI, IDI, eye, ASKT 84 (B 9273). 

10 7. abanjnu, eye-stone, diamondij) 4? 18* No 3 rev 23 (M 6996). 

8. uznu, ^^r, AL^ 7817 (B 9286). 

9. bunu, face, form, CT 12 33 5a (M 6997). 

10. diglu, object of attention, 4^ 1954a (B 9268). 

11. hulbatu, IGI, ? ASKT 20212 (B 9270). 
15 12. matu(?) be low, CT 16 4475 (M 11212). 

13. mahru, IGI, ijm, front, first, AL^ 7819 (B 9276). 

14. matu, country, AL^ 7814 (B 9275). 

15. natalu, see, CT 11 38 K 424623 (M 6998). 

16. namaru, be bright, 5 21 67g; cf ZA 1 238 (B 9277). 
20 17. naplusu, y^z/^r, grace, AL^ 7822 (B 9280). 

18. napasu, be broad, HAS xiii 15 (B 9278). 

19. napistu. Si, life, 4^ 2763a (B 9279). 

20. panu, IGI, IDE, face, AL^ j% 15 (B 9281). 

21. ip\mu, face, form, AL^ 78 is (B 9282). 
25 22. si, see, look, 4^ 2645a (B 9284). 

23. stipu, foot, AL^ 7820 (B 9283). 

24. suatu, that one, 5 2O60a (B 9285). 



BAD (S^ ii 7). bah(?) (5 3858c). IGU (S^ ii 7). 

IN (LTP p 99 n 3). LiB^(S^ ii 6). lim (MS 2 145). 

30 MAD (AL^ 52 No 6 7b). SI (S^ ii 4). 

EM 2 no, H 473, UKZ 15, OC, MSL 186, LSG 20 have all 
correctly explained the sign as the picture of an eye. The Egyptian, 
[cf E AG 206 No 10 and MHP 1 No 82), and the Chinese, (ECW No 267), 
formed ideograms from the eye in analogous ways. Most of the 
35 meanings are directly derived from the picture of an eye. The picture 
by extension was used for other parts of the body which exist in 
pairs. Probably it came to stand for country, earth by an extension 
of the meaning face, form. 

14* 



212 ®atton» (g>ii6gfontan (^xitino^ 

No 407 4^^ 

1. amaru, see, RH 963, AL^ 8536 (M 7129, B 94II). 

2. atu, PAD, see, recognize, CT 19 13 K 7331 rev 4, 2 932c (B 94I2, 

3. uddu, PAD, daylight, 2 48 ^Sg (B 9419)- [^ 7130). 

4. zakaru, PAD, remember, name, 2 7 49g (B 9420). ^ 

5. zikru, PAD, memorial, 4^ 2915b (B 942I). 

6. le'u sa ocrnkti, powerful, in speech, RH I0975 (M 713I). 

7. nabu, PA, i;^^^;^, 2 7 36g (B 94I4). 

8. namaru, PAD, ^^ bright, 4^ 3032a (B 94IS). 

9. passu, name of a plant i^) CT 14 49 36481 s (M 7132). 10 

10. pussusu, l?reaking(J) CT 14 49 3648 1 9 (M 7134). 

11. puqqudu, deposit or trust(^) CT 16 5 iss var. (M 7I3S). 

12. qibu, speak, 4^ 15* 45b (B 9413). 

13. saqaru(.?) PAD, } 2 11 i9g (B 9416). 

14. tamu, PAD, speak, swear, 5 2947c (B 9417). 15 

15. tatnatu, speaki^) ASKT 827 (B 9418). 

UKZ 49 explained the sign as a compound of Nos 406 and 69. 
DelitzsCH has correctly explained the origin of the sign. No 69 
pictured a bow and No 406, an eye. PRINCE has correctly explained 
the combination to mean throw the eye, hence, speak, comma7id, 20 
Most of the meanings are derived frorn the eye element alone. 

No 408 <M<T 
1. namaru, be bright, shine,, HAS xiii 8 (B 9425). 

AR (AL3 50 No 1 2). 

MS^ 381, UKZ 49 ff., and MSL 37 have correctly explained the 25 
sign as a compound of Nos 306 and 93. No 93 pictured a net, which 
suggested food. Perhaps the brightening of the eye at sight of food 
explains the connection of be bright with this sign. 

No 409 <>^ 

1. abrakku, a high dignitary y seer^) AL^ 34 61 12 (B 9427). 30 

2. abrakkatu, a female dignitary, CRT 1811, BA 5 64415 (M 714I, 

3. ittu, ISKIM, sign, omen, 5 SOesa (B 9429, M II228). [M- II227). 

4. baru, behold, AV 9072 (B 9428). 

5. kasapu(.?) use charms, bewitch, AV9072; ^/CT19 I3rev3b (B 9430). 

6. qibtu, speech, word, ZA 8 I96 19721b (M 7144). 35 

7. tukultu, aid, RH 3626 (B 9432). 



ITI(?) (ZKl 303 n4). 



BUi of "SUo^xa^^^ 213 

UKZ 187 explained the sign as a compound of Nos 406 and 157. 
Delitzsch is right as to the origin. No 406 meant ej/e and No 157, 
tadlet, writing. The combination suggested understand, see through, 
and all the meanings are connected with this idea. 

5 No 410 <^^T 

SA (AL-3 10 No 23). 

No ideograms of this sign are known. Probably it is a compound 
of Nos 406 and 337. 

No 411 4^<^f 

lo 1. ubbubu, be bright, 2 2948g (B 9452). 

2. bunu namru, bright child, KL; cf, Nos 98 & 99 1. "^(^ w. 97, 1. 85 

3. barari,. be bright, shine, 5 1627a (B 9444). [(^ 7154)- 

4. damaqu, SIG, be favorable, AV 1044 (B 9445)- 

5. iiDamqu(?) god Damqu, BE 14 No 13I 12 (M 7153)- 
15 6. damqu, SlG, favorable, 2 35 7ig (B 9446). 

7. dumqu, hlG, favor, 42 1824a (B 9447). 

8. kinatu, SIG, servants, ASKT 82 is (B 9448). 

9. nummuru, siG, shine, 4^ 21 No iB rev 20 (B 9449)- 
10. paqadu, KURU, appoint, 2 2762 c (B 9450). 

20 11. suruppu, KUR, purified by fire, 4^ 440b (B 9451). 

BPS jz, UKZ 48 fK, MSL 213 have explained the sign as a 
compound of Nos 406 and 347. The form of the sign in Manistusu 
suggests that it was originally a compound of Nos 406 and jj, an 
eye and a leader. As both these signs had the ideographic value 
25 be bright, the resultant sign of course had that value. Most of the 
meanings are derivable from this idea. The forms show that the 
second element was early regarded as No 347, which means servant. 
This change of form accounts for the presence of this ideographic 
value. 



30 No 412 <q> 

1. ana, unto, ASKT 61 30 & 34 (B 9462). 

2. ensu, SI, weak, AV 2417 (B 9463). 

3. ittu(.?) side, CT 19 28 K 48484b (M 7160). 

4. u, and, 42 22 No 2 6 (B 9468). 

35 5. labaru, be or become old, 2 l6 63a (B 9464). 

6. labiru, old, 2 1516a (B 9465). 

7. ma, and, 2 956c; 11 9a (B 9466). 

8. naqu, howl, lament, 2 4534c (M 7162). 

9. salalu, sink down, sink to rest, 4^ 1338b (M 7163), 



214 Ration, ®a6^fotttan (SOvidn^ 

10. sadu (or sattu), heighty A'^ 2618a (B 9467, M 7164). 

11. §ittu, sleepy RH 92a 27 (M 7165). 

DURA (AV 103). SA (SFG 37—40). U ^S^ iv 43). 

UKZ 112 ff. explained the sign as No 406 plus a motif for an 
opposing object. The early forms of the sign make it probable that 5 
it was, like No 304, the picture of a plumed turban. Probably it 
was worn by sheiks or old men, hence it designated^, be old, and resty 
of which sink downy sleepy weak and lament were extensions. The 
tall turban suggested height The conjunctional and prepositional 
meanings were attached to the sign through syllabic identity in lo 
Sumerian. 

No 413 <i^JM 

1. abatu sa ini, destroy y of eyes y 2 2729c; cf, DW 72 (B 9497). 

2. hullu, HUL, emly dad, ASKT 3O691 (B 9498). 

3. hul^, ? 42 30 5b (B 9499). 15 

4. iamanu, 6e evily bady 4^ IS 3b (B 9501). 

5. lemenu, be evily bady CT 16 1 15 (M 7202). 

6. limnu, bad, evily ASKT 82 1 (B 9502). 

7. lumnu, evily disgrace y CT 16 249 (B 9504, M 7203). 

8. limuttu, evily 4^ 2811b (B 9503). 20 

9. lapatu, turn, CT 16 3 so (M 7204). 

10. lapatu sa ini, turny of eyes y 2 2761c (B 9505). 

11. suhummu, ? CT 18 45 i6b (M 7206). 

12. qullulu, be light y smally 2 4Ss2g (B 9500). 

13. quUultu, misdeedy siny BA 5 640 15 (M 7265). 25 

14. (.?*)ra*abu(?) be angry y attack, RH 7726 (M 7207). 

15. salputu, salputtu, devastation, ruiny 4^ 1941b, RH 6229 (B 9506, 

16. sulputu, destructiony RH 2321 (M 7204). [M 7209). 

17. suparsuhu(?) .? RH 55 rev 11 (M 7216). 

BNA 13 100, UKZ 48, and MSL 180 have correctly explained 30 
the sign as a compound of No 406, eye and No 5 14, dog. One of 
the meanings of the dog sign (No 516) is hostility. The compound 
of this with the eye, (No 406), meant the hostile or evil eye. The 
destructive power assigned to the evil eye in the East satisfactorily 
accounts for all the meanings. The structure of this sign is eloquent 35 
testimony to the antiquity of this superstition. 

No 414 <T^IX 

1. igisii, gifty presenty DW I02 n 2 (B 9401). 

2. nazazu, standy 4'*^ 303b (B 9402). 

3. saplitu, lower y 2 50 3 c, RH 71 19 (B 9403, M 7120). 40 



Bi&t of 'itfto^xap^s 215 

The existence of the sign inGUDEA is doubtful; ^SAKl30, where 
the signs are read differently. The sign is a compound of Nos 406, 
eye and No 337, tke rising sun. This was afterward mistaken for 
No 525, tke setting sun, hence the meaning lower, 

5 No 415 4^ 

1. alaku, go, 4^ 30 No 222a (B 9522). 

2. enequ(f) to suck, RH 147 (M J262). 

3. eresu, wish, desire, 2 /sse (B 9S27). 

4. <i^"usu, a kind of reed, CT 12 4248a (M 726^. 
TO 5. banu, build, beget, RH 19 u (M 7222). 

6. banaqu, capturei^) 4^ 30 No 1 12a (B 9523). 

7. dababu, think, plan, 5 392 c (B 9S24). 

8. dubbubu, //<^;^, 2 2948c (B 9562). 

9. dalu, pursue, RH 83 31 & 33 (M 7264). 
15 10. denu, Dl, judgment, S^ iii 51 (B 9S25). 

11. 6m\x, judgment, 2 7 32e (B 9526). 

12. kalu(.?) lock up, detain, CT 19 44 I49385 (M 7223). 

13. kasadu, capture, 4^ 30 No 1 12a (B 9529). 

14. karpatiamsisu(.?) a kind of vessel, 4^ 14 No l29a (M 7225). 
20 15. maliku, SA, decider, prince, AV 5014 (B 9530). 

16. milku, SA, counsel, 2 4814a (B 9S3I). 

17. malalu, ? 4^ 15 37b (B 9532). 

18. salamu, turn to, assist, ASKT 12320a (B 9533). 

19. qabu, speak, 4^ 2740a 44a (B 9528). 
25 20. qibu, speak, RH I0230 (M 7228). 

21. ridu(?) tread, subdue, CT 11 44 I49384 (M 7229). 

22. rihu, pour, inundate, CT 17 36 7 (M 7230). 

23. salamu, SILIM, be whole, 2 93c (B 9S34). 

24. a^ei^almu, SILIM, an officer, ASKT 5868 (B 9535). 
30 25. iiSalmu(.^) god Shalmu, BE 14 List No 7 (M 723 1). 

26. sulmu, SILIM, welfare, peace, S^ iii 52 (B 9538). 

27. salimtu, corpse, BBS 7 n 1 (B 9537). 

28. salmutu, welfare, safety, 4^ 1920b (B 9S36). 

29. sananu, SA, be like, equal, ASKT I2759 (B 95 39). 
35 30. setu*(.?) ? 42 30 No 2 22a (M 7233). - 

31. sutesu, ^K, pronounce an edict, 2 6255a (B 9564). 

32. tuqummu(.?) ? 42 30 No 2iia (M 7235). 

SIM (S^ iii 65). SIR(.?) (AL3 4637). 

H 476 explained the sign as a picture of the sun setting behind 
40 the mountains; BNA 13 98, as a compound of Nos 497 and 12; 

* Probably to be read e-sid-dis. 



2l6 (§athn, (^a^2^onim (S^titinc^ 

UKZ 175, as a compound of Nos 353 and 144 used as two Urmotifs, 
Most of the meanings are traceable to the idea oi justice, judgment. 
As Shamash was the god of justice, it is probable that like No 353 
the picture represented the sun disc — this special form with the 
lines across the disc being appropriated to these special meanings. 5 
Such an origin would also account for the meanings go, and beget. 

No 416 <f7 

1. kalu (erne sal), a temple priest, 2 21 42c (B 9573). 

2. lagaru, LAGAR, a temple priest, KU 66 iv s (B 9574). 

3. sukkallu, messenger, CT 19 4412b (M 7274), 10 

UKZ 91 ff. explained the sign as a variant of No 443, an enclosure] 
MSL 217, as a variant of No 497, pudendum feminae. If the sign is 
a component part of No 95, as is generally supposed, it probably 
represents a Sacred hut without the surmounting caduceus. The hut 
might easily suggest the priest who presided over its oracle. 15 

No 417 <M 

1. asabu, DU, dwell, CT 11 2926a (B 9579). 

2. dii, DU, habitation, enclosure, QT 11 2927a (B 9580). 
3.(?)hatu, ? RH 88 iib (M 7278). 

4. ?^ba^hatu, a kind of garment, 5 lS29e (B 9604). 20 

5. kabasu sa ilim, tread on a height, 2 27 49g (B 9581). 

6. katamu, DUL, cover, AL^ 65 iii 9 (B 9582). 

7. mulu, DU, earthwork, mound, CT 11 2927a (B 9583). 

8. nigissu, cleft, cavern, 1 1949b (B 9584). , 

9. naphiaru, assembly, totality, 3 438a, RH 18 34 (M 7279, M 7289). 25 

10. sukku, DU, dam, river-bank, CT 11 2930a (B 9587). 

11. paharu, assemble, 5 4450c (B 9585). 

12. puhhuru, ^^^2f^////, JD 3 112 (M 7288). 

13. ridu sa riduti, tread, of a procession, 2 2459a (B 9586). 

14. subtu, DU, dwelling, CT 11 2925a (B 9588). 30 

15. tilu, DU, hill, mound, AL^ 66 iv 9 (B 9S9I). 

16. tillu, hill, mound, RH 13I9 (M 7281). 

17. temiru, cover, hide, AV 8924 (B 9S90). 

18. a^afetasritu, month Tashrit, AV 650' (B 9589). 

EM 2 113 explained the sign as a picture of a fortified wall; 35 
UKZ 91 ff., as the gunu of No 416] ibid. is6ff., as a compound ot 
No 365 and No 481; OC, as the picture of a hill. The original was 
a diagram of an ancient city situated on a mound and surrounded 
by a wall. The wall enclosed a space larger than that occupied by 



^ist of 'i^toc^xap^s 217 

houses and had a gate in it. Such a picture readily accounts for 
all the meanings. 

No 418 <^ 

1. maskanu, SU, p/ace^ AL^ 66 iv lo (B 9614). 
5 This sign is probably a variant of No 417, influenced by No 613. 

No 419 ^ 

1. ana(.^) Kl, unlo, CT 11 3112a (B 9623). 

2. anna, Kl, ^Azs, CT 11 31 ua (B 9624). 

3. antu, tAis, ASKT 12729 (B 9625). 

10 4. asabU; Kl, dw^//, CT 11 31 isa (B 9626). 

5. asru, Ki, p/ace^ S^ iii 48 (B 9627). . 

6. ema, Ki, wit/i, CT 16 7276; 8290, CT 11 3114a (B 9628, M 7298).. 

7. ersitu, Ki, la7zd, earth, S^ iii 48 (B 9631). 

8. ina, in, 4^ 1525b (B 9630). 

15 9. iatu, KI, me, CT 11 3I 12 a (B 9629). 

10. itqurtu, rim, edge, PSBA 10 4I92 (M 7303). 

11. ittu, KI, side, S^ iii 47 (B 9632). 

12. itti; KI, with, 42 3 25a (B 9633). 

13. udditu, blossom of a reed, 4^ 28* 43b (M 7297). 
20 14. \xshiij) foundation, RH 69 rev 3 (M 7302). 

15. (?)happa ima ...,.? CT 11 485b (M 7421). 

16. kima, like, 5 3259c; cf ZA 1 401 n (B 9635). 

17. matu, KI, land, 2 398 c (B 9636). 

18. sanaqu sa usi, narrow, of a boundary, 5 4I 68a (M 7305). 
25 19. qaqqaru, GAGAR, ground, 4^ 959a (B 9634). 

20. sa, KI, which, that, CT 11 3I isa (B 9637). 

21. subtu* KI, dwelling, AV 537 (B 9639). 

22. saplu, low, 2 303c (B 9638). 

ESSE (2 48 20c). DU (AV 1208). KAN (ASKT 6% 2b). Kis (ASKT 68 21). 

30 EM 2 108 explained the sign as the representation of a tilled 

field; UKZ 174ff, as No 353 used as a motif for direction and then 
gunued; OC, as a diagram of the earth; LBA 3 11, a representation 
of the earth. Probably the earliest form represented the Tigris and 
iEuphrates rivers with connecting canals. This stood, to . the Babylo- 

35 nians, for land, earth. AH the nominal and adjectival meanings are 
easily derivable from this. The pronominal and prepositional meanings 
were attached to the sign because its syllabic sound was identical 
with theirs. 



A mistaken reading of iatu above, (B 9627). 



218 (§civto% (gafi^font'an (XDnttn^ 



No 420 

1. (?)"^aSakmasku,....LE, akindofskin, CTI449 93085 reff. (M7464ff.). 

The origin is unknown. Perhaps it was derived from the picture 
of a skin, and may possibly be of Elamite origin; cf, e. g. the Elamite 
signs on p. 1I2 of DeL 6. 5 

No 421 <^^ 
1. hurru, KIRRUDA, hole, ravine, cave, CT12 27 81-7-27 200 13 (M7472). 
Probably the sign is a variant of No 416. 

No 422 <^ 
1. maskanu; KISLAH, /Z^^;^^, CT 12 27 81-7-27 200 15 (M 7473). 10 

Like No 41 8 this sign is a variant of No 41 7. 

No 423 <^' 
1. hurru, KIRRUDA, hanburuda, a cave, hole, CT 12 27 81-7-7 200 12 & u 

(M 7474). 
Like No 421 the sign is probably a variant of No 416. 15 

No 424 <IMr 

1 , sign of repetition, NE 140 us (B 9851). 

2 , part of the ideogram of a god, KC 2 51 8b (M 7478), 

The sign originated by placing No 419, like, before the two 
perpendicular wedges used as ditto marks. It is a comparatively 20 
late Semitic development. 

No 425 HI 

1. balatu, TIN, life, S^ iii I9 (B 9853). 

2. zikaru, man, 2 712c (B 9857). 

3. ha'atu, see, inspect, 2 444c (B 9854). 25 

4. ^"^^^muttaggisu, an officer who tears down buildings^) 2 445c 

5. sikaru, intoxicating drink, 5 278a (B 9856). [(B 9855). 

BNA 12 405 explained the sign as an early variant of No ^6', 
HiLPRECHT, quoted by OC, as the picture of a vine leaf HiLPRECHT's 
suggestion as to the origin would be probable, if the art showed 30 
that the vine was cultivated by the early Babylonians. If not the 
vine, the sign pictured the leaf of something from which an exhilirating 
drink was made. Such a picture would suggest intoxicating drink. 



BM of "iUo^xap^^ 219 

/i/e, then, man and see. The name of the officer might naturally 
arise from an extension of the idea of see. 

No 426 <M 
1. muttatu, ? AL^ 66 iv 16 (B 9861). 

5 KIMAS (CT 18 3210b). KISI (2 274c). 

There is no clue as to the origin. 

No 427 

1. edlu, SUL, man, lord, AV 1655 (B 9869). 

2. i^Bau, goddess Bau, 5 4420c (B 9867). 
10 3. hiru sa ersiti, DUN, dig, of the earth, 2 36 sg (B 9868). 

4. hararu, dig, 2 36 9g (B 9879). 

5. ?abatkandu, a kind of garment, 5 15 4e (B 9881). 

6. (?)mahasu, shatter, CT 12 4229 a (M 7494). 

7. namusis'u, ? CT 19 45 sa (M 7488). 
15 8. pitu sa nari; DUN, open, of a canal, 5 4255a (B 9870). 

9. patanu sa ameli, eat, of a ma7i, 2 3663g (B 9880). 
10. ?abat§atu, a kind of garment, RH 10841 (B 9882, M 7495). 



SUL (2 3945e). 

UKZ 143 explained the sign as a compound of No 299, land, 
20 No 1, in, and No 94, lordly\ OC, the picture of a boar, i. e. a variant 
of No 52. Hommel's explanation is the right one. Like No 52 it 
was the picture of a boar or hog. This naturally suggested dig and 
open. It denoted nobleman, lord for the same reason that our Saxon 
ancestors put boars' heads on their coats of arms, because these men 
25 fought like boars. It came to designate the goddess Ban, because 
of an abbreviation; cf B 9873. 

No 428 ^ 

1. elelu, AZAG, be bright, 42 14 No 2i8a (B 9889). 

2. ellu, AZAG, KU, bright, 5 21 i2g (B 9890). 
30 3. kaspu, AZAG, silver, K^Y^ 6534 (B 9891). 

4. ^wnTM, fullness, richness, 5 21 2ig (B 9892). 

5. teliltu, AZAG, splendor, 5 2li3g (B 9893). 

OC has explained the sign as a representation of the vault of 

heaven. The origin of the sign is obscure. It evidently pictured 

35 some bright object. It may have been the vault of heaven as HOMMEL 

thinks, or it may have been, like No 127, No I28 a and No 490, the 

crescent of the moon. 



220 (g^ar^on, (g>a6gfontan (^Onim^ 

No429<V 
1. ii(?)Istar* goddess IsAtar, LC 94. 13* (B 9931). 
■ 2. kasapu, PAD, a holiday^) BE 20 No 243a (M 7522). 

3. kasapu, PAD, take a rest, make a holiday, CT 12 32 38181 r e (M 7523). 

4. kurmatu, SUKU, SUKUM, food, meal, 2 3935a; cf, ASKT II6 obv 19 5 

5. kurummatu, /^^^, meal, 4-2 1 46a (B 9930). [(B 9929). 

6. pussusu, • PAD (?) breaking^) BE 20^ No 244:a (M 7525)^ 

7. saltu, ? BE 201 Nq 245a (M 7526). 

KUR (5 16 17 c). 

UKZ 154 explained the sign as a compound of Nos 365 and 530. 10 
In form the sign is at first hardly distinguishable from No 340. It 
pictured, perhaps, the opening of the carcass of an animal dressed 
for food; cf. No 184, flesh. Such an origin would account for all the 
meanings. 

No 430 <W ■ -' . ^5 

1. imnu, right, ZA 4 433 (M 7532). 

2. hamisserit, fifteen, AL^ ZZ vi 20 (B 9938). 

3. ^^Istar, goddess Ishtar, 3 32 v 4I (B 9940). 

Composed of No 365, ten, and No 531, five — the whole being 
the sign ior fifteen. The other ideographic meanings, grew out of 20 
the numerical value. 

No 431 <^ 

1. iiAdad, MURU, god Adad, PSBA 11 174 ff. PI I 28 (M 7535). 

2. athu, MAN, brother, companion, 5 37 3ie (B 9952). 

3. atulimanu, ? CT 19 20 Rm 343 rev 9 (M 7534). 25 

4. esra, Nis, twenty, 5 3725e (B 9956). 

5. iiBel, BUZUR, god Bel, 2 S8 40b (B 9953). 

6. busru, ^XiZX^^, fortress, 5 3726e (B 99S4). 

7. dannu, strong, 1 21 69 (B 9955). 

8. kabtu, SUSANA, heavy, 5 37B7e (B 9957). 30 

9. kilallan, MAN, MIN, two, both, 5 37 29 e (B 9958). 

10. masu, MAN, twin, 5 37 32e (B 99S9). 

11. iiSamas, BUZUR, MAN, SUSANA, god Shamash, 5 3727eff. (B 9960). 

12. sanu, second, BD 296 (M 7536). 

13. sina, MAN, MIN, /ze/d?, 5 37 28e (B 9962). 35 

14. sina Bur eqli, two Bur of land, 5 37 24e. 

15. sarru, king, 1 17 19 (B 9961), 

16. sarratu, royalty, TN 33S a (M 7537). 

* It is very doubtful whether this meaning belongs to this sign. As published 
in CT 25 50, it is No 230. which is defined as Ishtar, 40 



Bi0t of 'il)to^ViXpi^$ 221 

17. sussan, SUSANA, a third, 5 37 see (B 9963). 

18. tappu, MAN, companion^ 5 37 30e (B 9964). 

The sign is clearly No 365, teUj doubled. This gave it the meaning 
twenty, which was the mystic number of the god Shamash. Owing 

5 to mixture of the attributes of the gods it came to stand for other 
gods also; then from their attributes, strong, king, etc. The idea of 
doubling inherent in the repetition of No 365 suggested two, second, 
twin, companion, etc. As twenty is one third of sixty, which plays 
such a part in the Babylonian sexagesimal system, it came to 

10 designate third. 

No 432 

1. ana, ES, unto, 5 37 58e (B 9998). 

2. assu, ES, because, 4^ 12 rev 27 (B 9999). 

3. e, ES, unto, 5 37 55e (B 9978). 
15 4. elium, ES, height ^^1 5 371a (B 9979). 

5. essu, ES, newi^) or because {i) 5 372 c (B 9980). 

6. ili, ES, upon, 5 3755e (B 9981). 

7. ina, ES, in, 5 37 57e (B loooo). 

8. -is (adverbial suffix), -ly, 4^ 1738a (B loooi). 
20 9. isastu, ES, trouble, sorrow {^) 5 3754e (B 9982). 

10. bantu, } BD .6611 losff. 115 122 (M 7542). 

11. zuzi, BA, half, 5 37 47 e (B 9996). 

12. hasalu(?) crush, beat out{^) 2 35 i7c (M 7543). 

13. kima, ES like, 5 3759e (B 9983). 
25 14. ma'duti, ES, much, 5 37 52e.(B 9984). 

15. mislu, BA, half, 5 37 44e (B 9985). 

16. muttatu, B A, front locki^) 5 37 46e (B 9986). 

17. pasasu(?) anoint, 2 35 i6c; cf KM Taf. XII 52 (M 7544), 
18.. i^ Sin, BA, SIN, god Sin, 5 3742, 43e (B 9988). 

30 19. sutu, BA, a small vessel, 5 3749 e (B 9989). 

20. salalti, ES, three, 5 37 51 e (B 9990). 

21. Ill Bur eqli, j Bur of land, 5 373b. 

22. sala^a, BA, USU, thirty, 5 3745 50e (B 999I). 

23. selasa, thirty, AL^ 88 vi 18 (B 9992). 
35 24. suma, BATU, he himself, 5 374a (B 9993). 
- 25. sumsu, ES, plunder (^) 5 37 53e (B 9994). 

26. sunu, ES, them, 5 37 56e (B 9995). 



ES (MSI 399). ESE (S^ V 18). BURES (5 37 3a). 

The sign is clearly a tripling of No 365. This denoted three of 
40 some things such as the Bur in land measure. Naturally it denoted 



222 (§axion, <g»a6^fonian (^titin^ 

thirty. As this was the half of sixty, it stood for half also. Half 
denoted the idea of diminishing, so the sign stood for plimdery crush, 
sorrow. As there were thirty days in the month it naturally stood 
for the god Sin. The pronominal and prepositional meanings attached 
themselves to the sign through syllabic equivalence. 5 



No 433 



<<< 



1. i^Antu, goddess Antu, 5 3923g (B 10019). 

2: arba, NIMIN, SA'NABi, forty , 5 377a ua (B 10020). 

3. i^Ea, EA, NIMIN, SANABI, god Ea, 5 379a 10a lla (B 10021). 

4. irba'a, ^m, forty, AL^ %'^ vi 17, CT 11 2434b (B \0022, M 7553). .10 

5. irbit, lAMMS3,four, 5 375a (B I0023). 

6. IV Bur eqli, four Bur of land, 5 376b. 

7. kissatu, NIMIN, multitude, totality, 5 378a (B 10024). 

8. \\tii\x, period, administratio7z year, DW I3712 (B 10025). 

9. sinipu, SANABI, two thirds, 5 ,37 12a (B I0026). 15 
10. sinipatu, SANABI, two thirds, 5 3713a (B 10027).. 

The sign is No 365 quadrupled to signify four Bur of land or 
forty units. All the meanings are derivable from this — the two 
deities, because forty was their mystic number; two thirds, because 
forty is two thirds of sixty, an important unit in the sexagesimal 20 
system, multitude and period, because forty was a number embracing 
many units. 

No 434 ^^1 

1. i^Ea, god Ea, 5 4448c (B I0038). 

2. enmastu, NINNU, god Enmashtu, 5 3718a (B I0036). ' ' \ 25 

3. iiellil, ILLIL, NINNU, god Ellil, 5 3721a (B 10037). 

4. hanisatu, /z/^, AV 5 16 (B I0040). 

5. hansa, NINNU, j^^, 5 3715a (B 10039). 

6. hansasis, KINGUSILLA, 7?^^ sixths, 5 3719a (B I0041). 

7. hassa, NINNU, j^^, CT 11 -2435b (M 7555). 30 

8. V Bur ^Q^\, five Bur of land, 5 3722b. 

9. kissatu, NINNU, multitude, totality, 5 37 i6a (B 10042). 

10. parap, KINGUSILLA, /^^ sixths, 5 3720a (B 10043). 

11. paras, KINGUSILLA, j^w sixths, 5 3720a (B 10043). 

The sign consists of No 365 written five times. The meanings 35 
were developed as in the preceding signs; the divine names, from 
the fact of their mystical number; the meaning multitude, h^c^MS^ 
the sign represented a considerable nuniber; and five sixths, because 
^^ fifty is five sixths (:ii sixty. 



^i^t of 3beo^ra))§0 • 223 

No 435 If 
1. VI Bur eqli, BURAS, si:ir Bur of land, 5 3723 a. 

The sign was formed by writing No 365 six times. 

No 436 fK 
5 1. VII Bur eqli, BUR-IMIN, seven Bur of landj 5 3724a. 
The sign was formed by writing No 365 seven times. 

No 437 tt 
1. VIII Bur eqli, BURUS, eight Bur of land, 5 3725a. 
The sign was formed by writing No 365 eight times. 

No 438 M.< 
1. IX Bur eqli, BUR-ILIM, 7iine Bur of land, 5 3726 a. 
The sign was formed by writing No 365 nine times. 

No 439 T 

1. ana, unto, 1 17 is ttc, (B I0066). 
15 2. iianu, god Anu, CT 25 Soe (B 10067). 

3. amelu, SANTAK, man, ZA 9 165 4 (M 7559). 

4. iiEa, god Ea, BA 5 6484 (M 7557, B 10068). 

5. ikkillu, SALUGUB, TAL, darkness, sadness, lamentation, RT 27 121 25. 

5 40i3g (M 7558, B 10069). 
20 6. isten, GE, one, 5 12 32e, CT 15 4312 14 (B 10070, M 7561). 

7. T£i2i^rvi^}j favorable, unfavorable, AL^ I3413 (B 10071). 

8. santakku, sacrifice, tribute, 5 1337c (M 7563). 

9. paraku(?) bolt, bar, RH 7614 (M 7564).. 

10. summa(?) if 42 341, ^ BD II5 n. r, KM 64 (M 7566). 
25 11. senu, sandal, HWB 634 (M 7565). 

12. sisitu, MAKAS, call, cry, RT 27 I2I 23 (M 7567), 

13. sar, 3600, BE 20^ No 20 passim (B 10072), 

14. sarru, Gl, king, 5 306a (B I0073). 

15. SUSSU, 60, 5 12 35e (B IOO75). 



30 ANA (ASKT 126 17). GIL (?) (ZA 1 189). GIS (?) (ZA 1 187). DIS (5 65 43b). 

EM 2 113 explained the sign as originating in a simple line.. 
The sign represents the coalescing of two simple signs which denoted 
numerals. These were a horizontal and a perpendicular stroke. When 
made comparatively small they denoted one, vj\i.^vi larger, they denoted 



224 Oration, ®a6gfontan (^vitin^ 

sixty. The stroke was also developed from 60 to j6oo. The gods 
Anu and Ea came to be denoted by the sign through the mystic 
use of numbers; king^ by syllabic spelling. It came to designate man 
because of its upright position; darkness^ favorable or unfavorablej 
perhaps, because of the influence of favorable or unfavorable numbers; 
tax or sacrificey because the value of these were estimated in numbers; 
and sandalj because in some of the early inscriptions the numeral 
is written so as to resemble a sandal. 



No 440 T^ 

1. i?adaru, a vessel^ AL^ 8435, RH 121 rev 3 (B 10083, M 7573). 10 

2. 'alu, spellj charniy 4^ 2818b (B I0086J. 

3. alalu, hang, CT 16 2972 (M 7574). 

4. amaru, see, CT 17 35 46 van (M 7575). 

5. ^?anantu, opposition^ war, misery, CT 18 3426b (M 757^)- 

6. aru, see, CT 17 35 46 (M 7571). 15 

7. ensu, weak, ASKT 5920 (B 10087). 

8. eselu, bind, 2 2741c (B I0089). 

9. esu sa . . ., trouble, of ,.., KSf 4702 (B I0088). 

10. idu, know, RH 69 rev 4 (M 7572). 

11. ubburu sa amati, hurt, offend, of words, 2 6244c (B 10II7). 20 

12. urruhu(?), way^) 5 3059a (M 7578). 

13. batalu, cease (evidence unpublished) (M 7579). 

14. i?dilutu, irrigating machine, 5 2658 c (M 7580). 

15. zananu, be full, 5 5239b (B IOI21). 

16. i?zirtu, a kind of couch, CT 16 45 116 (M 7581). 25 

17. hasabu, be full, 4^ 2212a (B 1009I). 

18. hatu, destroy, KG 2 3437 (M 7582), 

19. kalamu, see, CT 17 3822 (M 7583). 

20. kamu, bind, take captive, 5 39iae (B 10094). 

21. i?kamaru; net, 5 2656a (B 10093). 3° 

22. kanasu, bow down, submit, CY 17 2921 (M 7585), 

23. V.2i^ti, bind, 5 20i6a (B I0095). 

24. labasu(.?) clothe, 5 5l46b (M 7587). 

25. ma'u(.?^) be great, mighty, BD 20 12 and n 55 (M 7588). 

26. mahiasu, break, smash, CT 12 4225 a (M 7589). 35 

27. matu, LAL, become lower, Cf Str Nab 5984 with II98 & Cyr 1675 
2.8. malu, lal; be full, S^ iii 7 (B I0096). [(B 10097, M 7590). 

29. i?mirdetu, } 5 2655a (B 10099). 

30. (?)i:i?]massu } CT 19 4338b (M 7591). 

31. matu, .?^ 2 827 a (B 10.098). 40 

32. nadu, throw down, RH No 625 (M.7592). 



Miet of 3^eo0ra^§tf 225 

33. (?)t^?lnahbu, quiver, CT 19 1 K 4200 rev lo (M 7593). 

34. (?)[i?]nasbu, ? CT 19 1 K 4200 rev 11 (M 7594). 

35. nasu, df^ up, 5 ll48e (B loioi). 

36. sakaru, dam, bolt, CT 17 2646 (M 7S96). 
5 37. sanaqu, /r^i*^ down, 2 487c (B 10103). 

38. sanaqu sa iskari, press down, of fetters, 5 29720 (B I0104). 

39. saradu sa imeri, bind, hitch, of asses, CT 19 3238a (M 7597). 

40. saradu sa kibrati, bind, of the regions, 2 2455 a (B 10105). 

41. pasatu, blot out, destroy, WM 10 m 7 (M 7598). 
10 42. sabatu, seize, 2 6615 (B IOI06). 

43. sadu sa qisqiti, shine, be yellow, of some part of a ship, CT 19 32 31a 

44. samadu, harness, 4^ 1941b (B I0I07). [(M 7599). 

45. i^simidtu, coupling, rope, AV 7230 (B I0I08). 

46. qalalu(?) be small, light, RH 152 No 349 (M 7600). 

15 47. rakisu(?) bond, harness, Cf Assurn iii 43 with 57 and 59 (M 7602). 

48. ritgubu, ? ZA 7 2825a (M 7601). 

49. sakanu, set, place, PSBA 17 64 ff \\ 17 (M 7604). 

50. sapaku, LAL, heap up, pour out, S^ iii 9 (B I0II2). 

51. sapala, low, 2 3953f (B 10II3). 

20 52. saqu(?) be high, RH 121 26 (M 7621). 

53. saqalu, LAL, weigh, S^ iii lo (B lollo). 

54. suqalulu, suspended, hanging, CT 15 43 7 (M 7606). 

55. suqamumu, ? RH 4920 (M 7607). 

56. saru, ? 42 2648a 50a 52a, RH 10674; 10776 (B 10109, M 7603). 
25 57. sussu, 6o{>) 2 4S3ie (M 7608). 

58. site'u, (i. e. se'u), see, behold, 5 ^2^Q2i (B IOII4). 

59. i?tuqumtu, resistance, Cf. 1 giQ with 17 13 and 18 51 (M 7609). 

60. tuqqunu(?) security, JD 3 I43 and TN 336 (M 7610). 

61. tarasu, stretch, extend^ 4^ 2643a (B loilS). 
30 62. tirsu, stretching, extending, 3 2 6ia (M 7611). 

63. tursu, tarsu, direction, JD 3 108, TN 336 (M 7612). 



LA (LTP 181 n 1). 

EM 2 lis explained the sign as the picture of a balance; UKZ I90, 
as a combination of the motifs for perpendicular and horizontal; OC, 

35 as the representation of scales. Probably the original represented a 
large crane for the support of balances such as are still seen vd the 
East. All the meanings are suggested by the movements of the 
balances (as e. g. depress, be low from the downward tipping of the 
scale), the act or the result of weighing, or from the crane itself. 

40 The varied and persistent use of the ideogram vouches for its 
antiquity. 

Beitrage Ass.: Barton II. 1$ 



226 (Station, (gafigfontan (SOtiiin^ 

No440aT^n 

Composed of No 440 and No 443. Apparently it is a variant 
of 441 b. 

No 441 1^ 

1. eselu, dind, Surpu VII (I p. XV) 24 (M 7626, B 10 128). 5 

2. kussu, dind, tie^ 4^ 1923a (B I0129). 

3. ni'lu, (B 10127 ^^> fetter, CT 16 37 is (M 7627). 

4. samadu, harness, KM Taf. I 25 (M 7628). 

5. saqilu, weigh, NSf 6655 (B I0130).. 

6. suqalulu, LAL, hang, S^ iii 11 (B IOI32). 10 

7. sarahu, be powerful, strongs AV 8451 (B I0131). 

8. i^asmetu, kurmun, goddess Tashmit, 2 4839 a (B 101 33). 

UKZ 190 explained the sign as No 440 doubled. The sign was 
a variant picture of No 440. Here the crane was pictured by 
double lines. 15 

No 441 a if^^d 
1. settu, USAR, net, S^ iii 12 (B IOI39). 

The sign is clearly a compound of Nos 44I and 170 a. 

No 441 b if^n 
1. nagu, NANGA, district, region, S^ iii I4 (B IOI43). 20 

The sign is clearly a compound of Nos 44I and 443. 

No 442 T^ 

1. ^^Anunnaki, the spirits of the deep waters, 4^ 3346b (B IOI49). 

2. ^^Igigi, the spirits of heaven, 4^ 6032a (M 7634). 

3. ^^^^^Nagiru, steward, overseer, 2 3I40C (M ^6'^6). 25 

4. ner, NER, 600, CT 12 42 K 119265, 5 1823a (B I0I48, M 7635). 

The sign was composed of No 439, 60, into which one of the 
forms of No 365, 10 was inserted. This gave the meaning 600. The 
meaning overseer probably came from the oversight of a large 
number of men, and the other meanings from the mystic use ' of 30 
numbers to denote supernatural beings. 

No 443 n 

1. aibu, enemy, KC 2 LXII 7 (M 7638). 

2. ana, RIM, Ri, to, ASKT p 197 No 3 (B 10169). 

3. araku, GID, be long, 3 61 No 230; DW 121 n 6 (B I0I70). 35 



Bi0t of 'il>to^vap^0 227 

4. i?ahaztu(?) means, 2 4431a = 5 2612a (B 10171). 

5. i?atartu(?) abundance, remainder ^ 5 2612 a (M 7649)* 

6. edelu, hab, ^.^r, ^^/^ CT 12 25 43 b (M 7640)/ 

7. epu, cook, bake, (80^11-12 9 i*) (B I0178). 
5 8. epequ, ? CT 12 2560a (M 7646). 

9. igru(?) HAB, wages, CT 12 2539b (M 7637). . 

10. inbu, GURUN,.yr^//, (80-11-12 9 i*) (B 10179). 

11. isbu, LUGUD, ? CT 12 2546a (M 7643). 

12. i?itesir, } 2 47 63e (B 10180). 

10 13. uddatu, country, dwelling-place, CT 12 2522a (M 7639)- 

14. ukkulu(?) HAB,>^^(?) CT 12 2S43b (M 7641). 

15. upqu(?) ? CT 12 25 65a (M 7647). 

16. usultu, LAGAB, vessel, 2 48366 (B 10204). 

17. ba'lu, be great, 2 449c (B 10172). 

15 18. bi'su, HAB; stinking, evil odor, 2 2754a (B I0173). 

19. bu'sanu, HAB, have a bad smell, 2 2756a (B 10174). 

20. bibbu(?) HAB, a lamb, a planet, CT 12 2539b (M 7653). 

21. balalu(?) ^KS>, pour out, moisten, CT 12 2562a (M 7654). 

22. balasu, HAB, ? CT 12 2542b (M 7655). 

20 23. bamatu, LUGUD, swelling, high place, CY 12 2547a (M 7656). ^ 

24. i^buqlu, vegetables, 5 2610a (B I0176). 

25. baru, be full, (80-II-12 9 i*) (B 10175). 

26. batu(?) LUGUD, build, found, CT 12 2545a (M 7658). 

27. q^^gikillu(?) a kind of plant, MSW 3 K 16512 (M 7659). 
25 28. girimmu(?) GIRIM, wo^nblj) CT 12 2529a (M 7660). 

29. garam**, GIR, kir, run, MSW 2534b (M 7661). 

30. gararu sa ameli, GUR, run, of men, 2 2712a (B 10177), 

31. di'utu(?) nAB, presently) CT 12 2536b (M 7663). 

32. hisu(?) ?. CT 12 25 56a (M 7664). 

30 33. happu, HAB, ? CT 12 2540b (M 7665). 

34. hiirsu, ? CT 12 2561a (M 7666), 

35. hiararu sa ameli, KURU, dig, of men, MSW 18 S 187 (M 7667), 

36. hatu, HAB, destroy, CT 12 25 40b (M 76^%), - 

37. kubbubu, ? 2 44 lie (B loi 87). 

35 38. kabaru, GUR, be long, great, 2 1650a (M 7670, B IOI81). 

39. kabbaru, very great, 4-2 919a (B 102II). , " 

40. kabatu, ELLAG, be heavy, CT 12 2548a (B I0184, M 7671). 

41. kabtu, GUR, heavy, weight, CT 19 27 K 203719b (B I0183, ^ 7^7'^)' 

42. kubbutu, /^//;^^^j-, mass, CT 12 2561a, 2 3950e (M 767 1, B loi 88). 
40 43. i?kuddu, GISKURU, ? 2 4432g (B I0189). ■ 



* This text is inaccessible to me. 
** This is the reading of M, but the texts have nag arm, runnings or course. 

15* 



228 O^axtoMt (0a6gfontan (^xiiin^ 

44. kakasiga, SI.,.., t CT 12 25 20a (M 7673). - 

45. ^§kiskibirru, KURU, ? 5 2615a (B I0186). 

46. kuru, KUR, troud/e{?) 5 2613a, CT 12 25 isa (B IOI90, M 7669)./ 

47. kuru, GUD, affliction^) 5 2974g (B 10192). 

48. kuru, LUGUD, .? CT 12 25 44a (M 767s). 5 

49. kurru, trouble^) (80-II-I2 9 i*) (B 10I9I), 

50. kirinnu sa pahari, GIRIN, a heap, of a collection^ CT 12 25 26 a (M 76^6), 

51. katu, weak, frail, (8o-n-12 9 i*) (B 10185). 

52. kutultu, } CT 12 25 62a (M 7677).. 

53. ^^mekku, enclosure, fence, 5 26 11 a. (B IOI93). . 10 

54. milu, ///, 'CT 12. 25 55a (M 7679). 

55. mitlu(?) filled, CT 12 2555a (M 76S0). 

56. nagarruru, running, 2 27 isa (B 10212). 

57. nudu, ? (80-11-12 9 i*) (B 1.0196). . 

58. napharu, sum, total, CT 12 2541a (M 7682). 15 

59. naqaru, tear down, (80-11-12,9 i*) (B 10I94).. 

60. nasaru , reduce, skbrfen, .(80-II-I2 9 i*) (B IOI95). 

61. saharu, turn, RH 8227 (M 7684). 

62. sipu sa issuri, >, of birds, CT 12 25 21a (M 7685). 

63. ^an^supalu, some kind of a plant, CT 14 46 K 41843 (M 76%6), 20 

64. saru(?) a ring, CT 12 25 42 a (M 7683). 

65. pagalu, } (80-11-12 9 i*) (B 10197). 

66. pidu, ranspm money, CT 12 25 eoa (M 7&^7\ 

67. paharu, assemble, 2 3949e (B 10198). 

6S, puhhuru, assembly, total, 2 3949e (B IOI99). 25 

69. paqalu, be strong, CT 12 2559a (M 7690). 

70. puqlu, strength, CT 12 25 i9a (M 7691). 

71. puqqulu, might, CT 12 2559a (M 7690). 

72. paqaru(.?) dispute, lay claim to, CT 12 259a (M 7692). 

73. pitnu, table, horizon, CT 12 2557a (M 7693). 30 

74. putturu, ? CT 12 25 58a (M 7694). 

75. sinu, HAB, load^) CT 12 25.39b (M 7695). 

76. qarasu sa titi, GI . , . ., cut, of clay, CT 12 25 23a (M 7696). 

77. qirsu sa pahari, girin, division, of a total, CT 12 25 25a (M 7697). 
7%. Tsbu, great, 2.443c, RH 452325 (B 10200, M 7698). 3s 

79. rabasu(?) lie down, CJ 12 2563a (M 7699). 

80. rabbutu, might, majesty, 4^ 135b (B I0201). 

81. raggu(?) evil, wicked, KC 2 Ixii 5 (M 7700). 

82. rakasu, KUR, bind, 2 48 29g (B 10202). 

83. sibru, broken, (80-II-I2 9 J*) (B 10203). . 40 

84. h\\Ar\M, fracture, CT 12 2558a (M 770I). 



* This text is inaccessible to me. 



Mi&t of 'i^to^ta,p^0 229 

85. saru, ^eg-in, open, CT 12 25 7a (M 7702). 
Z6, turu, HAB, ? CT 12 2541b (M Jjoy), 

GIL (MS2 47). , GIRIM (80-11-1291*). KIL (MS^ llo). 

KIR (MS2 123, S^ iii 36). - LAG (ZK 2 SP n i}. lagab (S^ m. 38). 

5 RIM (S^ iii 37). SULAG(?) (80-11-12 9 i*). 

UKZ 60, 92, etc. explains the sign as a motif for periphery, en- 
closure, etc. The original was an outline representing an enclosure. 
This suggested enclosing, assembling, etc. from which all the meanings 
are obviously derived. Thus lie down was easily suggested because 
10 sheep lie down in an enclosure. Enclosure easily suggested total, 
thiS; mass, heap, and out of heap the ideas of evil, oppress would 
grow because of the fact that conquests were accompanied by the 
reduction of buildings to heaps of ruins. In similar ways all the 
meanings are obviously accounted for. 

15 No 444 ^ 

1. apsu, ENGUR, TU, the abyss, CT 12 2618b (M 7733, B 10220). 

2. engurru, ENGUR, the deep, CT 12 2619b (M 7732). 

3. naru, i, river, CT 12 2615b (M 7734). 

4. iiNaru(?y I, ID, NAMMU, the river god, CT 12 1517 20b (M 7735).' 
20 5. sulu, I, ? CT 12 2616b (M yn^)' 

6. samu, GILUGU (?) zikum, heaven, CT12 26 21b; 2 50 27c(M7737,B I022I). 

TU (80-11-12 9 rev iii 18*). TUR (80-11 -12 9 rev iii 18*). 

UKZ ^6 ff. explains the sign as a compound of two motifs, one 

identical with No 443 above, and the other, with No 2. The sign is 

25 clearly a compound of No 443, an enclosure, and No 13, a star, 

representing a deity. This stood for deep, then, river, and, on account 

of the supposed super-celestial ocean, heaven. 

No 445 ^ 
1. i?narkabtu, GlNAR, chariot, CT 12 2518b (M 7743, B 10225). 

30 The sign is descended from a conventionalized representation of 

a chariot or some part of it. Possibly it may have beeji the dash- 
board of a chariot such as is pictured in HeuZEY and Thureau- 
Dangin's Stele des vautours, pp. 17, 18. It is more probable, however, 
that originally it represented a chariot containing a standing figure, 

35 such as is pictured in SCWA No 128. The figure of the rider has 
been shortened, the dash-board and tail board heightened and joined 
at the top, and the wheels omitted. 

* This text is inaccessible to me. ^ 



23Q (§Ation, (ga6gfontan (H)riitn5 

' No 446 B2I 

1. anpatui??"^^ NINMUS, ostrtcA, CT 12 268a (M 7740). 

2. rubsu, BARUN, (or MARUM), resting-place, CT 12 2616a (M 774I). 

In the absence of early forms the origin cannot be known. The 
obvious suggestion from the late form, viz: — that it is. a compound 5 
of Nos 443 and 64, affords no clue to the meanings and is probably 
incorrect. 

No 446a ^ 

1. ullu(?) TUL(?) that, yonder, CT 12 2631b (M 7745). 

2. huballu, TUL(?) interest, CT 12 2632b (M 7746). 10 

3. huppu, TUL(?) ? CT 12 2628 & 30b (M 7747). 

4. hastu, TUL(r) a vessel; CT 12 2633b (M 7748). 

5. lahtu, TUL(?) > CT 12 2629b (M 7749). 

6. muspalu, TUL(f) part of a city, CT 12 2627b (M 7750). 

7. nahallu, TUL(?) ? CT 12 2626b (M 7751). 15 

8. suttatu, TUL, hole, trap, pit, CT 12 2634b (M 7752). 

The late form suggests that the sign is a compound of Nos 443 
and 71, but, without earlier forms, this cannot be proved. The origin 
of No 71 is involved in too much doubt to help us in testing by 
the meanings the theory suggested by the form, 20 

No 447 ^ 

1. asu, setu(?)KUNlN,^^ out, withdraw, CT1226 24b (B 10 230, M 7753). 

2. ittu, SIR, naphtha, asphalt, CT 12 2623b (B 10231). 

3. kuninnu sa qane, KUNIN, a thicket, of reeds, CT 12 2623b (B I0232). 

_ 4. kupru, KUNIN, bitumen, CT 12 2623b (B 10233). 25 

UKZ 112 explains the sign as No 160, a spring, plus an arrow, 
to open, signifying a spring which shoots forth in an enclosure. In 
the absence of early forms the origin cannot be known. 

No 448 '^ 

1. zarru, ZAR, bright, CT 12 2640b (B 10238). 30 

2. sararu, SUR, light up, shine, CT 12 2642b (M 7755). 

3. sarru, ZAR, bright, CT 12 2641b (M 7756). 

4. i^Samas, the sun, 2 444a (B 10237). 

SISI (CT 12 2643b). SERIN (?) (CT 12 2644b). SERINSUR(?) (CT12 26 45b). 

MSL 363 explains the sign as an enclosure plus the 'give sign. 35 
The sign is clearly compounded of Nos 443, enclosure and No 175, 



Bi&i of "iUoc^xap^e 23 1 

which pictured two heads of grain. Wheat stored up suggested 
happiness y brightness and then the sun. 

No 449 '1^^ 

1. ansu, GAIU, weak, CT 12 2614a (M 7760). 
5 2. u'a, woe, 42 l*3ib; RH 856 (B 10251, M 7758). 

3. udru, troop, herd, DW I9S I96 (B 10252). 

4. kabu, SURIM, stall^) CT 12 2618a (M 7761). 

5. lahru, U . . ., mother-sheep, ewe, CT 12 2621a (M 7762). 

6. ^^Malkatu sa kune, goddess Malkatti, of Kune, 2 57i4a (B I0246). 
10 7. piqannu, SURIM, a cattle-stable^) 2 38 28g; CT 12 2618a (B I0249, 

8. senu(.?) sheep, CT 12 2623a (M 7764). [M 7763). 

9. qabu, BARUN, stable, (80-II-I2 9 iv 15*) (B I0248). 

10. rubsu, SURIM, /^/^, CT 12 2618a (M 7765). 

11. tarbasu, SURIM, /d?/^, CT 12 2620a (M 7766), 

15 UKZ 50 quotes and concurs in an explanation offered by 

George Smith, viz: — that the sign is compounded of No 443 and 
No 259 doubled. The sign is clearly a compound of No 443 and of 
339, an animal's ears. This accounts for all the meanings except woe 
which was attached to the sign through syllabic spelling. 

20 No 450 I^gT 

1. Pi , U . . . LAL, } CT 12 2646b (M 7771). 

The late form suggests that the sign is a compound of Nos 443 
and 185, but in the absence of both early forms and ideographic 
meanings this is uncertain. 

25 No 451 JS 

1. qa^kuninu sa qane, thicket, of reeds, CT 11 47 19b (M 7772). 
The meaning indicates that the sign is a variant of No 447, 

No 452 I^gT 

1 , . . DU, ? CT 11 28 K 8503 rev 4 (M 7773). 

30 The origin is unknown. Possibly a variant of No 450. 

No 453 ^ 

1. immirtu, GANAM, pregnant ewe, (80-II-I2 9 iv I3*), CT 12 2617a 

2. kabu, BARUN or MARUN, } CT 12 26 17a (M 7774). [(B I0257, M 7759). 

The sign is a variant of No 449. 



35 * This text is inaccessible to me. 



232 (§avic% (g>a6gfoniatt (SOvHin^ 

No 454 l^ffFT 

1. hnddvLru,VGRA,V^SERA, a load of reeds, CT12265a6a (B lo 260, M 777 5). 

2. kutullu, UGRA, USERA, a load of reeds i^) CT 12 265a 6a (B 10261, 

^ . M 7775). 

The sign is a variant of No 456* 



No 455 



1. kalakka§u(?) gasal(?) ? CT 12 25 sob (M 7776). . . . 

Perhaps the sign is a compound of Nos 443 and 260, but our 
data are insufficient to prove it 

No 456 "^M 10 

1. ugaru, AGAR, meadow, CT 12 2636b (M 7777). 

Possibly a compound of Nos 443 and 292, but, if so, the chain 
of ideas which led to the ideographic meaning is not clear. 

No 457 ^ 

1. alapu, UMUNA, ox-yardy 2 2758 a (B I0263). 15 

The meaning shows that the sign is, like No 453, a variant of 
No 449. 



No 458 1^>^WT . • 

1. hammu, UMUN, a ruler, CT 12 2614b (M 777^, 

The late form suggests that the sign is a compound of Nos 443 20 
and 355, but the meaning does not confirm this view. The origin 
is, therefore, unknown. 

No 459' l^SJ 

1. iltibu, ELLAMSU, hoi, greedy, CT 12 261a (M 7779). 

2. tinuru(?) TINUR, oven, CT 12 2650b (M 7780). 25 

KILINA (CT 12 2649b). NINDA (CT 12 2647b). . , . 

The sign is composed of No 443 and 358, an enclosure with a 
draught of air in it. That suggested oven, and then, hot 

No 460 ^ 

1. asurru(?) PU, wall, court, CT 12 2522b (M 7785). 30 

2. issu, TUL, PU(?) ? JRAS 1894 830 2; cf CT 12. 25 27b (M 7784). 

3. uppu, UB, enclosure, JRAS 1894 830 13 (M 7786). 

4. b<iru, well, 42 2633b; CT 16 ll65 (B 10267, M 7787), 



^i0i of 3^eo5rd|?§0 233 

5. burtu, PU, TUL, we//, cistern, CT 12 25 21b (M 7788). 

6. hubbu, ? AV 3389 (B 10269). 

7. habbilu, UB, ? JRAS 1894 830 is var (M 7789). 

8. huballu, UB, ? JRAS 1894 830 15 (M 7790). 
5 9. happu, UB, ? JRAS 1894 18 (M 7791). 

10. huppu, UB, ? CT 12 25 33b (M 7792). 

11. hiritu, TUL, ditch, cana/, JRAS 1894 830 7 (M 7793). 

12. kalakku, TUL, ko/e, depression, 'jRKS 1894 830 s (M 7794). 

13. kalakkasu(.?) gasal(?) ? CT 12 25 49b (M 7795). 
10 14. mihsu, TUL, wound, JRAS 1894 830 3 (M 7796). 

15. narkabtu, GINAR, chariot, CT 12 2520b (M 7798). 

16. pu sa mati, PU, mouth, of the /and^ CT 12 2525b (M 7799). 

17. sippatu, PU, orchard, trees, CT 12 2524b (M 780I). 

18. suplu(?) PU, TUL, UB, deep, depth, CT 12 2523b (M 7803). 
15 19. suppulu(?) PU, deep, depth, CT 12 2528b (M 7802). 

20. sitnu(.?) TUL, ? JRAS 1894 830 e (M 7805). 

21. sitpu, PU, enc/osure, CT 12 25 21b (M 7806). 

22. suttatu, UB, ho/e, pit, JRAS 1894 Z^o 17 (M 7^07). 

23. tamtu, TUL, UB, sea, CT 12 25 33b (M 7810). 
20 24. tultu, TUL, worm, JRAS 1894 830 5 (M 781 1). 

UKZ 54 and ML 23, also OC have explained the sign as the 

picture of a well or cistern. The original picture was clearly the 

representation of a well or cistern. All the meanings which are 

translatable, except chariot, were clearly suggested by such a picture, 

25 and that came in through mixture with No 445. 



No 461 



1. agammu, umah(?) a swamp, CT 12 269b (M 7822). 

2. hammu, UMUN, a water p/a7tt, 2 2757a, CT 12 2611b (B \02jj). 

3. hammu sa me, UMUN, a p/ant, of water, CT 12 2610b (B I0278). 
30 4. mihsu, UMAH(?) pouring, washing, CT 12 269 b (B I0279). 

5. mihsu sa me, UMAH(.?) UMUN, pourings of water, CT 12 2610 b 

6. panu, UMUN, /^(T^, CT 12 2612b (B 10281). [(B 10280, M 7823). 

7. qinnu sa issuri, ABLAL, nest of a bird, 5 42 63 a (B 10282). 

MSL 348 explained the sign as an enc/osure and intensified water. 

35 The sign is either a mixture of Nos 460 and 467, or a compound of 
No 460 and No 52 1. Either of these origins would afford all the 
meanings except face, bird's nest being suggested by the idea of 
enclosure and the seed of life which No 52I embodied. Face, as 
Prince suggests, was connected with the sign by mixture with 

40 UMUN, /ord. 



234 (§Mton, (gafigfotttan (^tiiin^ 



No 462 



1. ik(?) . . ., GARIN, ? CT 12 2639b (M 7824). 

2. ta , DAGRIN, ? CT 12 2640b (M 7825). 

We have not the data for determining the origin, but the rela- 
tionship ofNos 519 and 52I below, suggests the probability that this 5 
sign is a variant of 461. 

No 463 ^ 

1. annanna, NENNI, kostile{}) ZA 9 163 iv 12 (M 7829). 

2. essepu, NINNA, a bird living in ruins, (80-II-I2, 9r iv7*) (B 10287). 

3. ittu(?) omen^) lamentation, CT 19 28 K 48489b (M 7827). 10 

4. nasu, quake, tremble, CT 17 2519, RH 10412 (B I0288, M 7828). 

5. radu, thunderstorm, CT 19 15 K S448 A 4 (M 7831). 

6. sarbatu, blow^}^ RH 738 (M 7832). 

7. suttatu(?) a dream, RH 73840 (M 7833). 

MSL 261 explains the sign as a late Semitic adaptation of 15 
Nos 432 = ES and No 460 -= pu. The variety in the ideographic 
meanings renders improbable the late origin suggested by PRINCE. 
Possibly the sign is a compound of Nos 460 and 432, but it is not 
certain. 

No 464 tH 20 

1. buginnu sa akali, BUGIN, receptacle, for food, CT 12 267b (M 7834). 

2. buginnu sa me, BUGIN, receptacle, for water, (80-II-I2 9 r 7*) 

3. sussulu, lake, pond, CT 12 268b (B 10291). [(B 10290). 

MSL 61 explained the sign as No 478, a male in an enclosure. 
Originally the sign represented a mouth and tongue. No 478 was 25 
the picture of a tongue, and the mouth became identical in form 
with No 443, an enclosure. A mouth is a natural receptacle for food 
and drink. By an extension of the latter meaning it came to 
designate pond. 

No 465 t^^ZJ ■ 30 

1. iltibu sa , ELLAMSU, greedy, hungry of,...,CT\226B2i (M 7835). 

2. sirtu, . LUB, exalted, CT 12 2622b (M 7836). 

The form is a variant of No 449; the meanings show mixture 
with No 459. 



* This text is inaccessible to me. 35 



Bizi of 'ibt^^xci^1^& 235 

No 466 ^ 

1. ambu, SU, SUS, SUTA, name of a plant, CT 12 26 12a (B 10295, M 7837). 

2. zirqu, SU, SUS, SUTA, sprinkling, 2 4813 a, CT 12 2613 a (B 10 296, 

3. zirqatu, su, sprinkling, 5 29i5g (B 10297). [M 7838). 

5 Res. Nos 528 and 257 explains the sign as a compound of 

No 443, an enclosure and No 490, the crescent moon. The meaning 
sprinklhtg as well as the early form indicates that the sign is a 
variant of No 460. The different writing of the central portion was, 
perhaps, influenced by No 490. 

No 467 ® 

1. ambar, ambar, swamp, CT 12 25 55b (M 7842). 

2. apsu, SUG, deep, CT 12 25 59b (M 7843). 

3. apparu, AMBAR, SUG, swamp, marsh, CT 12 25 55b (B 10303, M 7844). 

4. aste, ASTE, canal, water-course, CT 12 263b; ^11 45 22b (M 7846). 
15 5. iltibu sa immeri, ELLAMSU, hunger, of lambs, CT 2 264a (M 7840). 

6. urutu(?) ? CT 12 261b (M 7845). 

7. qa^buninu, BUNIN, gutter, marsh, CT 14 47 i7b (M 7847). 

8. qa^buninnu sa me, gutter for water, CT 12 264b (B 10 304). 

9. kuninu sa , thicket, of , CT 11 47 17b (M 7849). 

20 10. meristu, a watered piece of land, a plantation, RH 78 35 (M 7850). 

11. pattu, BUNIN, a reed thicket (80-II-12 9 r iii S*) (B 10305). 

12. sukku, SUG, a dam, dyke, 2 33 64a (B 10306). 

13. sukkallu, a messenger^ AV 8438 (B I0307). 

14. seru, SUG, a field, AL^ 82 \\\ 30, CT 12 25 58b (B I0308, M 7852). 
25 15. suzu, marsh, 4^ 2647a (B 10310). 

16. susu, marsh, 4^ 1949b, RH 10776 (B 10309, M 7853). 

MSL 62 explains the sign as compounded of water in an enclo- 
sure, i. e. a compound of Nos 443 and 5 21.. Prince has correctly- 
explained the origin of the sign. All the meanings are directly 
30 suggested by its original elements, except two. Hunger was attached 
to the sign because of confusing it with No 459, while messenger 
came in through the use of our sign as a syllable, suk, in spelling 
sukkallu> 

"no 468 ^^^ 

35 1 ; inda, }■ CT 12 2648b (M 7864), 

Possibly the sign is a compound of Nos 467 and 12, but the 
data for the determination of the point are not yet known. 

* This text is inaccessible to me. 



236 (§ixxt9% Qg>a6gfpntcin (JOttttn^ 

No 469 fT?^^<Cr?T 

1. , . . . . E, CT 12 44 K 136S34. (M 7865). 

The late form seems to be a compound of Nos 467, 521, 294, 
365, and 521, but full proof of it has not yet been found and the 
origin may have been quite otherwise. 5 

No 470 fy^^yr^T 

1. (?)si(?) , EDAKUA, ? CT 12 2638 b (M 7S66). 

Possibly compounded of Nos 467, 294, and 530, but this is very 
uncertain. 

No 471 ^H ,. 10 

1. qiburru sa issuri, KINBUR, dird's nest, CT 12 2610 a (M 7867). 

2. qinburu sa issuri, KINBUR, dird's nest, 2 2760a (B 103I9). 

3. qinnu sa issuri, ABLAL, bird's nest, 2 2759a (B I0318, M-J^GS),, 

4. takkabu, attack^) overpower ij) 2 336a (B I0320). 

5. takkapu, attack}^) overpower]^) CT 19 316a (M 7869). 15 

MSL 15 explained the sign as, a compound of Nos 467 and 440, 
meaning a full whole or a full house. The sign may be regarded 
as a compound of Nos 467 and 440, or of 443, 521, and 440. Probably 
the element introduced into the compound by No 440 was not the 
idea of filling, but the idea suggested by a crane or branch of a 20 
tree. The meaning then would be an enclosure in which was the 
seed of life suspended from a branch — a graphic expression for a 
bird's nest. 

- No 472 fwW 

1 , AGAR, } CT 12 2637b (M 7870). . 25 

Possibly a variant of No 470. 

No 473 ISST 

1. iltibu sa , ELLAMSU, greediness, of , CT 12 262a (M 7871). 

2. seru, m^, flesh, AV 8314 (B 10323). 

MSL 258 has correctly explained the sign as a compound of 30 
Nos 443 and 525|, an enclosure and a fish. The meanings greediness 
and flesh suggest that the inventors of Babylonian writing were 
eaters of fish before they were eaters of meat. 



Bi&i of 'il>to^tAp^0 237 

No 474 ^J 

1. zirqatU; SU, sprinkling, 5 29i7g (B I0326). 

The sign is a variant of No 466, or rather like No 466 a variant 
of No 460. 

5 No 475 £3^ 

1. ildanu(?) NIGIN, double^) CT 12 2514b (M 7873). 

2. i^Istar, ISHARA NIGGINAKKU, goddess Ishtar.y CT 24 18 20979b 

3. iltanammuC?) NIGIN, enclosure, CT 12 25 iib (M 7885). [(M 7875). 

4. bubutu, hunger, HWB 166 (M 7877). 

10 5. burru, NIGIN, part of a ship, CT 12 25 i7b (M ^'^^% 

6. gararu sa. . ., NIGIN, run, of. ., CT 12 25 9b i5b (M 7879). 

7. zalaku(?) sa abni, }, of stones, CT 12 2515b (M 7880). 

8. hurru(?) sa nari, ?, of rivers, CT 12 2512b (M 7881). 

9. kakkabu, KILI, star, 5 30i5e (B I0332). 

15 10. kalu, NIGIN, totality, CT 12 25 isb (M 7882). 

11. kissatu(?) totality, 2 48246 (B 10333). 

12. lamu, NIGIN, surround, AV 6194, CT 12 25 ub (B 10334, M 7885). 

13. napharu, NIGIN, sum, 5 5025a, 4^ 944a (B 10335, M 7SS6). 

14. naptaru sa biti, NIGIN, .?, of a house, CT 12 25 13b (M 7S87), 
20 15. saharu, NIGIN, sm^round, 5 2532c (B I0339). 

16. sekepu, NiGiN, overthrow, CT 12 25 leb (M 7889). 

17. sekeru sa me, NiGiN, dam up^ of water, CT 12 25 leb (M 7890). 

18. samakuP) sa epiri, }, of dust' CI 18 375b (M 7891). 

19. ^amsupalu, name of a plant, CT 14 46 K 4184 rev 3 (M 7892). 
25 20. paharu, NIGIN, assemble, AV 2285 (B 10336). 

21. paharu sa alaki, NIGIN, assemble, of messengers, 2 3464f (B I0337). 

22. puhhuru, NIGIN, totality, CT 12 258b (M 7894). 

23. pasiru, NIGIN, } 2 32i5g (B I0338). [M 7895). 

24. sadu, NIGIN, shine, be brilliant, 4^ 2722b, CT 19 267b (B 10 342, 
30 25. sadu sa lame, be bright, of surroundings, 2 2450a (B 10343). 

26. saharu, be small, 5 2532c (B 10340). 

27. sihliirtu, smallness, 2 21 le-isc (B I034I). 



35 



NINNI (CT 12 25 3b). 

UKZ 44 has correctly explained the sign as No 443 doubled. 

No 476 J<<<^^ 

1. essebui??"^^, a kind of bird, 2 3713b (B I0349). 

2. nasu, shake, CT 17 2717 (M 790I). 



238 (gattofit ®a6gfcnian (JDrth'n^ 

3, niqqu, pari of a fig tree, KSf 6304 (M 7902). 

4. tumagu, ? AV 6304 (M 7902). 

The sign is clearly composed by doubling No 463. 



No 477 tX 



1. inbu, GURUN, /;»^^^V, CT 12 2553b (M 7904). 5 

The sign is No 443 quadrupled. The idea of quadrupling the 
sign in this way was suggested by the approximation to this form 
of Nos 265 and 266, which also meant fruit 

No 478 \- 

1. ai'is, wken(J) RH 110 34ff. (M 7905), 10 

2. ali, ISIB(?) where, AL^ 7811 (B 10357). 

3. anaku, MEN, I, AL^ 7910 (B I0358). 

4. ardu, slave, CT 19 1850a (M 7906). 

5. asibu, ISIB, enchantment, AL^ 78 No 42 (B I0359). 

6. saiasiptu(.?^) ISIB, incantation, TM 2 1844 (M 7908). 15 

7. atta, ME, tkou,,% 25 24c (B 10360). 

8. ekiam, ME(?) whither, AL^ 7911 (B I0363). 

9. ellu, ISIB, shining, pure, AL^ jZ No 4 3 (B I0364). 

10. iau, ME, who, which, AL^ 7912 (B 10367). 

11. ia'nu, ME, where, 5 403 a (B 10366). 20 

12. ianu, ME, is not, KU 7912 (B 10365). 

13. isibbu, ISIB, enchanter, AL^ 78 No 4 1 (B I0368). 

14. ussubu sa asipi, SIB, enchanter, of a priest, AL^ 78 No 4 8 (B I0381), 

15. basu, ME, be, ASKT I21 29 (B 10 361). 

16. diitu, } AV 7127 (B 10362). 25 

17. ^^Gula, goddess Gula, 5 4410 c (B 10449, M 7952). 

18. zikaru, man, 2 7 10 (B 10382). 

19. ma'dutu, MES, mass, multitude, NU 7913 (B 10371). 

20. me, one hundred, 5 6458b (B 10372). 

21. -ni, tis, ASKT 5805 (B 10373). 30 

22. parsu, ME, command, edict, S^ iii 4 (B 10 374). 

23. pasisu, ISIB, a class of priests, KU "jZ No 46 (B I0375). 

24. qibu, speak, RH 65 r 4 (M 7910). 

25. qalu, ME, call,.'S^ m 3 (B 10 369). 

26. qulu, ME, voice, S^ m 2 (B.I0370). . / 35 



BxBt of "i^tO^XA^^^ 239 

27. ramku, ISIB, priest, a cleansed one^ S^ Hi 5 (B 10 376). 

28. sakume nalbasu, ME, clothed with intelligence, AL^ y% No 49 

29. samu, heaven, 2 5019c (B I0378). [(B I0377). 

30. siptu, ISIB, incantation, AL^ ^Z No 4 5 (B 10379). 
5 31. sasu, speak, RH 3928 (M 791 1). 

32. sarru(?) sa . . ., king {of, . .) AV 830I (B 10451). 

33. tahazu, battle, BBR 27 r e (M 79I2). 

34. tirtu, command, law, 2 6216a (B I0380). 

Sayce, Lect, on Assyrian Gramm^ar p. 53; explained the sign as 
10 originating in a picture of the tongue; UKZ 161 ff., as a motif for 
man; OC, and LBA 3II, as a" tongue. The original picture was 
probably a tongue; (compare the Egyptian picture of the tongue, 
MHP 1 161, 2 161). This naturally stood for speak, voice, etc.; then, 
for incantation, enchantment', then, for the priests who performed 
15 these. The pronominal meanings were attached to the sign, as was 
the meaning ioo on account of syllabic spellings. For the psycho- 
logical connection of other meanings, see MSL 194. 

No 479 T^»»- 

1. ma*du, much, many, TA 27212 (M 7960). 

20 2. ma*dutu, MES, mass, multitude, S^ m 6 (B I0469). 

3. -a, -e, -u, -an, -ani, -en, -utu, -atu, (pi. suffix) 4^ 5* 68b (B I0470). 

^ 4. sunu, they, them, 4^ 2 30b (B I0471). 

UKZ 123, 162 explained the sign as a compound of Nos 478 and 

432. In its later form the sign is compounded as Delitzsch ex- 

25 plained. In early times it was simply No 478, but between the 

dynasty of Ur and the time of Hammurapi No 432 was added as a 

phonetic' complement, and the two afterward coalesced. 

No 480 ^ 

1. i^Anu, URAS, god Anu, 2 5435e (B 10480). 
30 2. akmu, URAS, storm-cloud, thunder-storm, AL^ 773 (B I0481). 

3. i^Enmastu, URAS, god Enmashtu, 3 67 64 c (B 10 47 9). 

4. iilbba, god Ibba, BE 14 No 41.2 (M 7963). 

5. ishu, DARU, swarm of fish, 2 48386 (B I0483). 

6. iiUras(?) god Urash, TN 288b (M 7961). 
35 7. baru, URAS, seer, 2 6236a (B 10482). 

8. ligittu, URAS, gatheringi^) AL^ 774 (B 10484). 

9. nibittu, DARA, URAS, some kind of band, S^ iv 20 (B I0485). 
10. ?^b^^nibittu, DARA, an all enveloping garment, 2 7 42g (B I0486). 



240 (Ration, (g>aBgfontan (SOtiiin^ 

11. tupuqtU; iBBlj, enclosed place, room, chamber, S^ iv 21 (B I0488). 

12. tisbu(.?) } CT 19 44 Y^\\22li (M 7962). 

IB (MSI 368). ~ 

UKZ 140 ff. explained the sign as a compound of No 77 a, side 
and No 94, great. The earlier forms show that Delitzsch's ex- 5 
planation is impossible. The real origin is obscure. Perhaps it was 
the representation of a storm-cloud, which naturally stood for a 
deity and was then extended to designate other deities. The en- 
veloping nature of the cloud may have suggested an enveloping 
garment worn by priests, and a development of this might give the 10 
meaning seer. Or possibly the development was the other way. 
The picture may have represented some garment with a band about 
it worn by priests, and, from the garment, it came, in time, to stand 
for an enveloping cloud, and then for deity. The sign is used 
syllabically in its earlier occurrences, so that it is impossible to tell 15 
which meaning is the earliest. 

No 481 M 

1. agaru, acquire, hire, ABP 557; cf, 2 11 39c (M 7968). 

2. adi, unto, 4^ 2327a (B 10564). 

3. (?)ahu, brother, CT 17 2527 (M 7970). 20 

4. ana, unto, KU 63265 (B 10562). 

5. anakti, I, 5 2057a (B I0522). 

6. asabu, TUS, dwell, HAS xiii 7 (B 10523). 

7. asasu, ground, HWB 150b (M 7976). 

8. atta, thou, 5 2735a (B 10524). 25 

9. ellu, bright, PSBA 18 256ff. pi 1 9 (M 7971). 

10. etequ, travel, march, CT 19 46 K 4S97'4a (M 7977). 

11. ibdia, ? AL^ 73256 (B 10527). 

12. igvM^) wages, pay, TN 30I (M 7969). 

13. ina, in, PSBA 18 256fr. pi 1 7 (B 10563, M 7973). 30 

14. isdxx, foundation, RH 3827 (M 7975). 

15. ^?urkarinu, a kind of valuable wood, CT 17 3839 (M 7974). 

16. i?belu, weapon, spear, 5 1352a (B I0525). 

17. (?)damu, TUKU, blood, CT 12 20 381898 (M 7978). 

18. ZQ, flour (^) 5 3l57e(B 10561). 35 

19. zu, SE, grain i^\ HWB 1576 b (M 7979). 

20. i?zibu(.?) pierce i^) BD 74 (M 7980). . 

21. zaratu, DUR, } RT 27 1225 (M 7981). 

22. YiaXko^yx, perish, 4^ 30 22 (B I0526). 

23. temu, US, news, MJ> 65 iii 6 (B I0557, M 81I9). 40 

24. i?kakku, weapon, 2 I923 and 26b (B I0529, M II3II). 



Bi0t of ^^€o^tci\>^0 341 

25. kima, like, CT 17 612 (M 7983). 

26. kemu, zi, meal, flour, AL^ 65 iii 5 (B 10530). 

27. kimu, ZID, mealy flour, 2 Sssc (B 10531). 

28. kamaru(?) i-ZW/^^ ^^ze^;^, CT 11 317a' (M 7984). 
5 29. kanu, be firm, stable, AL^ 73269 (B 10 528). 

,30. laba^u, MU, clothe, CT 16 ll40 5i (M 7985, M 8120). 
31. lubustu, clothing, 2 949 c (B 10534). 
2,2. laliamu, MU, a vesseli^) HWB 375 (M 8121). 
33. mezihu, a leather breastplate {?) RH 1033 (M 7986). 
10 34. ^^Marduk, god Marduk, AL^ Z% v 33 (B 10535). 

35. miqqu, ? (© 84 iv 4*) (M 7987). 

36. markas, DUR, a ropei^) 2 47i8e (B 10 536). 

37. markasu, a band, rope, 2 3lioff (B 10537). 

38. mastu, a drinking jar or bowl, AL^ 73265 (B 10 538). 
15 39. raxxsBxxx, plantation, garden, 2 27536 (B 10 539). 

40. nabalki(itu, rebellion, ASKT 1205 (B 10541). 

41. nadu, KU, throw down, AL^ 65 iii 3 (B 10542). 

42. nahu, rest, 4^ 21* 26b (B 10 540). 

43. namaru(?) be bright, AL^ 73 26? (B I0543), 
20 44. napalsuhu, ? BA 5 ^6y 15 (M 7988). 

45. naptanu, a meal ox feast, RH 44 is (M 7989). 

46. nasu sa eni, lift up, of the eyes, 2 2652c (B 10545). 

47. natalu(?) lie down, SMT 24 16 (M 11312). 

48. iiSin, god Sin, AV 6700 (B 10549). 

25 49. sakapu, cast down, CT 19 2ioa (M 8123). 

50. subatu, TU, TUG, TE, MU, garment, AL^ 65 iii 4 (B I0551). 

51. salalu, shield, protect, 4^ 3 64a (B 10550). 

52. qemu, meal, flour, CT 12 32 K 152842 (M 7990). 

53. rubu, GE, great, 5 1344a (B I0547, M 7992). 
30 54. rabasu, lie down, 5 5242b (B 10 546). 

55. (?)radu, TUKU, oppress, CT 12 20 381897 (M 779I). 

56. (?)ratatu, TUKU, oppress, CT 12 20 381897 (M 7993). 

57. subtu, dwelling, 2 31 i6f (B 10553). 

58. sipru, UMUS, communication, order, 2 48i7g (B 10552). 
35 59. susu, ES, sixty, CT 11 2436b (M 7995). 

60. tediku, garment, 4^ 917a (M 8124). 

61. takaltu sa gallabi, strength^ of one who flogs, 5 1934a (B I0554). 

62. i?tukultu, strength, force, 5 2107 (B 10558). 

63. tamu, speak, 4^ 21* rev 5 (B 10555). 
40 64. i?tamharu, battle, CT 20 512 (M 7999). 

65. tesu, ? RT 27 122 6 (M 8125). 



* This text is inaccessible to me. 
Beitrage Ass.: Barton II. 1 6 



242 (§Avton, ,(§(xB^(m(^n (Wvitin^ 

66. (?)tararu(?) TUKU, dreak down, CT 12 20 38l898.(M 8000). 
6j. tasritu(?) beginnings ZA 6 23643 (B 10556). 

EGi (5 20 2ie). , ub(ASKT 68 20 Var). BU (2 4/80). ' 

Bi (RT 27 122 6). DURU (3 68 9a). GU (24833a). 

Gl or GIG (2 39 I8e/^ZA1 15 113). HUN (2 26 52c). SA (2 32 82c). 5 

SE (S^ i 26). su (2 48 12a). tub" (2 39 53c). 

TUK (42 54 50 a). TUKUL (S^ i 29). TUS (HAS xiil 7). 

UKZ T']^, explained the sign as No 443 plus the gunu sigjis. 
As our sign list shows, and as Res had alreajdy noted, three origi- 
nally distinct signs have been combined here into one. One of these 10 
(481a) represented a weapon of some sort, or possibly a mace head, 
which suggested a weapon; another (481b) represented a garment 
(it was a cloth with two stripes across it); the third (481c) was a 
picture of a sack or jar having horizontal lines across it, to represent : 
the contents, which were understood to be meal QxJlour..Kittx. the 15 
time of the first dynasty of Babylon these three blended into . one 
[cf, 481 d). Each of these forms contributed appropriate meanings 
as follows: — 

The weapon: weapon, strength, spear, wood, strike down, throw 
down, oppress, rebellion, blood, battle, T^tarch, perish. , 20 

The garment: garment, clothe, shield, dwell, dwelling, lie down, 
brother, ground, foundation, bond, rope, breastplate. 

The jar: meal, flour, plantation, be bright, great, rest, lift up the 
eyes, feast, wages'^, hire, vessel, bowl, 'command'^'^, speak. 

The pronouns, numerals and prepositional meanings grew out of 25 
the syllabic values of the signs. 

- No 482 W 

1. abatu, bind, tie, RH 685 (M 8169). 

2. ahazu, DIB, sieze, ASKT 7625 (B I0674). 

3. alaku, go, ASKT I224-6 (B 10675). 30 

4. q^^amu, AMA, a kind of reed, CT 14 479b (M 8172). 

5. (?)edepu, } CT 19 3615b (M 8170). 

6. etequ, DIB, march, go, 5 4255c (B I0679). 

7. immeru, UDU, sheep, AL^ 65 iib (B 10681). 

8. ba'u, DIB, come, go, AV 4094 (B 10676). 35 

9. ba'aru, DIB, catch, hunt, fi^sh, 2 48 35g (B I0677). 

10. baru, catch, CT 17 2725 (M 8216). 

11. i?dibdibbu, .? AL^ 86 i 6 (B 10730). 

* Because they were paid in grain or flour. 
** From tlie idea of hiring involved in wages. 40 



Bi&i of "i^io^tap^e 243 

12. dalu(?) pursue, slmder, RH 121 7 (M 8217). 

13. (?)dulluhu(?) excitement, RH 122 le (M 82I9). 

14. disu, dussu, luxurious, abundant, fat, 4^ 12 rev 33 (M 8174). 

15. du^su, abundant, RH 60 7 9 (M 8218). 

5 16. zuUulu, ? 5 2435a (B 10700). , 

17. (?)hamamu(?) hold, grasp, RH 3253 (M 8175). 

18. hatu, DIB, destroy, snatch away, 4^ 1039b (B I0680). 

19. .kababU; DIB, quiver i^) burni^) 2 28 6id (B 10682). 

20. kalu, DIB, hold, contain, 4^ 18 No 2 rev 13 (M 8176). 

10 21. (?)kalu sa sabati, hold, of what is seized, CT 18 3412a (M 81 77). 

22. kullu, receptacle, AV 4525 (B I0728). 

23. kamu, DIB, enclose, take hold, 5 39 9e (B I0683). 

24. kirru, lamb, 2 6ia (B 10685). 
2S..kirdibbu, ? AV 8415 (B I0684). 

15 26. kissu, dwelling, 4^ 317 a (B 10686). 

27. lamu, surround, 4^ S72a (B I0687). 

28. i?muzibbu, so7ne instrument, AL^ 86 i 7 (B I0734). 

29. i? muqanzibtu, } AL^ 86 i 9 (B I0732). 

30. i?musihhu, } AL^ m 1 S {B I0733). 

20 31. i?mastaktu, ? AL^ %6 1 llo (B I0731). 

32. mitu, dead, 2 S931C (B I0688). 

33. nabaltu, living, AV 6084 (B 10 689). 

34. nigu, be light, bright, joyful, 2 2028 c (B I0690). 

35. vXkt, peoples, 5 62 36a b (B 10735). 

25 36. samaku, ^ shrine, CT 18 374b (M 8178). 

37. sunnu, } RT 27 12I 12 (M 8179). 

38. sanaqu sa sabati, oppress, of captors, 5 29706 (B I0692). 

39. sanaqu sa sabiti, DAB, oppress, of captives, 5 41 62a (B 10693). 

40. sabaru, sieze, snatch, CT 17 25 34 (M 8220). 
30 41. subburu, name of a plant, 2 20 ic (B 10696), 

42. sabatu, DIB, capture, AL^ 65 13b (B I0694). 

43. sibtu, content, property, 2 35 44c (B 10695). 

44. senu, sheep, 5 2 133 (B 10697). 

45. re'u(.?) shepherd, RH I0819 (M 8181). 
35 46. riksu, bond, RH I3032 (M 8182). 

47. famu, DIB, be high, 4^ 18 No 2i4b & 5 637 (B I069I). 

48. supu, bright, strong, AL^ 86 i 6 (B I0730). 

/\^c). h\3k>Mi;?) a precious stone, CT 18 3817a (M 8183). 

50. surbusu(.?) a fold {^) CT 19 2 K 4256 obv 11 (M 8184). 

40 51. \3bQkxi, pour out, 5 5075a (B 10698). 

52. tamahu, take, capture, RH 687 (M 8185). 



DAB (5 4l6aa). LU (MS^ 321). 

16" 



244 ^<xxton, Q0a6gfottian (S^xiiin^ 

EM 2 no explained the sign as originating in the picture of a 
sheep; UKZ 109, as the valve of a door. UKZ l02fF. claims that 
the Babylonian scribes recognized two originally different signs in 
this one. One of them UDU {cf. CT 11 30), and the other, DIB 
(CT 11 3 iii 34). Res 454 and 456 also sees two originally independent 5 
signs. It is quite possible, however, that the three early forms shown 
in our table are variants of the same original and that that original 
represented an enclosure (No 443) and a staff (No 249). The fold 
and the staff were the property of the shepherd^ and would suggest 
sheep. According as stress was placed upon one or the other of 10 
these elements we obtain surround^ enclose, take, catchy snatch, destroy, 
oppress and all kindred meanings. The staff suggested all the wooden 
implements. From the idea of sheep pouring from a fold came the 
meanings pouring out, go, march, etc. From the figurative use of 
shepherd for a king came the meaning peoples, 15 

No 483 

1. eldu, harvest, 2 32 72g (B 10773). 

2. emedu, lay upon, stand, 4^ 1749a (B I0772). 

3. a^^bUlulu, month Ulul, Str Nab^o 36 is (B 10758). 

4. uru, surroundi^) 5 39 sic (B 10757). 20 

5. bararu, ? CT 16 424 (M 8241). 

6. z2S2^\x, pointed, sharp, RH I0658 (M 8226). 

7. mu'uru, mission, sending, 2 478a (B I0750). 

8. paru, seek, 2 36466 (B 10751). 

9. sahiaru, tiirn, return, CT 12 4I 4b (M 8242). 25 

10. saparu, send, TA No 258 rev 4 (M 8229). 

11. sipru, KIN, sending, mission, S^ v 5 (B 10753). 

12. site'u, seek, search, 2 36476 (B I0754). 

13. sute'u, search, 2 418c (B I0755). 

14. tertu, command, order, KG 2 49 (M 8230). 30 

15. tirtu, command, order, 2 2744c (B I0756). 

Gi (SFG 49 & 50 n 8). GUR (2 32 72g). qi (MS^ 374). 

UKZ 96 explained the sign as a gunu of No 515; OC, as the 
picture of an apron or petticoat. The sign probably pictured a cap 
or head-dress worn by messengers. This cap had a cloth which 35 
hung down over the neck as a protection from the sun similar to 
the kafiyeh of the modern bedu. The head-dress of Naram-Sin 
pictured on his stele {cf. Del. 2 pi. ii, opposite p. 56), affords proof 
that such a head-dress was known. This cap had plumes arising 
from the top; [cf. Nos 169 and 300), No 515 was apparently a similar 40 



Mi&t of ^^tOQV(X^^& 245 

cap without the plumes. For the system of messengers, who seem 
to have worn such caps, see HLC 2 p. loff. Messenger, mission, 
sending^ seeking were suggested by the cap; pointed, by its shape, 
and surround and stand, by the fact that it covered the head ; Uluhi 
5 and harvest, by abbreviations of longer ideograms. On the origin of 
harvest cf. 2 32 7ig. 

No 484 J^^ 

1. atpartu, a kind of garment, ASKT 120 11 (B 10 777). 

2. lubustu, clothing, 2 3952e (B I0778). 

TO 3. ?^^^^sissiktu, edge or fringe of a garment, 5 IS 24c (B I0783, M 8246). 

4. sebtu^) old woman, grandmother, 2 32 65c (B I0780). 

5. sipatu, wool, ASKT 90/91 55 (B 10781). 

6. supatu, SIG, garment, dress, AL^ 65 leb (B 10782). 

7. sartu, hair, 4^ 342a (B 10779, M 8248). 

15 MUDRU (2 7 38c). 

EM 2 116 explained the sign as the picture of a manteau] 
UKZ 141 ff, 188, as a compound of No 482 with some other motifs; 
OC, as the picture of a garment; LSG 20, as a combing-machine 
used to prepare wool. The earliest of the original pictures represents 

20 a rug or girdle, the second a rug or garment, and the third a rug 
or web of cloth. As these were made of wool or hair all the 
meanings were easily suggested. Old woman was suggested by the 
sign because of the resemblance of white hair to wool. 



No 485 

25 1. da'amu, DARA, darkness, AL^ 65 iii 17 (B I0798). 

2. ^ipa^da'amatu, dark-colored, 5 1424c (B I0799). 

3. pihatu, district, province, 2 3974c (M 8307). 

UKZ 155 explained the sign as a compound of Nos 484 and 1. 
The sign is probably a late variant of No 484. Darkness was sug- 
.30 gested by the covering which a garment or rug gives. Figuratively 
applied to the authority of a governor, it signified district. 



No 486 

1. erinu, ERIN, cedar, NU 65 iii 21 (B I0803, M 8308). 

2. ^? erinu, ERIN, cedar-wood, 5 26i5g (B 10 804). 
35 3. ^^supalu, some plant or tree, 2 23 22f (B 10805). 

4, .^?tiyaru, some plant or tree, 2 23 23f (B 10806). 

UKZ 141 ff. explained the sign as a compound of Nos 484 and 94; 
OC, as the picture of a sweet pine or cedar. Probably the original 
picture represented, not the picture of a cedar tree, as this appears 



246 (§axton, Qg>a6gfontan (SOxitino^ 

not to have been native to Babylonia, but a post arid beam of a 
palace or temple. Such structures were made of cedar brought from 
a distance at all periods of the history; UR-NINA used them in a 
store-house (King, History of Sumer and Akkad, p. 93), gudea in 
his temple, (Stat B v 18 19), Shalmeneser III (Obelisk 140) and .5 
Sennacherib, (KB 2 113 etc.), used it in building palaces. 

No 487 M^^WW 

1. i°^diqaru, an e art hern jar, 5 427 g (M 83 ll). 

2. karu, GUR, granary^ storehouse, AL^ 65 \\\ 20, cfj'^\x Cyr 2502 

with 373 8 (B 10809, M 8312). 10 

3. ■ pasisu, an official or priest ^ 5 52 57b, RH I26 No 80 2 (B 10810, M 8313). 

OC explained the sign as the picture of a granary. The picture 
probably represented a large storage jar or bin set in a floor, from 
which a spout for drawing out the grain issued beneath the floor. 
The lines at the left of the picture (originally the top) indicate the 15 
entrance of the grain. . 

No 488 J^^<^:4 

1. sartu, MUNSUB, hair, AL^ 65 iii 19 (B 10 81 2). 

According to ASKT, 82/83, ^ this sign together with SU (No 7) 
represented the hair of the body. Originally the sign was probably 20 
a variant of No 484, which represented hair. In the course of time 
it appears to have combined with No 363 which meant covering, 
(having been originally the skin of a fish). 

No 489 M^C^TT 

1. (.?)baku, cry, weep, CT 11 37 K 82843a (M 83 14). 25 

2. damamu, weep, 2 294ig (B 10817). 

3. dimmatu, a tear, 2 2940g (B I0815). 

4. pasasu,.SES, anoint, rub, AL^ 65 iii 18 (B 10814). 

5. (.?')pissatu, ointment, oil, CT 11 37 K 82843 (M 8317). 

6. (?)sabatu sa . . ., } of,,,, CT 12. $0 28a (M 8318). 30 

7. ka^pat^ikkatu, a kind of vessel, MSW 16 K I004O3 (M 83 19). 

8. sapu, be dense, RH 55 rev 11 (M 8320). 

9. sapahu, settle, spread, RH 420 (M 8323). 

The late forms (and we have no others) when combined with 
the meanings afford no clue to the origin. The analogy of No 487, 35 
however, suggests that this sign pictured a storage jar for oil similar 
in structure to the storage jar for grain. Pasisu of that sign probably 
came in from mixture with this sign. Leakage from the opening for 



&M of 'iHoc^ta^p^is 247 

drawing out the oil suggested weepings tear and the oil itself all the 
other meanings except vessel. 

No 490 L 

1. adaru, SU, be dark or darkened, MJ 7710 (B 10 824). 
5 2. asaru, su, descend, lower, AL^ 77 q (B I0825). 

3. erebu, enter in, 2 39i6e (B 10 828). . 

4. irpu, cloud, TA 2584 (M 8325). 

5. baru, see, 2 2453a {B I0826). 

6. basu, ^^, 1 1848 (B 10827). 

10 7. dalahu* trouble, CT 17 19 3; 4^ 3 sa (M 8342, B I083S). 

8. ^'^^'^k3btMi^).some officer, 5 2437a (B I0829). 

9. karamu, SU, z^^r^ze/ down, AL^ 779 (B 10 830). 

10. kissatu, totality, hosts, CT 11 323 (M 8327). 

11. kissutu, might, strength, VA lUar, xx 24 (M 11 333). 
15 12. karamu, SU, throw down, AL^ 779 (B 10830). 

13. katamu, cover, hide, CT 11 3918a (B I0831). 

14. lemu, SVMASTIN, j>eriod, circuit, 2 2452a (B. I0833). 
IS.^^^Marduk, god Marduk, 5 5 50 (B I0834). 

16. niqilpu**, broken down in health, 2 6449c (B I0836, M 8329)., 
20 17. nisannu, month Nisan, AV 650 (B I0837). 

18. sahapu, throw down, AL^ 77% (B I0839). 

19. sihpu, overthrow, RH 459 (M 8330). 

20. pasasu, break, destroy, ASKT 12917 (B I0838). 

21. rabu, be angry, TA 2265 7 Sz: rev 1 (M 8332). 
25 22. rabu, be great, RH 5420 (M 8333). 

23. sebu, ESSA, be filled, sated, 2 2454a (B I084I). 

24. sihu, SU, grow, become tall, AL^ 777 (B I0842). 

. 25. sanitu, SU(?) a repetition, time, AV 7975 (B 10840). 
26. tabaku, poun out, heap up, RH 54 20 (M 8334). 

30 Sayce, through H 473, explained the sign as originating in the 

picture of a leg; UKZ 152ff., as a variant of No 365 — the motif for 
depression; OC, as the setting sun. The sign originally represented 
the crescent moon and is identical with one of the primitive signs 
absorbed in No 365. The waxing and waning of the moon, iX.s use 

35 in measuring time, its setting, beclouding and eclipsing easily sug- 
gested all the meanings. 

No 491 L^ 
1. siptu, EN, incantation, S^ i 44 (B I0857). 



* IV^ and B 10835 ^^^^ nas^hu. 
40 ** B 10836 reads nihappi^. 



248 (S^ar^on, (gaBgfotttan (Wtitinc^ 

UKZ IS/ff. explains the sign as a compound of Nos 490 and 13. 
The sign is clearly the union of a star and the crescent moon. Such 
union evidently had astrological significance. 

■ No 492 IM^ 
1. suhuppatu, SUHUB, a mule(i) S^ i 45 (B 10865). 5 

ISI (3 70193). SUHUL (3 70 192). . ' SULGAR (3 70194). 

On the analogy of No 49I we should infer from the late form 
that the sign is a compound of Nos 490 and 149 — the crescent moon 
and a group of stars. How it came to mean mu/e (if that is its 
meaning, as Haupt argued, Andover Review ^ 1884,97) is problematical. 10 
The number of syllabic values indicates that the sign is not a late 
combination, but originated early. 

No 493 L^ 

1. ^?esse'u, g^^KIBIR, some valuable wood, 5 2617a (B I0869). 

2. Q^^gibillu, GIGIBIL, an inflammable reed, CT 11 478b (M 8352). 15 

3. ^'^kibirru, KIBIR, some kind of wood, 5 2616a (B 10870). 

4. ^?maqaddu, KIBIR, some kind of wood, 5 2618a (B \0Zj2), 

5. qiliitu, GIBIL, burning, S^ i 43 (B 10871). 

6. ^arapu, burn, 1 20 2 (B 10874). 

7. suruptu, burning, CT 14 47 12 a (M 8355). 20 

UKZ 157 explained the sign as. a compound of Nos 490 and 298. 
Delitzsch may be right, but as we have only late forms the origin 
is uncertain. No 490 stood for the crescent moon, and No 298 for 
cursing, A compound of these two signs might easily ^\v^ the 
meanings noted above, since burning was a part of cursing, but the 25 
sign may have had quite another origin which we cannot now divine. 

No 494 IgnM 

1. neru, SUDUN, ;^^/^^, S^ i 46 (B I0877). 
2.. i?neru, yoke, 5 3 I6 (B \o%jZ), 



SUDUL (3 70 197, 198). 30 

H 472, and UKZ 157 explain the sign as a compound of Nos 490, 
304 and 177, The origin suggested by HoUGHTON and Delitzsch 
leaves the meaning entirely unexplained. In the absence of early 
forms conjectures as to the origin are pure hypotheses, but it should 
be noted that, if th original picture represented a chariot and horses 35 
similar to the seal pictured in HeuZEY and Thureau-Dangin's 6V^/^ 



Bi&i of 'i^co^tap^0 249 

des vautoursy p. 18, it would probably assume in Assyrian the form 
which this sign has. Such an origin would account for the meaning. 



■ No 495 iPTT 

1. bibr6, BiBRA,y^j/(?) S^ i 49 (M 8358). 
5 2. bidarrii, BIDARRA, yd?r(?) S^ i 49 (^ 10 883). 

3. hadu, HUL, rejoice, 4^ 1950a (B I0884). 

4. hadis, m}\., joyfully, 4^ l/isa (B I0885). 

5. hidutu, HUL, joy, S^ i 48 (B 10886). 

6. kissu, UKUS, cucumber, S^ i 47 (B ^oZ'^j). 

10 7. nigu, HUL, be light, shine, rejoice, 2 2027c (B 10888). 

8. qissu(F) cucumber, CT 18 43 K 4555 12 (M 8359). 

9. risu, HUL, rejoice, 4^ 1950a (B 10889). 
10. risatu, HUL, rejoicing, 4^ 185a (B I0890). 

UKZ 157 explains the sign as a compound of No 365 with some 
15 other element or elements. Probably this sign pictured some kind 
of a stringed instrument used at festivals, and so suggested joy. 
Why it came to mean cucumber I do not know. 

No 496 L^I!^^ 

1, atudu, SIQQA, goat, S^^ i 50 (B 10901). 
20 2. atudu, MUQA, goat, CT 14 1 5b (M 8375). 

3. sapparu, wild, mountain goat, CT 17 12 8 (M 8376). 



SEQA (2 65c). 

The picture, when standing in the perpendicular writing, clearly 
represented the head (including nose, horns, ears and beard) of a 
25 goat The two lines, which Sup, 435^^^ takes for gunu signs, were 
inserted to represent the beard. Omitted in the writing of GUDEx\, 
they reappear in the script of the dynasty of Ur. For a series of 
goat's-head pictographs in the script of Crete, see Evans, Scripta 
Minoa, Oxford, 1909, p. 4. 

30 No 497 I>^ 

1. uru, QALLA, MUG, ^KL, pudenda, nakedness, 2 30 ue (B I0919). 

2. baru(?) be full, RH 121 rev s (M 8416). 

3. zinnistu, woman, 4^ 3 4b (B 10920). 

4. masu, be large, wide, BA 5 63322 (M 8417). 
35 5- rapasu, be wide, large, 5 29736 (B I0918). 

6. ruppusu, wide, RH I21 rev 8 (M^ 8418). 



250 (^axtortf (0d6^fontan (]§OtiiinQ 

T."€\^V% pouring out, CT 18 3911a (M 8378). 
8. sisitu or siliintu, womd(i) 2 4735c (B 10970). 

GAL (2 48 21e). GUL (2 3627a). GEME (AL^ 476). 

MU (AV 2276). MULU (5 ll7de).- MIM (AL3No30lb). 

MURUB (5 48 23e). RAG (MS 2 234ff.). SAL (2 SS u). 

EM 2 111, lis, UKZ28ff. and 93, OC, OCS 233, 246, MSL 282, 
and LB A 311, have all explained the sign as the picture of a womb or 
the female pudenda. There is no question but that the origin on; 
which all agree is right. 

No 498 ^^ 

.1. (?)arkatu, after, behind, RH I05 29 (M 8420). . 

2. (?)baltu, abundance i^) BD 20 10 (M 842 1). 

3. halu(.?) press out, to squeeze, BDA 83 5ff., BD 2 38 (M 11338). 

4. kilutu, kidneys^^j 2 2459e, AV 7264 (B I0978). 

5. masadu sa ^v^kW, press down, of hair, HWB 428 b (M 8423). 15 

6. sassuru, wombi^) or foetus i^) 5 l636g (B 10979), 

HAL (S^ iv 27). " SU (MS^ 372). ■ SUM (S^ iv 29). 

Ri (S^ iv 28). RiK (ZA 2 447ff)- 

LSG 20, explains the sign as a representation of female pudenda. 
Perhaps the sign represented a womb and a child in process of birth; 20 
compare the Egyptian sign for birth, EAG 205, B 15 and MHP 2 
No 67, This would account for all the meanings. The meaning 
arkatu indicates a connection with No 212 which pictured the buttocks; 
if our explanation is correct, that connection was one of anatomical 
proximity. 25 

No 499 ^fef 

1. ahatu, sister, HWB 39 (M 8427). 

2. ahattu, sister, 5 39640 (B I0984). 

3. entu, lady, 2 7i9g (B 10988). 

4. (?)irsu, rejoicing, CT 16 363 (M 8428). , 30 

5. beltu, lady, 5 3965c (B I0986). 

6. belutu, ladyship, lordship, 5 20 23e (B I0985). 

7. mimma, anything, 5 61 v. 31 vi 42 (B 10 989). 

8. r\2\>k\xx, princess, 5 3966c (B I0990). 

NI (3 6948g). NIN (2 58 56a). . 35 

UKZ 5 Iff explained the sign as a compound of No 497, wife, 
with No 481, ^r^^^f. Minima, as Delitzsch saw (AL^ No 30I), is a 
syllabic spelling and not a real ideogram. Our sign is compounded 



Bi&i of 'i^io^tap^e 25 1 

of No 497, womariy and No 481b; rug or garment. It indicated in 
primitive society a woman of wealth or distinction, who could afford 
a garment, and accounts for all the meanings. 

No 500 ^^ 

5 1. ana, unto, CT 11 42 No 165 rev 12 (M 8491), 

2. altu, ^^>, 42 l5ib (B 11108). . . 

3. assatu, womany 5 2521c (B III09, B III28). 

4. atta, //^^^, 42 1948a (B 11110). 

5. ha'iru, consort, 5 12 se (B 11111, B III29). 
10 6. kima, like, 4^ 928a (B IIII2). 

7. ma, ^;^^, CT 11 42 No 165 rev 10 (M 8496), 

8. mutu, M<3;;2, consort, 5 124e (B 1111 3). 

9. sahu, swine, ZA 1 179 n 2; 306 n 1 (B IIII4). 

DAM (MS2 66103). LAM (5 12 7e). TAMA (5 12 6e). 

15 BNA 13 494 explained the sign as No 497, woman, plus another 

element; UKZ l6lff., as a compound of No 497, wife and No 443, 
surround and a motif for male, the whole meaning coition. The 
sign pictured the generative organs of the male and female in juxta- 
position. They were not in coition. The proximity, however, 

20 suggested marriage. The conjunctional and prepositional meanings 
probably came in through syllabic influence. Swine, from an abbre- 
viation of the compound sign for female swine; cf, ZA 1 306 n 1. 

No 501 ^16 

1. amtu, GIM, slave girl, 2 39 7ia, MSW 25 R 2, 588 29b (B 11 135, M 8305). 
25 GEME (AL3 477). 

UKZ 93 has correctly explained the sign as a compound of 
Nos 497, woman, and No 322, capture. The formation is analogous 
to No 49. 

No 502 ^^ 

30 1. gu, a plant, 4^ 2712a (B III38). 

2. zvaiM^i^) face, appearance, 4^ 22 11 a (B 11 140). 

3. mehu,** storm-wind, 4^ 2228a. 

* The reading zimu,/«r^, appearance (BPS 104 and B 11 140) is based on 4^ 22 11 a. 
Since the reading does not appear in 4^ 22 11 a it appears to have no cuneiform authority. 
35 ** This meaning is doubtful. 4 2 22 28 reads . . . gu-gim si-in-tar. The Semitic 

of 29 interprets this as ki-ma ke-e me-hi-e i-tu-ra. This may be translated, like the 
qu of a storm-wind it turns^ in which case our sign denotes a noun qu and the scribe 
has added mehu as an explanation, or ki-ma ke-e may be taken as the rendering of 



252 (gaxion, (gafijfontan (Bxitin^ 

4. putlu(?) gall-stones, BD 78 iff. 181 isff,, JR 2 292 n 7 (M 8506). 

5. qu, thread, 2 3373a (B III39). 



GU (S^ iii 47). 

UKZ 122 explained the sign as a compound of Nos 228 and 70, 
meaningyVif// of death. The sign is apparently a compound of Nos 228, 5 
teat J fat J or oil, and No 13, star, heavefij god. Its earliest application 
was apparently to a plant, which was designated as the divine fat 
or the divine oiL^ I suspect that this plant was the sesame, an 
oily grain which was later called (B 7472) SE-GIS-NI, grain of the oil 
plant, Semitic samassammu, corrupted by the Greeks to ofioaiiov. 10 
The grains of such a plant might be thought to resemble .^^// i-/^;^<?j", 
hence that meaning. Qu, thread was attached to the sign through 
syllabic identity. GU-LA (that is, this plant and an overflowing jar) 
[cf No 54), meant great, since it conveyed the idea of prosperity. 
The meaning storm-wind is a shortening of this ideogram for great, 15 
being a special application of the idea of greatness. 

No 503 I>^ 

1. ^^e^namgaru, carpenter, AWK 6I21; HN 3021 (B 11165, M 8531). 

2. ^iSin, LAMGA, god Sin, 2 4766e (B 11 166). 

NAGAR (S^ iv 23). 20 

. The original picture suggested a carpenter, but, why it did so, 
is not clear. The earliest known form of the sign does not clearly 



GiM = as when^ in whicli case mehu = storm wind is the translation of GU. The 
latter is the more probable interpretation* 

* The earliest occurrences of the sign are in proper names. Thns the name of 25 
the father of king ur-nina was Gu-ni-du (Dec. pi. 2ter, No 44). A scribe in the time 
of LUGALANDA or URKAGINA bore the same name (DP 73 iii 5). A man in the reign 
of URKAGINA bore the name Gu-u (^ 3 obv i i rev i 2, also 5 i 6). Another man of 
the same period bore the name gu-gan (TSA 7 rev iv 17), and a woman, the name 
Gu-bad (^ I iii 3 and 6 iii 11). In the reign of Manistusu a man bore the name 30 
Gu-ni-su (Face D xi 10). Huber, (Personennamen^ 193)) would understand gu in such 
names to mean „k6nigliche Pracht". When we consider the simple agricultural com- 
munity which the documents from Lagash reveal, it seems more probable that Gu- 
ni-du means sesame-planter^ Gu-u, sesame-plant^ Gu-gan, sesame-field^ Gu-bad, sesaf?ze- 
wall or tall sesame^ and Gu-ni-su, sesame-presser than that these names have a more 35 
abstract meaning. The same reasoning would apply, if GU represented some other oily 
plant instead of sesame. In gudea, Stat B vi 45, gu is used in spelling a foreign name 
and is simply syllabic. In Cyl A xx 27 it occurs in the phrase : sllim mu-sum sig-ga 
GU NE-DUB, A blessing he uttered-. '•The brick shall destroy gu [sesame^ — a phrase which 
SAK 113 leaves untranslated, but which becomes intelligible, if we understand that it 40 
refers to oil that is to be consumed in the temple. 



Bi&i of 'i^toQxap^s 253 

reveal the original picture, but may have represented two hands 
wielding a hatchet or some other implement 

No 504 

No ideogram and no early form have survived. All sources from 
5 which a knowledge of the origin could be derived are lacking. 

No 504 a iNT 

The sign represented a drawn bow with an arrow and the arm 

which held it; cf. No 346, of which it is one of the elements. It has 

as yet been found only in the ideographic writing of the name of 

10 the city UMMA, where it is preceded by GIS (No 258). No simple 

ideographic value of it and no syllabic value are known. 

No 505 PW 

No syllabic or ideographic values are known. Possibly the sign 
is a variant of No S04a; cf. CT 12 285a. 

15 No 506 I^^ • 

1. «ias^^kalbatu, a bitch, 5 3256a; cf, BPS 59 (M 854I). 

2. "^^^^^kurussu sa nartabi, ?, of an irrigating machine y 5 32 56a (M 854I). 

NIK (MS 2 178). 

UKZ 160, 191 explains the sign as a compound of Nos 497, 

2.0 female and 516, dog. The authority on which these ideographic 

meanings rest is insecure and we have no ancient form, but such 

evidence as we have confirms Delitzsch's explanation of the origin 

of the sign. 

No 507 MT 
25 1. ababu, EL, be bright, pure y 4^ 1914b (B III72). 

2. abalu* EL, carry, take away, 4^ 438b* (B III73). 

3. alalu, be bright, pure, 4^ 846b (B III74). 

4. abanarzallu, a kind of stone, CT 14 1525 (M 8545, B III78). 

5. ebebu, be bright, CT 17 3959 (M 8543). 
30 6. elelu, be bright, CT 17 5 iii 2 (M 8544). 

7. ellu, EL, bright, 4^ 2645b (B III7S). 

8. saru, wander, roam, 5 3970e (B III76). 

9. teliltu, EL, splendor, purification, AV 8895 (B III77). 

SILAG (AL3 51 No 3 13). 



35 * 42 reads tab^bi-ib. This meaning is, accordingly unreal. 



254 Ration, (ga6]jfont an (H)rth'n0 

UKZ 160 correctly explained the sign as a compound of Nos 497, 
female and I27, moon, ,MSL97 is puzzled to explain why the union 
of the feminine sign should be combined with the moon. This union 
goes back to the time when the nioon was a goddess; cf, SO, 
pp. 200 — 202. The meanings are all developed from the brightness 5 
of the moon. 

No 508 t^ 

1. apparru, KUS(.?) meadow, rushes, CT 12 21 9305911 (M 8554). 

2. esebu, bear fruit, HWB 141 (M 8555). 

3. unnubu, HUM, bear plentiful fruit, KU 6717 (B III86). 10 

4. ussubu, spring up, of a plant, AV 4891 (B III87). 

5. (?)hubbusu, } ASKT 2022 (M 8557). 

6. hamasu, HUM, crush, grind, CT 11 25 19b (M 8558). 

7. hummusu, crushing, grinding, CT 19 3 isc (M 8577). 

8. hurrumu, KUS, enchantment^) CT 12 248a (M 8560). 15 

9. hurruru, KUS, digging, CT 12 247a (M 8561). 

10. hutenzu, } CT 12 244=a (M 8562), : 

11. tubu, depression, 5 4033a (M 8563). 

12. kananu, LUM, crouch, squat, QT 17 2525 (M 8564). 

13. na*butu(.?) KUS(?) sprout[}) CT 12 21 9305914 (M 8566). 20 

14. napalsubu(?) KUS(.?) } CT 12 21 930596 (M 8567). 

15. qasasu, KUS(.?) cut off, CT.12 243a (M 8568). 

16. sa rukbi siqbi(.?) one who rides a siqbi ZA 9 161 28 (M 8579). 

17. sibu (or sipu), be filled, CT 12 21 903589a (M 8570). 

18. sihu(?) grow tall, CT 12 21 9305811a (M 8571). 25 

19. sakallu(.?) > CT 12 21 930587a (M 8572). 

20. hx^xx, fopti:^) CT 12 21 9305810a (M 8573). 

H 477 ff. explained the sign as one of the pictures of sun-dried 
bricks; UKZ 131, as a motif for waves of water; MSL 181, as wave 
lines; OCS 236 and 255, as -a representation of waves. The sign 30 
clearly pictured waves. This suggested marshes, low-lying, an ex- 
tension of which gave foot', it also suggested sprout, bear fruit, fruit- 
fulness, grow tall. From the harvesting of these growths came the 
meanings ^?^2f, crush, enchantment etc. 

Identity of psychological processes led to the expression of the 35 
idea of water in similar ways in China and Egypt; see ECW pi VI 
No 84 and VII 85, also EAG p. 217 No 55 and MHP 1 No 333. ^ 

No 508 a 

1. hutenzu, } CT 12 2411a (M 8584). 

The sign is clearly No 508 doubled. 40 



Miet of 'i^coQxap'^ff 255 



No 508b ^L 



1. guhsu, ? CT 12 2414a (M 8585). 

2. gumgumsu, ? CT 12 2412a (M 8586). 

Apparently the sign is No 508 doubled plus No 490. 

5 No 509 ^^ 

1. amaru, be filled, CT 18 sSna (M 8587). 

2. libittu, bricksy 5 IO82 (B III92). 

3. lipittu, bricks, 4^ 2716b (B III93). ^ 

4. malgu, ? 2 721c (B III94). 

10 5. pudu sa ameli, murgu, /r^^, of a man, AV I353 (B III9S). 

6. pudu, i-/(i'^, ^^ 22 30a (B III96). 

7. ^^a^simanu, month Siman, MJ 93 No 43 (B III97). 

8. tabastanu(?) excre^nents, 4^ 22 No 2 is (M 11 41 2). 

GAR (5 42 56g). MUR (2 3618a). 

15 H 478 explained the sign as the picture of a pile of bricks; 

Barton, JAOS 23 27, as a picture of the arches of a brickkiln, picturing 
also the rising of the smoke. I have since been convinced by a study of 
tablet ti* that the form, on which that view was based, does not belong 
to this sign, but is to be read PA-AZAG (No 249 and No 428), and desig- 

20 nated an officer who performed ceremonial purifications. The other 
form, from which the later forms of our sign descended, represented 
a bit of crooked wall, or an ornamental course of bricks in a wall. 
Since a wall forms a side of a structure it designated side. Filled 

. was suggested by bjHcks. Excrements of asses were figuratively con- 

25 cieved to be bricks. In the time of HammurAPI it came to designate 
the month Siman as that was the month of brick-making. 



No 509 a ^X 



1. qa"guhhu(?) a kind of reed, CT 11 4715 b (M 8608). 
Apparently the sign is No 509 doubled plus No 490. 



30 No 510 

1. asatu, } RT 27 12213 (M 8612). 

2. abang^^i^ dolorite, 42 6 15a (B 11209, M 8609). 

3. ussusu, sadness, 4^ 22 No 24 (M 861 1). 



See University of Pennsyl'oama. Museum Journal^ III, 4ff. and OLZ 16, cols 7 — 9» 



256 (§(Xxto% (S»a6gfontan (]^viiin^ 

4. sahmasati, insurrection, CT 21 4211 (B II2II). 

5. tesu, ruin, rebellion, CT 16 I940 (M 86I3). 

H 479 and UKZ. 122 have explained the sign as a doubling of 
No 502. The sign is clearly a doubling of No 502. The meanings 
are apparently all developed out of the meaning storm-wind which 
had become one of the meanings of No 502, That suggested ruin, 
sadness and rebellion as one of the forms of ruin. Sadness suggested 
darkness, hence dolorite, which is dark-colored. 

No 511 IT 

1. ilu(?) god, CT 16 3818a (M II4I4). ] 

2. kilallu, weight, 42 1566b, CT 17 3833 (B 11 213, M 8614). 

3. sina, two, 5 I2 33e (B II214), 

4. sina sussi, twice sixty, 5 12 see (B 11 21 5), 



MIN (S^ i 21). 

EM 2 117 correctly explained the sign as originating in two lines. 15 
It was natural to represent two by two lines. These in the sexa- 
gesimal system also stood for two six-ties. It signified weight because 
the balance had two scales. The meaning god is doubtful and its 
origin obscure. 

No 512 JI 20 

1. sulultu(?) a third, 1 11 100; cf, ZA 18 172 (M 8619). 

2. sussanu, susSana, one third, S^ i 51 (B 11 222). 

The sign was composed of the sign for ten (originally a circle — 
one of the signs blended in No 365) and the sign for one (No 439). 
Probably it meant one ten and was chosen to designate I/3 because 25 
ten was I/3 of a month. 

No 513 JiL 

1. smipu, SANABI, two thirds, S^ i 53 (B 11225). 

The sign originated like the preceding and stood for 2/3 because 
tzvo tens were 2/3 of a month, 30 

No 514 J5l 

1. (?)hansatu, j^^, CT 11 39 4151 rev e (M 8621). 

2. parab, KINGUSILI, KINGUSILA, /z/^ sixths, S^ i 55 (B 11 228). 

3. (?)parasrab, ^z/^ sixths, CT 11 39 4151 rev 6 (M 8622). 

The sign was apparently formed by grouping wedges to suggest, 35 
in some way not now clear, 5/6 of sixty. According to the sexa- 
gesimal system it could also represent 5/6 of one. 



Bi^t of 'i^co^vaip^e 257 

No 515 Jfc' 

1. ahazu, take, sieze, ASKT 88/8931 (B 11 234). 

2. asaridu(?) leader, 2 47i5a (B 11235). 

3. isu, (^^, 5 40 69a (B 11237). 

5 4- itpesu, be made, ^^ 14 No 1 24a (B 11 243). 

5. basu, be, CT 13 3/9 (M 8623). 

6. zamaru, DU, ^rj/; i-^V^^, 2 20 4 a (B II24I). 

7. haru ,sa assati, choose, of a wife, 2 3614a (B 11 236). 

8. kuUu sa resi; covering, of the head, CT 19 493a (M 8633). 
10 9. maharu(?) receive, BA 5 643 3 (M 8624). 

10. mulu sa resi, D\J'D\], fidlnesSy of the head, 2 27406 (B 11 244). 

11. qibu, speak, RH 9118, 4^ 21* 30b (M 8625, B 11 238). 

12. sarahU; roar, be excited, 2 20 is a (B 11 240). 

13. rasu, TUK, be abundant, rich, CT 11 17 v 2 (M 8626, B 11 239). 
15 14. sipatu, hair, wool, CT H 12 93074 rev 12 (M 8627). 

DU (2 2740e). TUKU (2 32 59a). TUK (MS^ 28I). 

OC explained the sign as the picture of an apron. Like No 483, 
this sign was the picture of a cap or turban having a kafiyeh, though 
it lacks the plumes which adorned No 483. Both the form of the 
20 sign and the meanings, speak, cry, seize, point to similarity of origin. 
Leader was easily suggested by such a cap, while, either the material 
from which it was made, or the fact that the hair resembles a head- 
covering, made the sign stand for wool or hair. 



No 516 

25 1. abubu(.f^) whirlwind, RH 647 (M 8681). 
2. amelu, ma7i, 5 449c (B 11256). 
3; asasu, UR, be sad, RH I3022 (M 8682). 

4. edlu, .^^r^, RH 12220a (M 8634). 

5. esesu(.?) be sad, RH 730 (M "^616), 
?o 6. isten, one, 2 1527a (B 1I259). 

7. baltu, richness, fertility, KSf 8225 (B 11 257). 

8. bultu, shame, ASKT 81 9 (B 11 258, M 8640). 

9. basu, shame, TN 308 (M 8638), 

10. bastu, richness, fertility, cf TTF 725 with TEA 15 5 (M 8639). 
35 11. hamamu^) hold, grasp, RH 21 28, RH I23 rev 1 (M 8641, M "^^^i). 

12. kalbu, UR, dog, ASKT 35351 (M 8642, B 11260). 

13. kalamu, all, BA 5 337 K 23562 (M 8643). 

14. mitharu, agreeing, ASKT 81 19 (B II261). 

15. i^Nabu sa dupsarruti,^^^iV^^^ of tablet-writing, CT2442i04(M8645). 
40 16. i^Nabu ilu balti, Nabu, god of fertility, 5 4338 c (B 11 262). 

Beitrage Ass.: Barton II. 1 7 



258 (^4ixto% (g^a6gfontan (^vitin^ 

17. nakru, hostility ^1 2gb2g (B 11 263). 

18. sadu(?) 3e red, KM cf, Taf. XIV 2% with XV 38 (M 8647), 

19. qadu, humble, RH 126 No 7911 (M 8648}. 

20. qiddatu(?) submissioUy RH 49 is (M 8684). 

URU (S^ ii 23). GIS (ZA 1 187, 188), KALBU (S^ ii 26). 5 

LI (HAS XV 13), OKI (S^ ii 24). LIK (S^ ii 24 var). 

TAS (S^ ii 25). TIS (ASKT 196 No 229). 

EM 2 110 explained the sign as the picture of a dog couchant; 
H 483, and UKZ 191 agree with this; OC explains it as the head 
and neck of a dog. HOMMEL is probably right as to the origin. On 10 
account of the faithfulness of the dog devotees of a god were called 
dogs (^. Josh. 142- H). The term was applied with obvious propriety 
to Semitic male prostitutes {cf, SO 188, 251 n 2), hence the meanings 
man, hero, shame, fertility. Hold, submission, hostility, etc. were sug- 
gested directly by canine qualities. 15 

- No 517 f^ 

1. sitnunu, URDAHHU (?) _;?^^/, WM BE \1t67 ii 7 (M 8688). 

This sign is apparently formed by doubling No 5 16. Two dogs 
naturally suggest a fight. 

No 518 JM^ 20 

1. etimmu, gidim, a demon, CT 11 19 462843b (M 8689). 

2. ekimmu, GIDIM, a demon, S^ i 52 (B 11 307). 

3. utukku, a demon, 4'-^ 225b (B 11 309). 

4. sedu (lamassu), a bull deity, 4^ 18 No 3 obv 4 (B 11 308). 

BNAI2418 explained the sign as a compound of Nos 516, 227, 25 
12, and 259. The origin suggested by the oldest form we have (that 
in the time of HAMMURAPi) is that the sign is a compound of No 5I4 "5/6" 
and 495, to rejoice. Demons and spirits were represented often by 
numbers, and demons were also often represented as laughing; 
cf, MaspERO, Ancient Egypt and Assyria, p. 243, and Gressmann, 30 
Altorientalische Texte und Bilder, 2 98. 

No 519 JlM^ 

1. utukku, UTUG, a demon, S^ i 54, CTll I9 462843b (M8690, B II3I2). 

2. rabisu, a demon, RH I29 No 84 le, 4^ IS* 31b (M 8691, B II313). 

3. sedu, bull deity, CT 19 10 I3S9I 2, ASKT 92/93 11 (M8692, B II314). 35 

BNA 13 97 explained the sign as a compound of Nos 516 and 
515. The sign \s a variant oi No 5 18. 



ii^i of 'i^toc^vap^0 259 

No 520 TT<^ 

1, sumelu, GUBU(?) /eft, AV 8480 (B 113IS). 

This sign is simply the number 150 — two sixties and three 
tens. As the number 15 was a /uckj/ number and came to stand for 
5 rio-^t^ apparently 150 was an unlucky number and came to stand 
for /eft. 

No 521 If 

1, ai; not, RH 11 1^, 4^ 31b (M 8693, B II691). 

2. abu, k, fatJter, 5 21 esc (B 11 324). 

10 3. ahulap, Itow /ong, 4^ 11 31a (B 11325). 

4. amelutu, man/^ind, HAS xxxviii (B 11 326). 

5. ana, unto, MSW 7 K 4166 rev 1 (M 8696). 

6. anaku, A, /, 5 22 69a (B 11 327). 

7. aplu, son, 5 4444c (B 11328). 

15 8. atta, A, t/iou, 5 2270a (B 11 329). ■ 
9. eru, A, conceive, 5 2250a (B 11 333). 

10. ibbu, shining, 4^ 15* 54b (B 11 335). 

11. idu, /land, ASKT 7743; 4^ 575b (B II336). 

12. ili, A, upon, 5 22 68a (B 11337). 
20 13. ina, in, 5 2258a (B 11 365). 

14. x^roXxx, figure, image, 5 21 4e (B 11 338). 

15. ittu(.?) side, CT 19 28 K 48485b (M 8698). 

16. u'a, a/as\ RH 4531 (M 8694). 

17. umisam(?) dai/y, CT 16 2416a (M 8976). 
25 18. banu, A, ME, beget, 5 2270a (B 11 330). 

19. buduqtU; a flood, 5 22 49a (B II331). 

20. belutu(.?) /ords/iip, RH 748 (M 8699). 

21. birihu, a vesse/, CT 18 3723 (M 8700). 

22. dimtu, a tear, RH 54 rev 6 (M 8702). 
30 23. hamatu, quiver, 5 3062a (B 11 334). 

24. ^?hattu, scepter, 4^ 1219 (M ^^Ol). 

25. (.?)kasu* bind, CT 12 21 93056 rev 12 (M 8704). 

26. labaku, DUR, ? 2 48306 (B 11 340). 

27. lubsu, A, ME, offspiHng, 5 22 62a (B 11341). 
35 .28. (.?)lizu, } CT 12 21 930654 (M 8705). 

■ 29. mu, A, ME, water, 5 2257a (B 11 347). 

30. makuru(?) } BA 5 6179 (M 8977). 

31. mailu, A, bed, 5 22 46a (B 11 343). 

32. iimalkatu(.?) goddess Ma/katu, 2 5713a (B 11 692), 

40 * B 1 1339 kussu, throne^ 4^ 2633 b is shown by 4^ 2633b to be an error. 

17* 



26g (§axton, Q0a6^fontan (S^vitinQ 

33. maru, son, 4^ 2415a (B 11 344). 

34. milu, K, flood, 5 2248a (B 11 346). 

35. masqitu, irrigation, 5 40 5 e (B 11 345). 

36. (?)nadu, throw down, CT 12 23 93056 rev 15 (M 8708). 

37. (?)nazaqu, har7n, injury, CT 12 23 93056 rev 11 (M 8709). 5 
1%. nuhu, rest, ^^ 185b (B 11 349). 

39. (r)nasahu, tear out, remove, CT 12 23 9305612 (M 8710). 

40. naqu, lament, 2 45 35e (B 11348). 

41. (?)naqaru, tear down, CT 12 23 9305610 (M 87II). 

42. pasahu, E, be pacifi^ed, quiet, HAS xiii 6 (B 11 350). 10 

43. sallu sa rahe, ?, of one who copulates, 5 2247a (B 11 359). 

44. (?)rihu sa rihuti, love, of sexual love, CT 12 23 930563 (M 8712). 

45. rihutu, sexual love, 5 2259a (B 11 353). 

46. rahasu . . ., ME, wash, 5 2276a (B II351). 

47. rakabu, ride astride, 4^1l4ia(Bll352). 15 

48. rikibtu, riding astride, 5 22 45a (B 11 354). 

49. riksu(?) bond, 5 4330 c (M 8978). 

50. rimhu, ME, ? 5 2275a (B 11 355). 

51. rutbu, A, ME, moisture, 5 22 6ia (B 11 358). 

52. (?)sadu, be high, RH 121 26 (M 8715). 20 

53. seru, grow luxuriantly, 2 34 No 6; AV 83I4 (B 11 360). 

54. (?)saraqu, give, present, CT 12 23 93056 rev n (M 8716). 

BUR (AV 7126). DUR (2 48 30e). DURU (5 22 iia). ID (S^ vi 26). 

EM 2 107 explained the sign as a picture of drops of water; 
H 473, as a representation of water; UKZ 130, and Prince, JAOS 25 
25 60, as a wave motif; LSG, as the surface of water with ripples. 
The sign was evidently intended to suggest water. Perhaps the two 
lines indicated the sides of a stream or the banks of a canal. PRINCE, 
JAOS, XXV, 60 — 61, has correctly shown that the meanings fall into 
four groups. 1. Those derived directly from water, as overflow, flood, 30 
irrigation, tear, grow luxuriantly, be high, tear down, harm, injury, 
wash, 2. Those derived from the identification of the seminal fluid 
with water, as father, son, mankind, b,e pregnant, bed, rest, etc. 
3. Meanings suggested by the bright gleam of water, as shining, 
quiver, 4. The prepositional and pronominal meanings connected 35 
with the sign through syllabic spelling. 

No 522 

1. baku, ISIS, weep, 5 2253b (B II712), 

2. nissatu, ISIS, ^r^ of woe, 5 2252b (B II714). 

3. rabasu, lie down, 5 22 54b (B 11 71 5). 40 

4. ^ihXM, plaint, 5 22.51b (B 11717)'. " 



Biei of 'ibto^xap^^ 261 

MSL 193 has correctly explained the sign, as a compound of 
Nos 521, water and 406, eye. A comparison of B 11605, 11609, 
11613 and 11616 confirms the origin suggested by PRINCE. ^ / 

No 523 ^ 

1. abnu, stone, 5 1931a (B II721). 

2. amelu, man, ZA IX 163 iv 3 (M 9000). 

3. (?)dasamu(?) thmideri>) HN Taf II 13 (M 9001). 

4. -ka, thee, thy, 2 4716c (B 11 723). 

5. kullu sa sabati, completion, of seizing, AV 7144 (B 11 797). 

6. sanaqu sa . . ., push, press, of. . . ., 5 41 67a (M 9002). 



ZA, SA (MSI 285, 369). 

UKZ 130 has correctly explained the sign as originating from a 
variant of No 521. This the form and the meanings confirm. 



No 524 

15 1. seru, zah(.?) luxuriant or ahmdant growth, CT 19 21 isb (M 9075). 

The sign is clearly a compound of Nos 52I and 525 — water 
and a fish. The combination admirably suggests the ideographic 
meaning. The variation in the Assyrian forms is due to the similarity 

of Nos 521 and 523. 

20 No 525 yH 

1. (?)arsuppu, a strongholdi^) CT 12 31 381 82 4 (M 9076). 

2. dubu(.?) } CT 12 31 381822 (M 9077). 

3. \iuhMttt, fullness, mass, 5 2l22g (B 11 820). 

4. kakasiga, AT, } CT 12 27 81-7-27 200 21 (M 9078). 
25 -5. lu, HA, verily, CT 12 27 81-7-27 200 20 (M 9079). 

6. ^amnamru, a kind of plant, 2 4242a (B 11 825). 

7. nunu, -KV, fish, 2 7 25g (B 11 821). 

8. ^"^^"^nuxm, fish-stone, 2 40iie (B 11822). 

9. "^'^Nunu, Fish river, 2 5l40a (B 11 823). ; 

30 10. puradu, de impetuous, strong, CT 12 31 381.823 (M 9081). 

11. ^^"^ranu, a kind of plant, 2 4240a (B 11 824). 

12. ^^"^simranu, a kind of plant, 2 4241a (B 11 826). 



KUA (S^ i ^Z). 

EM 2 107, H 460, UKZ JO, OC, OCS 235 and 253, LBA 311, 

35 and LSG 20, have all correctly explained the sign as originating in 

the picture of a fish. All the certain meanings come from that. Be 

impetuous or strong was an extension of mass or fullness. The fish 



262 (fatten, ^(iB^fonhn (SOtiiin^ 

is a pictograph in many ancient systems of writing. For Egyptian 
cf. MHP Nos 253-257 and EAG p. 213, K; for Chinese, ECW No 8; 
for Cretan, EvANS, Script a Minoa^ pp» 19 and 204. 

No 526 ^<^ 

1. ebbu, GUG, drigkt, ZA 20 42918b (M 9109). 5 

2. ellu, GUG, bright, ZA 20 42917b (M 9II0). 

3. umsatu, want, distress, RJ 27 I2I 15 (M 9III). 

4. halu, shine, RT 27 121 u (M 9112). 

5. katarru, ? RT 27 121 17 (M 91 13). 

6. namru, GUG, ^^ M;^y^/, ZA 20 42919 b (M 9115). 10 

7. niqu, GUG, a libation, ZA 20 42921b (M 91 16). 

8. ^amtu, some precious stone, AL^ 8363 (B 11 862). 

9. ^^a°santu, GUG, some precious stone, ZA 20 429 20 b (M 91 17, B 1 1 863). 

10. sunqu, need, famine, BA 5 63326 (M 9I18). 

11. pindu, } CT 19 12 1359S6 (M 9119). 15 

12. sinnu, GUG, ivory, ZA 20 42922b (M 9I20). 

MSL 161 has explained the sign as a compound of No 523, stone 
and No 381, sun. When we first meet the sign in GUDEA it desig- 
nates some hard stone like porphyry, which was capable of taking 
a high polish. Two possible ongms are to be suggested. The sign 20 
may originally have represented a highly polished statue made of 
some stone, the head of the figure being surmounted by a headdress. 
Or it may be a compound of Nos 523 and 152, both of which sug- 
gested brightness, and 365, a well or pit. In this case the whole 
would mean quarry of bright stone. The analogy of other signs 25 
makes the first of these explanations preferable. Most of the meanings 
are directly suggested by the polished stone. Want, famine may 
have been suggested by the difficulty of obtaining the stone, while 
libation may have been suggested by any one of three or four 
possible ways. 30 

No 527 IX c 

1. ibqu(?) ? ABP 96 (M 9131). 

2. enesu, SIG, be weak, 5 6255 a (B 11 869). 

3. ensu, SIG, weak, 2 48i9g (B 11 870). 

4. ensu sa uzni, weak, of intelligence, 2 2752c (B II871). 35 

5. ubbulu, SIG, meager, spare, CT 19 29 5422 a 10 (M 9130). 

6. damqu, /^^^r, JD cf, 74 rev 2 with 732 and 3 II9 (M 9134). 
, 7. masu, be small, 5 l6i3a (B 11 872). 

8, sihru, small, Surpu Taf. XIV, 11 (M 9135). 

9. qatnu, SIG, short, small, thin, CT 17 25 a* (M 9I36). 40 



Biet of 'iUp^tap^e 263 



10. ssiplu, low, RH 80 15 (M 9137). 

11. saplis, low, 42 3 3a (B 11 873). 



PIG (S^ V 49). 

UKZ 88 jfif., and OC have correctly explained the sign as a variant 
'5 of No 337. In the picture of the sun in No 337 two lines were pro- 
longed upward to denote the rising sun, in this sign two were pro- 
longed downward to represent the setting sun. The weakening light 
and the lowering position of the setting sun suggested all the mean- 
ings except favor which was attached to the sign on account of 
10 syllabic identity with No 4II. 

No 528 T!T 

1. uddazal arhi, ESSANA, beginning of the month, DW 1 37 3 (M 9143). 

2. salastu, ESKU, ES, three, 5 I2 34e, ZA 9 2192 (B 11878, M 9140). 

3. selaltu, three, 4^ 5 63 a, PSBA 26 S6fr.5 (B 11 897, M 9142). 
15 4. salsu, third, 4^ 5 17a, RH I0961 (B II881, M 9I42). 

5. suslusu. threefold, CT 17 24230 (M 9I42). 

H 459 correctly explained the sign as three lines. It clearly 
originated in three strokes to indicate the numeral three. Perhaps 
it denoted the beginning of the month because the new moon was 
20 not visible till the third day. 

No 529 Jit 

1. aliazu, seize, CT 17 297 (M 9148). 

2. akilu, voracious, a wolf HWB 395 (M 9I49). 

3. araru, curse, bind, 4^ 526b (B 11 888). 

25 4. araru sa palalii, catch, of fear, CT 20 268 (M 9150). 

5. asasu, be sad, troubled, BC 753 K 5983 1 (M 9147). 

6. esedu, UR, cut off, harvest, S^ v 4 (B 11 889). 

7. ba'u, 7^ at something, CT 16 2I us (M 9151). 

8. hamamu, UR, hold, grasp, S^ v 3 (B 11890). 
30 9. hummumu, grip, CT 19 41 K 27212 (M 9153). 

10. ^^"^hanietu, a kind of fly, CT 14 919b (M 9152). 

11. q^^himmat, a kind of reed, CT 14 4935 a (M 9154). 

12. vi\3k^\!\x, plunder, 4^ l*i7a (B 11 896). 

13. masaru, cut in peices, 4'^ 11 45a (B 11 897). 

35 MSL 351 explains the sign as a variant of No 5 15. While the 

form resembles slightly that of No 5 15, the meanings indicate that 
the original form represented a cutting instrument such as an axe. 
This would suggest the idea of cutting from which all the other 
meanings would easily follow. 



264 (fatten, (gaS^fofttan (^vitin^ 

No 530- JIM 

1. abu, enemy y 2 6221c (B 11904). 

2. apa^u, -?. 2 4432e (B 11 905). 

3. eliti TU, keight{^) 2 3015c (B 11 907). 

4. bisru, TUN, a portion, piece, CT 12 10 31b (M 9156). 5 

5. diktu sa . . ., TUN, fight, killing, of..., CT 12 10 31b (M 9I57). 

6. i?duppu(?) a tablet, K\J> %6 i 28 (B 11 906). 

7. hubbu, DUN, lamentation, CT 12 1027 b (M 9158). 

8. hubtu, TUN, plunder, booty, CT 12 1035b (M 9159). 

9. kaluma, TUN, ? CT 12 1032b (M 9160). 10 

10. maru, TUN, son^) CT 12 1037b (M 9161). 

11. makaltu, TUN, mealij) CT 12 1029b (M 9162). 

12. malaku(?) take counsel, CT 19 40 K 4601 A 9 (M 9163). 

13. nipisu, TUN(?) action, treatment, RA 6 I3I7 (M" 9164). 

14. naphiaru, TUN, totality, CT 12 1033b (M 9165). 15 

15. ^^batgi^nu, a band or belt, 5 15200 (B II9I2). 

16. sunu sa subati, the belt, of a garment, CT 12 1030b (M 9166). 

17. suktu TUN, ? CT 12 10 29b (M 9167). 

18. palaqu, TUN, destroy, kill, CT 12 10 34b (M 9169). 

19. pasu, TUN,- increase, add, AL^ 65 ii lo (B II910). 20 

20. pasu, GIN, increase, add, CT 12 11 ib (M 9168). 

21. i§pasu, an axe, 2 4435e (B II911). 

22. qudu, TUN, an axei^) AL^ 65 ii 13 (B II908). 

23. i^quddu, an axei^) 2 44 see (B 11 909). 

24.' quddu, TUN, an axeij) CT 12 1032b (M 9170). 25 

25. simtu, TUN, decision, CT 12 1033b (M 9I71). 

26. sibittu(?) TUN, ? CT 12 lossb (M 9172). 

27. sapalu, TUN, be low, CT 12 10 34b (M 9175). 

28. suplu, DU, DUN, deep, depth, CT 12 1026b (M 9176). 

29. suppulu, TUN, lowness, depth, CT 12 I0 36b (M 917S). 30 

30. saptu, TUN, lip, CT 12 1030b (M 9178). 

31. siqlu, GI, GIN, a shekel, CY 12 11 ib (M 9180). 

32. takaltu, TUN, lamentation, AL^ 65 m 14 (B 11 914). 

UKZ 184 explains the sign as a combination of abstract motifs. 
I take the sign to be a more elaborate picture of No 440 — a crane 3$ 
for the support of balances in weighing. The oblique lines of the 
earliest form pictured the braces which held the crane erect. The 
meanings are most of them similar to those of 440 and probably 
came by a similar course of development. Axe came in perhaps 
from the confusion of a picture of an axe (No 529) with the picture 40 
of a crane, and fight, kill came, perhaps, from the picture of the 
axe, though they may have been developed out of the meaning low. 



Miet of 'i^eoQta^^^ 26$ 

which came from the sinking of an arm of the balance. The pos- 
sibility that the picture of an axe was confused with the picture . of 
the crane receives support from the form of the sign in the inscrip- 
tion of UTUG, king of kish (OBI, 109; cf. above, Pt. 1 pi I43, No 530), 
5 where it occurs in the expression GIN-SU, an expression which also 
occurs in the Stele of Vultures, rev vii 3, and which Thureau- 
Dangin finds it difficult to explain [cf. Stele des vautours, p. 62, n 2), 
but which means apparently subdue. If this originated in the picture 
of an axe the meaning would be very natural. It is less natural to 

10 suppose that as early as EANNATUM such an .expression had arisen 
from the sinking of an arm of a balance. The meaning shekel appears" 
in CT 5 3, the most archaic of our records which contain the sign 
in the sense of shekel. As early as the time of URKAGINA, however, 
it is a part of the combination GIN-US or TU-US, which seems in the 

15 code of HAMMURAPi to mean soldier. 

No 531 I^Hl 

1. humsiru, PLS, some quadruped, AL^ 65 iii 14 (B 11 936). 

2. piazu, KIS, some quadruped, perhaps a hog, AL^ 65 iii 1$ (B 11 937). 

The origin is unknown. The meanings suggest that the sign 
20 may be a variant of Nos 52 and 427 and may have been developed 
from the picture of a hog. 

No 532 V 

1. ahhuzu, GAR, something held, a possession, AV 7466 (B 11 953). 

2. akalu, eat, ASKT ZZ%^ (B 11 954). 

25 3. asu, an animali^) 2 45 33e (B 11 956). 

4. eteru(.?) preserve, protect, CT 16 15 v 43 (M 9202). 
5- eseru sa simme, to bind, of , . ., 5 2964e (B 11 959). 

6. epru(.^) wages, BE 14 List No 272 (M 9203). 

7. epesu, make, do, HAS xv 4 (B 11958). 

30 8. ihzu, taking, cf.\ 21 e? with 1 25 68 (M 9201). 
9. irbit, 2iVh2i, four, ZA 1 181 (B II961). 

10. uhhuzu, possession, cf 1 2$ ii I23 with 1 2402 (M 9200). 

11. ullatu, shouting, rejoicing, ASKT 8427 (B 12187). 

12. basu, GAR, be, ASKT 5925 (B 11957). 

35 13- gidrunu(.?) } BC 389 K 2024 ii l (M 9204). 

14. gamaru, destroy, HN Taf XII 48146 (M 9205). 

15. hamasu, GAR, crush, AL^ %o ii 36 (B 11960). 

16. kimru, depression, misery, 2 IS 43c (B I2183). 

17. kumurrij, a utensil, ASKT 7412 (B 12 184). 
40 18? kanu, GAR, establish, 42 5 go a (B 11 962). 



266 Qg>arfon, ®<i6gfotttan (^tttin^ 

19. kananu ^a seim, bind^ of grain, CT 12 4622b; 50 + R 351 13 (M 9208). 

20. kanasU; submit, AL^ 80 ii 22 (B 11 964). 

21. lam(?) be full, HWB ^77 (M 9210). 

22. mimma, anything, 5 11 49b (B 11 965). 

2'^. mimma sumsu, anything whatever, CT 16 6230 (B 11 966). 5 

24. nahu, rest, CT 17 46 (M 9214). 

25. natu, be acceptable, right, ASKT 82 is var (M 9366). 

26. nasahu, GAR, wrench away, 5 ll37e (B 11 968). 

27. nasahu sa terti, gar, break, of laiv, 2 6225a (B 11 969). 

28. nisirtu(?) a guards CT 19 1939b (M 9215)., 10 

29. nasu, lift up, bear, 3 5940b (B 1.1970). 

30. nuru . . ., GAR, lighti^) AL^ 82 iv 8 (B 11 971). 

31. si'u, throw down, overthrow, 5 l632g (M 9218). 

32. pasahu, be appeased, soothed, CT 16 6230 (M 9219). 

33. qadadu, bow down, NU 80 ii 9 (B 11 963). 15 

34. qaranu, heap up, HN Taf. xiii 19 (M 9220). 

35. ra'zu, GA, ? AV 7466 (B 11 972). 

36. raliasu sa . . ., wash, of . , . 2 2442a (B 11 973). 
'^7, sa, who, which, 4^ 730a (B 11 974). 

38. [i?K?)^ig^ru sa ill, the holy place of a god, CT 18 4445a (M 9221). 20 

39. sahatu, GAR, sprinkle {}) 5 ll28e (B II977). 

40. sakanu, GAR, MKR, place, set, 5 ll35e (B 11 978). 

41. amei^aknu, deputy, governor, LS 58 n 1 (B 11 979). 

42. sukunnu, manufacture, ASKT 7413 (B 12185). 

43. sikittu sa biti, the furniticre of a house, CT 19 4311a (M 9222). 25 

44. samu, settle, determine, decree, 5 39i9e (B 11 976). 

45. siptu(?) lip, CT 16 6230 (M 9223). 

46. saraku, GAK, present, bestow, 2 11 9c (B 11 983). 

47. ^araqu, UKR, present, bestow, 5 ll36e (B 11 982). 

48. suttabultu, produce, booty, BD II9 n 287 (M 9225). 30 

49. (?)sattammu, menari, a store house, MSW 21 R 33815b (M 9226). 

50. tebibtu. brightness, ASKT 7414 (B I2186). 

51. turru, GAR, turning, AV 8792 (B 11 984). 

IG (ZA 1 12). GA (AV 7466). LAMxMU (ZA 1 I8I). 

LIMMU (ZA 1 181). MU (S^ iv 47). NI (AV 8301). 35 

NIG (5 29 2g). NIN (DW23O n S). NINNI (S^ iv 48). 

NITA (S^ IV 49). SA (S^ iv 45). 

OC explains the sign as a picture of bread. Two originally 
independent signs have blended in this one. The oldest pictured, 
I believe, a bowl which had on its side a line. The line may have 40 
been regarded simply as an ornament, or it may have indicated that 
the bowl contained food. Food, the protection of food, its prepara- 



Bi^t of 'i^^oQxap^& 267 

tion, and the exhilerating effects of it, suggest most of the meanings. 
For example grain had to be ground in the preparation of food. 
That suggested crusA, gfind^ from this came the meanings destroy^ 
subinity and misery. Perhaps the variety of foods led to the ex- 
5 pression of the indefinite pronoun by this sign. With this bowl sign 
there was blended in the Assyrian period the numeral four> written 
in the two ways a and b. 

No 533 W 

1. abnu, stone, 4'^ 3017a (B I2I9I). 
la 2. hamsu, lA, five, RH 8 78 (M 9369). 

3. \iQXihM, fifth, CT 16 1921a (M 9370). 

4. ^^va\\\xx, fifth, AL3 Z% vi 22 (B 12 193), 

A, I, lA (ZA 1 8). A, YA (MSi 308). 

The sign clearly originated in five strokes to express the numeral 
15 five. Why it came to mean stone is not now clear. 

No 534 fff 

1. i^Adad, god Adad, CT 25 5010 (B 12198). 

2. suddusu, sixfold, HWB 49I a (M 9374). 

3. sessu; sixth, RH 10967 (M 9373). 

20 4. sissu, ASSA, sixth, ZA 7 2814 (M 9372). 

H 459 correctly explained the sign as originating in six strokes. 
This naturally expressed the numeral six. 

No 535 ^ 

1. iamutbula, > DW 20730 (B 122II). 

25 2. Uruk, Erech, DW 20728 (B 12 210). 

3. Babilu, Babylon, DW 20727 (B 12208), 

4. Kisi(.?) Kishi^) DW 20727 (B 12204). 

5. kissatu, totality, host, DW 20725 (B 12 205). 

6. kissutu(.f^) might, power, 4^ 27 No 4 is add.(.?) (M 11 483). 
30 7. masi(.?) } DW 20728 (B 12204). 

8. siba, seven, 2 1913b (B I2206). 

9. sibi, seven, 4^ 2648 b (B 12 206). 

10. sibu; seven, RH I0969 (M 9376). 

11. sibit, seventh, 4^ 427a (B 12 208). 
35 12. sibitti, seve7i, ^'^ 259a (B I2209). 



iMiNA (5 3726a). UP (HWB 376a). sissiNA (BPS 19). 



26S (gaxton,, (gtafi^fonian (SOvitin^ 

The sign clearly originated in seven strokes to indicate the 
number seven. The other meanings originated in figurative or mystic 
uses of the number. Erech was, for example, a seven walled city. 

. / No 536 W _ . 

1., samnu, USSU, ei^-Zilk, PSBA 26 56ff. i,.io (M 9378). 5 

2. summunu, eightfold, HWB 503 a (M 9379). 

The sign was clearly eight strokes to indicate the figure eight. 

No 537 M 
1. tiltu, ELIMMU, ninth, PSBA 26 56ff.11, 5 3726b (M 9380). 

The sign originated in nine strokes to represent the number nine. 10 



No 538 ^T^rr 

1. paharu ridu sa ense, erect, of a penis which is flaccid, AY 6Zg\ 

(B 12222). 
Probably a variant of No 38 1. 



NO 539 J^« >< - . .5 



1. ^^Zarpanit, GASMU, goddess Zarpmiit, 2 4837a (B I2224). 

The sign is a late compound, as the goddess Zarpanit is not 
one of the early deities {cf SO 209 ff.). Probably, therefore, the 
suggestion of the Assyrian form, that the sign is a compound of 
No 54 doubled, with No 31 1 doubled, plus No 79, may be followed, 20 
but why that combination should designate Zarpanit does not now 
appear. 

No 540 ^^ 

1. ^^Ea bel nimeki bel hasisi, TALTAL, Ea, lord of wisdom, lord of 

knowledge, 2 4832a (B 12 226). 25 

Possibly the sign is composed of No 93 doubled, but if so, the 
form has been much distorted. 

1. ersitim. ZIKURU, earth, la7td, 2 4827a (B 12 228). 

A comparison of TSA I4 ob iii 7 with rev ii 8 shows that the 30 
sign arose in a defective writing of No II9 doubled. 



Bwi of 'i^eo^vap^^ ' 269 

No 542 ^^^ 



1. i^Enlil, UBISAGA, g-od Enlil, 2 4831a (B 12230). 

The sign is perhaps composed of a doubling of the combination 
of Nos 112 and 269 (en-LIL), which was then distorted. 

No 543 SW 

1. ilu, HILIBU, god, 2 4828a (B 12232). ' 

This is apparently a doubled sign, but I have no clue to the origin. 



No 544 ,_ 



1. dabib damqati, DADRU, favorable word or plan, 2 4840 a (B 12 234). 
10 2. dabib kitti, J) KDK\J, faithful word or plan, 2 4840a (B 12 234). 

3. sarru kenu, D abrv, faMful king, 2 4840 a (B 12 234). 

4. sar kitti, DADRU, king of faithfulness, 2 4840 a (B 12 234). 

There is no real clue to the origin. One wonders if the sign 
can be a corruption of the ancient spelling SAR-GA-NI-SARRI doubled. 



15 



No 545 

1. i^Adad, MERMER, god Adad, 2 4835a (B I223S). 
Possibly the sign is a corruption of No 548. 

No 54.fi ^V 1 

mi 

No ideographic or syllabic value of this sign is known to me, 
20 nor any clue as to its origin. 

No 547 ^^ 

No values for this sign have survived. Perhaps it is a variant 
of No 293. 



No 548 4^ -^V 

25, 1. i^Enmastu, MERMER, god Enmashtu, CT 25 13 iv 31 (B 12239). 
Clearly the sign is a quadrupling of No 358, 



270 (§axtonr (§aBi(cinian (S^tiiin^ 

m 549 <^fef= 

1. inu sa . . ., wine^, AL^ 85 15 (B 12244). 
There is no clue to the origin. 

No 550 <0< 
1. saltu sa . . . ., maSgi, hostility ^ of , , ,, 5 37 22f (B 12 247). 5 

Is the sign a variant of No 384? 

No 551 <t:^ 

1. palasu, digy DW 108 K 420719 (B 12248), 

B 12248 has correctly explained the sign as a corruption of 
No 365 and No 185. 10 

No 552 f 

1. iiNergal, god Nergal, CT 25 50 is (B 12249). 

The sign is a compound of No 365, 600, and No 439 doubled, 
120., the whole standing for J 20, Through the mystic use of numbers 
to designate gods it was used as a writing for Nergal. 15 



No 553 ^,,_^ 

1, ^^Ishtar, GINGIRA, goddess Isktar, 2 4829a (B 12251). 

The late form appears to be a doubling of No 384. This does 
not, however, account for the meaning, and the sign may have had 
quite a different origin. 20 

No 554 

1. samu, ZIGARU, heaven, 2 4826 a (B 12253). 

MSL 365 explains the sign as a doubling of No 395, This may 
well be correct. 

NO 555 <y-^^, 

1, nabiu, DIMSAR, the durable recorder, 2 4838a (B 12 255). 

MSL 80 explains the sign as a compound of No 406, eye^ doubled. 
No ^2, light, doubled, and No 336, some kind of a cutting instrument, 
doubled. The. meaning would seem to bear out this explanation. 

* Cf, Jensen ZA 1 187.. 30 



Bi^t of 'i^t^^xap^^ 271 

No 556 MI 

1. pagru, corpse^ Assurnasirpal ii 55 (B 12256). 

AL^ No 290 and AL^ p 36 n 1, explains the sign as a compound 
of No 482, man and No 70, kill. 
5 Delitzsch's explanation is correct, except that No 482 means lamb. 

No 557 f>c 
1. ^iTasmetu, KURUN, goddess Taskmit, 2 4839a (B 12258). 
Is the sign a peculiar writing of the numeral 122 } 

No 558 >^^^W 

10 The sign is evidently a compound. It represents the name of 

a deity. It is an element in two proper names in RTC 11. 

No 559 ^^ 

Apparently the sign is a variant of No 80. 

No 560 ^'^> 

15 The sign is really unidentified^ though possibly it is a variant 

form of No 2II. 

No 561 

The sign occurs only in a very archaic text, where it seems to 
be a variant of No 186, NE, kis. If so it is a badly made picture 
20 of a bowl in which tinder sticks were rubbed. 

No 562 ^^(?) 

Possibly the sign is a variant, of No 161. 

No 563 ^ 

Possibly the sign is a variant of No 55. 

25 No 564 >M 

A variant of No 563. 

No 565 mi'^ 
The sign occurs only in DP, 46 where it designates a kind of 
, fish. It is simply No 275, and No 428; cf. DP No I32 y:\{ and 
30 No 133 xiii. 



2/2 (§axto% Qg>a6gfoman (^xitin^ 

No 566 S< 

The sign in the perpendicular writing represented an hour-glass- 
shaped altar with a fire burning on the top; cf. SCWA No 215. It 
naturally pictured a sacrifice. In the later writing the sign disap- 
peared; it was, I believe, absorbed by No 159. The altar, simplified in 5 
writing, could easily have been confused with the five strokes of 159. 
The supposition that it was so confused explains at once the disap- 
pearance of the altar-picture as a sign and the presence of the 
meaning, exa/l in the other sign. 

No 567 ''^m:^4«f 

The origin and meaning are unknown. 

No 568 ^^-(?) 

Probably a variant of No 296. 

No 569 ^^ 

Perhaps this is another variant of No 296, but I have no plausible 15 
clue to its origin. 

No 570 ^J 

The meaning and origin of this are unknown; possibly it is a 
variant of No 569. 

No 571 #^-^ 

This is, perhaps, an early variant picture of No 487, which repre- 
sented a granary. 

No 572 ^.(?) 

The sign occurs in the Telloh texts as the name of a canal. A 
comparison with SCWA Nos 62 and 82 makes it probable that the 25 
sign originated in the picture of a gate and is, accordingly a variant 

of No 154. 



No 573 






? 



The sign occurs in Urkagina's cone (xii 4) as a part of the 
name of a building and in 7t 281 in the names of two men. The 3c 
form suggests that it may be a variant of No 263- 

No 574 ^ 

Possibly a variant of No 69. 



Bi&t of "i^to^vd^^e 273 

No 575 

There is no clue to the meaning of this sign. It is not even 
certain that the two forms included under it belong together. 

No 576 ^-t^ST 
5 The sign is known only from inscriptions of the Sargonide period. 

Its first element seems to be identical with No 177, but as yet nothing 
further is known of the sign either as to its sound, meaning, or origin. 

No 577 ^^ 

An earlier form of No 6S. 

10 No 578 

The sign occurs in a tablet of the Urkagina period as the name 
of a kind of flour. Perhaps it is a variant of No 177. 

No 579 ^^ 

The sign is a part of a proper name. There is no clue as to 
15 its meaning or origin. 



No 580 



This sign occurs only in one of the most archaic texts. In the 
perpendicular writing it seems to have represented a headdress with 
a cape or kajiyeh to hang down the neck. Signs No 483 and 515 
20 originated in such a picture. NARAM-SIN is pictured on his stele 
(Del. 2 p 52) as wearing such a headdress, and it also appears in 
various seals, such as those pictured in SCWA Nos 54, 55, I4I and 
215. Probably in the later writing No 515 displaced our present sign. 

No 581 _^ 

25 Apparently an early variant of No 12. 




»^ 



No 582 

There is as yet no real clue to the meaning or origin of this 
sign. It resembles somewhat Nos 211 and 400. 

Beitrage Ass : Barton II. 1 8 



274 (§attont (^dfigfontan (^xitin^ 

No' 583 >&S 

Perhaps a variant of No 20/ ThuREAU-Dangin thinks it a com- 
pound of Nos 15 and 428. 

No 584 MI^ 

Composed of Nos 15 and 308? 5 

No 585 f^^ 

Clearly a compound of Nos 15 and 525. 

No586^JII 

EZEN (HLC 3 PI 101 tablet y rev 8). 

U§ (cf. HLC 2 71 51 i 21 with HLC 3 142 375 ill). 10 

The form of the time of Sargon represents a sail attached to 
some structure, probably a boat. The sail part is like No 358. The 
meaning is unknown. It is not certain that the form of the Ur period 
represents the same sign, but it seems to me probable. 



No 587 ^JJgJ 15 

DUL (SAK 82). ^ 

SAK 82 note e explains the sign as a compound of Nos 490 and 
516a. This is doubtful, but I have no other explanation to offer. 

No 588 ^fr<) 

Sup, No 541*^^ tentatively explains the sign as a compound of 20 
Nos 337, 94, and 336. This seems very doubtful. 

No 589 <^ (.?) 

This sign occurs only in the tablets of the Ur period. One Neo- 
Babylonian form of No 377 resembles this, vizr :^^^"; cf. CT 13 1414. 
This form has the syllabic value'KIS. I suspect that our present sign, 25 
No 589, is a variant of 377. 

No 590 ^^ 

SAK 94 takes the sign as No 490 doubled, plus No II4 doubled. 
This is uncertain, and nothing is known about the sound or meaning 
of the sign. 30 

No 591 ^'^> 
Perhaps a variant of No II3 or of No 362. 



Miet of a^eo^tap^e 2/5 

No 592 fg^ 

LULTM (SAK 126). 

The sign was perhaps composed of Nos2ll and 482. It designated 
- some milk-giving animal; cf, Gud. C7I. B vi 4 and x 7. 

5 No 593 ^ 

sil' (RA 9 162). QA (RA 9 161 ff). 

The sign seems to mean request or prayer \ cf. SAK, p. 154, note g. 
It is a variant of No 6'^. Objects shaped something like the oldest 
form of this sign are pictured as held on the hands of seated deities 
10 in sew A, Nos ^'^^ 89 and 90. 

No 594 PKI 

The sign occurs only in the inscriptions of LUGALANDA and 
URKAGINA. It resembles in form the double axe pictured in the 
Cretan pictographs; cf. Evans Scripta Minoa, p. ^y. No 529, above, 
15 seems to be derived from the picture of a single axe. One of its 
meanings is to cut in pieces (B 11 897). The double axe would also 
mean cut — a meaning which fits very well the context where this 
occurs. The phrase in which it occurs would be whie of cut ash-plants. 



No 595 px4^(?) 

20 BULUG (SAK 685). 

Thureau-Dangin has explained the sign as the representation 
of a musical instrument (SAK 6Z note f) and this seems to be correct. 
In later times it was absorbed m No 309. 

No 596 tr^ 

25 There is no real clue to the origin or meaning of this, though 

possibly it is No 395 reversed. 

No 597 ^^ (?) 
Perhaps a variant form of No 122. 

No 598 T^^ 

30 Possibly an early form of No 123 or 122. 

No 599 



18* 



USAR (BE 3 List, 317). 

Apparently a compound of Nos 440 and 170. 



2/6 (§civton, (gaSgfontatt (Wxitin^ 

No 600 t^ 

Is this a variant of No 147, or of No 201? 

No 601 ^^M(?) 

SAK 32 explains the sign as No 217 plus No 532. It seems 
more probable that it is a simple variant of one of the jar signs, 5 
No 217, 122, or 123. 

No 602 f^^ 

Is this sign a variant of No 223? 

No 603 



The sign may be the original of the last element in No 576, but 10 
there is no clue either as to its origin or meaning. 



No 604 

Probably an early form of No 1 1 5 

No 605 



HH p. 2 explains the sign as a heightened form of No 85. It 15 
is rather a variant of that sign. 

No 606 "^ 

The sign is apparently a compound of Nos 443 and 298. As it 
occurs as a part of a proper name there is no clue to its vocalization. 

No 607 t^ 20 

Apparently a compound of Nos 443 and 406, but its meaning is 
unknown. 



No 608 Wm 

Composed of Nos 230 and 298. 

No 609 ^^M 25 

Res 408 has correctly explained the sign as a compound of 
Nos 230 and 92. 

No 610 ^ 

Possibly a variant of No 463. 



Bist of 'il>toc^xap^0 277 

No 611 f^ 

There is no clue to the sound, meaning, or origin of this sign. 

No 612 "^^^ 

1. ganunu, ? CT 12 27 2id (M 37^1).' 
5 2. mitru, rain, CT 12 27 22d (M 3782). 

Probably a picture of falling rain — a variant of No 380. 

No 613 

This sign suggests that it may be a survival of the original form 

of No 7. 

10 No 614 >flfj 

This sign appears to be a variant form of No II9. 

No 615 ^i 

This sign is an early variant of No 264. 

No 616 ^ 

15 A variant of 112. 



No 617 

A variant of No I49. 

No 618 <C:5T 

A variant of No 388. 

30 No 619 t^ 

This sign is as yet unidentified. HH p. 2 suggests that it may 
be a variant of No 47, 

No 620 >M<^ 

A compound of Nos 83 81 392. 

25 No 621 ^«flT<f^ 

Compounded of Nos 355 and 417. 

No 622 t^ 

Unidentified. Possibly an early corruption of No 129. 



2/8 (§axton, (gaB^fontan (^vitin^ 

No 623 fc^^fl 

The sign is either a variant of No 290, or a compound of 290 
and 62. So HH p. 2. 

No 624 fc^ff ■ 
Compounded of Nos 213 and 523. 5 

No 625 ^|(?) 

Probably an early variant of No Sy. 

No 626 ^^^M 

Unidentified. Possibly an early variant of No 526. HH p. 2 
suggests that it may be compounded of No 157 and No 482 doubled. 10 

No 627 >^^i 

An earlier form of No 11. 



ADDENDA. 
No 7 a ^^^>^- 



The sign is a part of a compound ideogram in 5 3257a; cf. M I45 15 
and 95. It is clearly No 7 doubled. 



No 43a 

No ideographic or syllabic values are known. The obvious in- 
ference from the late form, that the sign is a compound of No 39 
and 396, may be incorrect. 20 

*No 47a ^I??<y 

The sign is a part of a place-name; no ideographic or syllabic 
values are known. Perhaps it is a variant development of No 201. 

No95a^<M 

GURUD (CT 12 2464b).. 25 

Perhaps, a variant of No 95. 

No-97a^W<^< 



ZI (CT 12 2463b). 

Apparently, a compound of No 94 and 433, but this may be 
erroneous. 30 



Bi&i of ']Uo^ta^2}0 — ilb^^nba 279 

No97b^lgI (>MM) 

us (CT 12 12 93041 9b). IMMAL (CT 12 2466b). SALLAM (CT 12 2467b). 

Perhaps, a compound of No 94 and 482. This is suggested by 
the late form, but may be wrong. 

5 No 97 c 

us (CT 12 2468b). 

Probably, a variant of No 97 b. 

No 109 a 

1. palukku(.?^) PULUK(?) arc/e, district, CT 11 194a (M 1820). 
10 The sign is clearly formed by doubling No I09. 

No 111a M^(0- 
1. tahazu, HIBISSU, battle, CT 12 1039a (M 1835). 
Probably a Babylonian variant of No 111. 

No 161 a ^^^^ 



15 1. binitu, daughter ^^j S^ v 40 (B 41 64). 

Apparently formed by No 161 doubled plus 523 doubled. 

No 171 a ^g^ ■ 

No complete ideogram or syllabic value has survived. Perhaps 
the sign originated in a combination of No 55. with No 170. 

20 No 171 b ^^^ffi" 

As in the case of preceding sign, we have no clues to the origin 
beyond the late form. Possibly it is compounded of No 58 and No 170. 



No 172 b 



GUGU (CT 11 43 R 611 rev 2). 
25 The sign is No 172 quadrupled. 



28o (§atton, (g>a6gfoman (SOxitin^ 

No 172c ^^^ 

We know neither the syllabic nor the ideographic value of this 
sign. Possibly it is a compound of No 259 with 170. 



No 185 a ^^ i^^ 



This sign is No 1 85 quadrupled. 

No 185 b ^^ 

From the late form, which is all we know about this sign, one 
would conjecture that it is a variant form of No 186. 

Na 185 ^M 



EME . . . (CT 19 3912a). 10 

In the absence of meanings, one does not know whether this sign 
is a variant writing of No 186, or a compound of No 185 with No 337. 

No 185 d^^ 

ENTE ... (CT 19 398a). 

From the late form one would conjecture that the sign is a com- 15 
pound of No 185 and No 521, but this lacks confirmation. 

No 261 a ^t^t 

1. siblukku, SIBBVLVG, /ruiit(i) S^ iii 36. 

MSL 315 tentatively regards this sign as a variation of No 265, 
266, or 267. His suggestion that it means /r2iit is based on this 20 
supposition. The form given the sign in CT 11 16 iii 36 indicates 
that it is formed by doubling No 261. 

No 309a 



25 



This sign is clearly No 309 doubled. 
m 324 a ^'^V 



1. kurullu, KARADIN, .? JRAS 1905 82919 (M 5513). 

2. kissu, KARADIN, } JRAS 1905 82919 (M 5514). 

3. nagabbu, karadin, .? JRAS 1905 82919 (M 5515). 



Bi^t of 3t)eo5ta})^0 — ilb^en^a 28 1 

The sign was formed by a simplification of a compound made 
by uniting No 335 and No 102; ^/ M 5646—5648. 

No 324 b I 

1. kuruUu, KARADIN, ? JRAS 1905 82917 (M 5516). 

2. kissu, KARADIN, ? JRAS 1905 829 is (M 5517). 

3. nagabbu, KARADIN, ? JRAS 1905 829 is (M 5518). 

The sign is clearly a simplification of No 324 a. 

No 433a H 

1. nitu(?) SA . . . ., BARGi(?) ? of. . ., CT 12 322b (M 7554). 

The sign is composed by quadrupling No 365. It differs from 
433 in that the -two elements at the right are reversed. 



Index. 




Sign 



3n^e;r 



Sign 


No 


Page 


>^^] 


42 


21 


^^il 


42 a 


21 


^4 


43 


21 


>^M^ ■ 


43 a 


278 


>^^^ 


44 


21 f. 


>^im 


45 


22 


>6^ytT 


46 


22 


>^yT 


47 


23 


>^m] 


47 a 


278 


>m 


48 


23 


-^ 


49 


23 


-^ 


50 


23 


>^ 


51 


24 


>^wt 


» 

52 


24 


«^^Y 


53 


24 


>^ 


54 


25 




55 


25 


>M' 


563 


271 




564 


271 


>m. 


56 


25 f. 


■^ 


57 


26 


r^ 


58 


27 


^ 


59 


28 


^>^ 


60 


28 f. 


^^ 


61 


29 


■^^A- 


61 a 


29 


>^<^^ 


61b 


29 


^' 


62 


30f. 


^{ 


63 
593 


31 

275 


'^M\ 


63 a 


32 



Sign 



AT 



No 



64 



71 
72 

Ma; 73 



74 
M<t^ 75 

ix(T< 76 
>f 77 



>f ^^ 



78 

^ 79 



81 
82 

>M 83 



>K^ 84 






283 

Page 
32 



^tt 65 32 

^^J!J 66 32 

^A-^ 67 33 

AYvw f 68 33 f. 

TTTT \ 577 273 

. ; 69 34f. 

^^ I 574 272 

>K 70 35 f. 

I. 

!x( >^ 70a 37 



37 f- 

38 

38 

39 

39 

39 f- 

40f. 

45 f. 
46 
80 46 

559 271 



47 

47 

47 

47f. 
48 



85 
605 276 



86 49 



284 



(g>ation, (g^afigfotttan (SOtitin^ 



Sign 









No 

162S 
88 

620 

89 

90 

91 
92 

93 
94 
95 



Page 

49 
278 

50 

277 

SO 

51 

51 f. 

53f. 
S4f. 
55 f. 
56 



,<<< 



95a 278 

96 56 

97 57 
97a 278 

97 b 279 
97c 279 

98 57 



>T^ 



4 



>ll 



f>¥¥^ 



99 
100 
101 
102 
103 
104 
10s 
106 
107 
108 
109 

109a 279 



57 
57 
57 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
59 
59 
59 



Sign No 

>^ no 



111 

^»f Ilia 
rll2 



«i6;6 



113 

^ 114 
^>& lis 

^T 116 

mi ll6a 

^Mf] 117 

>flf 118 

^Y / 119 
^1 1 614 

>^ 120 

121 



t_ ri22 
^1597 



123 

J 124 
^T 125 
^ 126 

^ 127 

^4T 128 

^4TTf 128a 

"^I^^ 129 

^jj^jn^ 130 

^^ 131 

^«= 132 

^<^^ 133 
^i^^ 134 



Page 

59f. 
60 

279 
6of. 

277 

61 
61 f. 

63 
63 f. 
64 
64 
64I 

65 

277 

66 

67 
67 

27s 

68 
68 
68 

68 f. 

69 f. 

71 f. 
72 

72 f. 

73 
73 

73 f- 
74 
74 



Sign 




I>- 












No 

35 
36 
37 
38 

39 
39 a 
40 

41 

42 

43 
44 
44a 

45 
46 

47 
48 

"49 
617 

50 

51 

52 

53 

54 

572 

55 
56 

57 
58 

59 
60 



Page 
74 

74 

74 

74 

75 

75 

75 

75 

75 

75 f- 

77 

78 

78 

78 

79 

79 f. 

80 

277 

80 f. 
81 
81 
81 

81 f. 

272 

82 
82 

82 f. 

83 f. 

84 
84f. 



285 



Sign 


No 


Page 


^{Z 


85 f. 

271 




161 a 


279 


m 


162 


86 


^ 


163 


86 f. 


^T 


164 


87 


^ 


165 


87 


^^ 


166 


87 


sK 


167 


87 f. 


.^^\ 


168 


88 


^m^ 


169 


88 


^m 


170 


88 f. 


&gBl 


171 


91 


^3J 


171a 
171b 


279 


^^^IT 


279 


M^) 


172 


91 f. 


tm^ 


172a 


92 




172 b 279 



172c 280 

d 173 92 

fc^SI 173 a 92 

.rt3 174 92 

t^m^ 174a 92 

^ 17s 93 

&^te 176 93 f. 



286 



>>f 



Sign 



(Ration, (ga^^ionian (PS)i:tttng 

Page 



No 



p^m- 



176a 94 



t 



^ 177 94f- 

^ 178 95 

:^ 179 95 

\ 179a 95 

^ 180 95 f. 

^t? 181 

^^ 182 

^ 183 

M^t-< 184 



^illl 



97 
97 
98 
98 
98 f. 
271 



1r 



185a 100 



185 b 100 

185c 100 

i8sd 100 

^qT 186 loof. 

187 101 

187 a 101 f. 

t^^i 187b 102 




c^-c(t= 









Sign 

>-<Y 

>-< 






>???^ 






^■■^TT 






>-<>-<' 

>-<l 






> — <r 
>-< YYY 



^ 



i>w<i 



r^ 






No 

210 

211 

212 

213 

214 

215 

216 

217 

218 

218a 

218b 

219 

219a 

219b 

r 220 
1 601 

221 

222 
223 
586 
224 
624 
225 
226 

541 



Page 
lOf. 

11 
11 
11 
12 
12 
I2f. 

I3f. 

14 

IS 

15 
15 

IS 
IS 

16 
16 

76 

16 
16 
16 
274 
17 

278 

17 

17 

268 



lA^ 



^ S40 268 



Sign 



>^f- 




IMJ 



S^ 



i>?t 



o:??^ 



r^7^ 



r^fwf? 



fi^ 



i>w 



t>^ 



>??^ 



ST 



>^ 



£>??^ 



<^T 



bTT^-^T 



l>^ 



t>^?^ 



^yy T? <^^ 



C:^ 



No 
227 
612 
228 
626 
229 
230 
230a 
231 
232 

233 
234 

23s 

235a 

236 

237 ^ 
238 

238 a 
238b 
238c 
238d 
2386 

239 

240 

241 

241a 

242 

243 

244 

244 a 



287 

Page 
II7I 

277 

ll8f. 

278 

120 

121 

122 

122 

122 

123 

123 

123 

123 

123 

123f, 

124 

124f. 

125 

125 

125 f. 

126 

126 

126 

126 

126 

127 

127 

127 

127 

127 



Sign 



>m- 



^<H^ 




:^<a^ 



:^<ss 



\>< 539 



No Page 

244b 128 

24s 128 

24s a 128 

24s b 128 

245c 128 

24s d 128 

24Se 128 

245f 128 

246 129 

247 129 

247 a 129 

248 129 

268 



545 269 






^^' 



249 
250 
251 

252 

253 
253a 

254 

2SS 

256 

257 
258 

259 
560 

260 



i3of. 

132 

132 

132 

132 

132 

132 

133 

133 

133 

I33f. 

134 

271 

I34f. 



Sign 



Ih 



>- 






Tr 



No 

260 a 
260 b 
260 c 
260 d 
260 e 
260 f 
260 g 
261 
261a 
262 

263 

264 

615 

26s 

266 

267 

268 

269 

270 

271 

271a 

272 

273 



f^^ 



A 



276 

277 

278 
279 



Page 

135 

135 

135 

135 

13s 

135 

135 

135 ff. 

136 

136 

137 

137 
277 

138 
138 
138 
139 
139 
140 

141 
141 
141 
141 



274 142 



142 
143 

143 
271 
144 

I44f. 



Sign 



No 
280 
281 
282 
283 
284 
285 

l:i^ 286 

^=^ 287 

^:^^ 288 

289 

289a 

290 

291 

292 

^4 293 

294 

295 
[296 
1 568 

297 

298 

299 
300 
301 
302 

303 
304 
30s 

^^ 306 

B 307 

Beitrage Ass.: Barton II. 



>- 



Page 

145 
14s 
146 
146 f. 
147 
. 147 f- 
148 

148 
149 

I49f. 
150 
150 
151 f. 

152 
152 

153 

154 

154 
272 

iS4f. 
155 f. 
156 

157 

iS7f. 

158 

159 
159 
160 
160 
160 



Sign 



No 




■^il:^*? 567 
313 
314 
315 



;«. tHH>-i»- 



>^V 316 



P^"^ 



'M 



543 



544 



mm 

KlTT ■- 



^ 570 

\ 317 

^ 317a 

\ 318 

\ 319 

-^ 320 
19 



289 

Page 

273 

161 

162 

269 

163 

163 

163 f. 

272 

272 

272 

272 

164 

165 
165 
165 



542 269 



269 
269 



546 269 



573 272 



272 
165 
166 
166 
167 
167 



290 





(gatfott, (ga6g( 


ottt'rttt (JPttting 






Sign 


No 


Page 


Sign 


No 


Page 


<T^ 


321 


167 


^TT<^T 


342 


180 


^ 


322 


167 


4TlT 


343 


180 


^ 


323 


168- 


^wT 


344 


180 


^fcife 


324 


169 


4H^ 


345 


181 


^^V 
^^V 


324a 


280 




346 
347 


181 
181 




324b 


281 


t?A 


348 


182 






t?A<^ 


349 


182 




32s 
326 


l69f. 
170 


^f4<^ 


350 


182 


^W 


,327 


171 f. 


t?A<>^>^ 


350a 


182 


r^ 


328 


172 


tH<^ 


351 


182 




328 a 


172 


4^ 


352 
353 


183 

l83f. 


^^W 


329 


172 


Ay^ 


354 


184 


■^T 


iio 


173 f. 


^Hfff 


355 


l84f. 


^TT^ 


331 


174 


^>^V 


356 


186 


^TT! 


332 


l74f. 


^-ftf<-iN^ 


621 


277 


^Tff. 


333 


17s 


A^< 


357 


186 


^T^YT^T 


334 

335 


175 
17s 


4^ 


358 
359 
360 


l86f. 

187 

l87f. 


^T 


336 


176 


A^ 


361 


I88f. 


^^. 


364 s 


191 


A<^ 


362 


190 


■ ^T 


337 


176 ffi 


A<^A 


363 


190 


^T^^>f 


338 


I78f. 


AT! 


364 


190 


^y^ 


339 


179 


A 






^TTT 


340 
341 


179 
180 




548 


269 



%T 341a 180 







'inU^ 




291 


Sign 


No 


Page 


Sign 


No 


Page 


MtiO 


588 


274 


<fcg<F 


374 


199 


^1^ 


576 


273 


<^^ 


375 


199 


^ 


578 


273 


■ <0.TTT 


376 


200 


^ 


579 


273 


<5s{f4 


200 
274 


■ ^ 


364a 


191 


<£^ 


378 


200 


^& 


592 


275 


<(^^ 


379 


201 


x^ 


364b 


191 


4^ 


380 


201 


^ 






<^ 


381 


201 f. 


364 c 


191 


^ ts 






M> 


364^ 


192 




382 


202 


^ 






383 


202 


3646 


192 


yc:^ y 






^ 






C< 


384 


202 


364 f 


192 


//v / 






■ ^ 






<^ 


385 


202 


364^ 


192 


^^ 


386 


203 




364h 
3641 
364J 


192 
192 
193 




387 
f388 
1 618 


203 f. 
204 

277 


r^ 


364 k 


193 


C5^T 


389 


204 


WM" 


585 


274 


^ 


390 


204 


t^ 


622 


277 


<te5'7 


391 


205 


< 


365 


I93ff- 


c^ 


392 


205 


<H^ 


366 


197 


<^ 


393 


205 f. 


<MLr 


367 


197 


<^^ 


551 


270 


<o< 


550 


270 


<^ 


394 


206 


<^ 


368 


197 


<CT 


395 


206 f. 


<^ 


369 


198 


<m 


396 


207 f. 


<^^ 


549 


270 


<^T 


397 


208 


<C?T 


370 


198 


<^n 


398 


208 


<'^<^T 


371 


198 


<^TH 


399 


208 


<^f 


372 


199 


<(^ 


400 


208 f. 


C 


373 


199 


. <^- 


401 


209 



19* 



292 



(gati^n, (g>a6^fontan (S^vitin^ 



Sign 






,<Hr<T 



n 






<W 



No 
402 

403 
404 
405 
406 
407 
408 
409 
410 
411 
412 

414 
415 
416. 

417 
/4I8 
I6I3 

419 

420 

421 
422 

423 
424 
42s 
426 

552 
427 



Page 

210 

210 

210 

210 

211 

212 

212 

212 

213 

213 

2l3f. 

214 

214 

216 
216 

217 

277 

217 
218 

218 
218 
218 
218 
218 
219 

274 

270 
219 



tl 


No 


Page 


ff 


428 


219 


<v 


429 


220 


<w 


430 


220 




^73 

220 f. 

221 

274 

270 

274 

270 



.^. 


433 


222 


u 


433 a 


281 


't 


434 


222 


M 


435 


223 


M< 


436 


223 


M 


437 


223 


m< 


438 


223 


<y-^^^ 


r* p" f 




<VM^^ 


555 


270 


T 


439 


223 


r 


440 


224 f. 


r^n 


440a 


226 


r 


441 


226 


■rmd 


441a 


226 


rn 


441b 


226 



3^^^;^ 



293 



Sign No Page 

T^^ 594 275 

^# 595 275 

y^ 442 226 

mn 599 275 

t:^:^ 596 275 

582 273 



m^ 534 

t^ 619 

n 443 

^ 444 

^ 445 

"^U 446 

"PU 446a 

& 447 

^I 448 

^^J^ 449 

M 450 

M 451 

ST 452 

& 453 

M 454 



I^T 455 

'^^ 606 

^T 456 

t^ 607 

M 457 



^^B" 458 

^aT 459 

HI 460 



274 
277 

226f. 

229 

229 f. 

230 

230 

230 

230 

231 

231 

231 

231 

231 

232 

232 

276 

232 

276 

232 

232 

232 

232 



Sign No 

X^E 461 

ISU 462 

"^ 610 

^ 463 

Xs 464 

t^ 465 

J^M 609 
608 



tS 



Si 466 

WJ 467 

fT?Hj 468 

-^JT<f?T 469 

^^^T 470 

^ 471 

I^U 472 

isgy 473 

^i 474 

^i^ 602 



^]^j 600 
j-j-i 475 

m3<<<! 476 




J 



233 
234 
276 

234 
234 
234 
276 
276 

235 
23s 
23s 
236 
236 
236 
236 
236 
236 

276 

276 
237 

237 



477 238 



T^ 478 238 

'W>i>- 479 239 

HI 480 239 

I^ 481 240f. 

IgJ 482 242 f. 



294 



Sign 



Jgr<^TT 

L 






1 









No Page 

556 271 

483 244 
598 275 

484 245 

485 245 

486 245 

487 246 

488 246 

489 246 

490 247 

491 247 

492 248 

493 248 

494 248 

495 249 

496 249 

497 249 

498 250 

499 250 

500 251 

501 .2.51 

502 251 

503 252 

504 253 
504a 253 

505 253 

506 253 

507 253 

508 254 



Sign 



508b 255 



604 276 



ff<^ 



3^^^;^ 



Sign No Page 

TIT 528 263 

jnr 529 263 

JIM 530 264 

,f< 531 265 

^ 532 265 f. 



Sign 





295 


No 


Page 


533 


267 


534 


267 


535 


267 


536 


268 


537 


268 



— 2<?7 . 

to 

a,^ I. 

^'' " t%^ /a«,..a?o,A^3. 






■i 



" ^ I^.VAS,Va.?2./. 
" " '• •• t3Mf 

?:i " J/5. .. :3t^ /j^'-^'t'SKx.cyu^. 



Beitrage Ass.: Barton I. 



^ '^?8 ■ ■ 

„ fi/ « 3(cl „ i^^^vu. HH. R, i~i/,M^g. 

„ 7 ? . ■ ;} ?3, ^uj^ <^ /4rv^- •^'3A<. -w-^f-*- *^- 

„ itrc" ^7c „ ^^^ otv.. HL€, rn,/V3,A6.3^;j. 

.' IHl •• ^7:^'- „ -5^«^'i^,HU:iiL.;33,/Vc.3vfc 

., „ M 4^?7 --^^^ ^^ U.-.//-U,zn,m./v..3^^ 

.• •• •• ^J .. -^. 







■2?^ 



PX.Ii.'i. A/c.3 4VX', <x.4U. 4/-^- ^ln\ 30, U 



/77' ^'^<- ^kh. ,^'~''^~ -'^-'^/^O: 

111. Af . ^p-«- -W4<!i]=^mKrT. ?r,5^- 




— . — — — ttit. ■• 



-300 



;; ill' -t-t T ^^-S^i^^&r'lVI'c 



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The Ohio State University Libraries 

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